• About Citation

About APA 7th ed.

In-text citations, formatting your apa paper.

  • MLA 9th Ed.
  • Chicago 17th Ed.

More Style Tips

APA is more than just citation and referencing! It's a whole style of writing designed to refer to people in research with dignity and respect and present research results in a standard style so that others can easily evaluate your work and replicate it.

  • APA inclusive writing guidelines
  • Bias free language for sexual orientation
  • Bias free language for racial and ethnic identities
  • Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

This guide is a quick introduction to the American Psychological Association (APA) Style for references and citations. Be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the APA  or the  APA Style  website for detailed standards and procedures. 

  • APA Style Comprehensive style and grammar guidelines from APA.

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  • A Quick Guide to APA Citation 7th Edition CSUDH Library

When you reference another source use an in-text citation in the body of your paper. 

Basic Format: (Author's Last Name(s) or Organization, Year).

I'm using...

Summarizing or Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the publication, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.

According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status.

Direct Quotes

If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.

  • According to Brown (2019), "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
  • Brown (2019) found that "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
  • [Some other introduction] "Direct quote" (Brown, 2019, p. 1021).

If you're directly quoting more than 40 words, use a blockquote . Block quotes don't need quotation marks. Instead, indent the text 1/2" as a visual cue that you are citing. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quote.

Shavers (2007) study found the following:

While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (p. 1021)

Toro Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Focus on summarizing the findings from multiple research studies. In the sciences and social sciences, only use the exact phrasing or argument of an individual when necessary.

In-text citations differ depending on the number of authors listed for a work, and if there is a group author .

I'm citing a work with...

You only need the author's last name comma year in parentheses.

(Abrams, 2018)

Connect both authors' last names with & (ampersand) comma and the year.

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

3 or More Authors

If there are 3 or more authors use et al., which means "and others," comma and the year.

(Harris et al., 2018)

Group Authors

First time with an abbreviation:

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019)

Then all subsequent citations: (CDC, 2019)

Include the complete citation at the end of your paper in a references section. References are organized by the author's last name in alphabetic (A-Z) order. Use an hanging indent to separate each list item.

Basic Format: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of the work. Source where you can retrieve the work . URL or DOI if available

I'm citing a...

Journal Article

  • Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initial as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name. Read more from the APA Style website if there are 21 or more authors.
  • Title of the article. Note: For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. articles, chapter), use sentence case. Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized.
  • Title of the Journal , Note: Italicize and capitalize each word in the journal.
  • Volume Note: Italicize the journal volume. If there is no issue, include a comma before the page range.
  • (Issue), Note: If there is a issue number in addition to a volume number, include it in parentheses.
  • Page range. Note: If there is no page range within the journal volume/issue, this can be excluded.
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Read more about DOIs from the APA Style wesbite.
Ashing‐Giwa, K. T., Padilla, G., Tejero, J., Kraemer, J., Wright, K., Coscarelli, A., Clayton, S., Williams, I., & Hills, D. (2004). Understanding the breast cancer experience of women: A qualitative study of African American, Asian American, Latina and Caucasian cancer survivors. Psycho‐Oncology , 13 (6), 408-428. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.750

Online News/Magazine Article

  • Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.
  • (Year, Month Date). Note: You do not need to abbreviate the month.
  • Title of the online newspaper or publication . Note: Capitalize each word in the publication and italicize. If the publication has an associated newly newspaper in print, use the newspaper article reference example .
Rogers, O. (2021, July 9). Why naming race is necessary to undo racism. Psychology Today . https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/who-am-i-who-are-we/202107/why-naming-race-is-necessary-undo-racism
  • Title of the book. Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
  • (Edition). Note: If there is an edition or volume, include it in parentheses and use abbreviations of ed. or vol.
  • Publisher. Note: You do not need to include the publisher location or databases where you retrieved it.
Schmidt, N. A., & Brown, J. M. (2017). Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

Book Chapter with Editor(s)

  • Author(s). Note: List each chapter author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.
  • Title of the chapter. Note: For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. articles, chapter), use sentence case. Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized.
  • In Editor(s), Note: List each editor's last name and initials as A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, & C. C. Editors, include (Ed.) or (Eds.) in parentheses, and end with a comma.
  • Title of the book Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
  • (pp.xx-xx).
McCormack, B., McCance, T., & Maben, J. (2013). Outcome evaluation in the development of person-centred practice. In B. McCormack, K. Manley, & A. Titchen (Eds.), Practice development in nursing and healthcare (pp. 190-211). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the name of the organization or site.
  • (Year, Month Date). Note: Read more about date formats from the APA Style website . Provide as specific a date as is available. Use the date last updated, but not the date last reviewed or copyright date. If there is no date, use (n.d.).
  • Title of page or section. Note: Italicize the title of the page.
  • Source. Note: Usually the official name of the website. If the source would be the same as the author, you can omit the source to avoid repetition.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Preventing HPV-associated cancers . https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/basic_info/prevention.htm/

Online Report

  • Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the name of the organization that published the report.
  • (Year, Month Date). Note: Provide as specific a date as is available.
  • Title of the report or document. Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
  • Source. Includes the names of parent agencies or other organizations not listed in the group author name here.
Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. (2017, January). Key indicators of health by service planning area . http://publichealth.lacounty.gov/ha/

Dissertation or Thesis

  • Author. Note: List the author's last name and initials as Author, A. A. There is usually only one author for a thesis or dissertation, you don't need to include any faculty advisers.
  • Title of the dissertation or thesis [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Name of University]. Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, dissertations, theses), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns. The title page will indicate whether it's a Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis and list the name of the university granting the degree.
  • Source. Note: Include the name of the database or institutional repository where you can access the work (e.g. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, PQDT Open, CSU ScholarWorks) here.
  • URL Note: If available it's available.
Valentin, E. R. (2019, Summer). Narcissism predicted by Snapchat selfie sharing, filter usage, and editing [Master's thesis, California State University Dominguez Hills]. CSU ScholarWorks. https://scholarworks.calstate.edu/concern/theses/3197xm925?locale=en

Check out more examples for citing dissertations and theses on the APA Style site .

Citing a letter, photograph, text document, graphic material, or ephemera? Consult the Gerth Archives APA Citation Guide for Archival Materials .

What does an example APA paper look like? 

APA Style offers sample student and professional paper s, including a free annotated student sample paper .

  • Sample Student Paper (APA 7th edition) Download and use this Word document as a template for your paper!

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor. 

2. Right click. 

3. Select Paragraph .

4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging .

How can I save time formatting my paper? 

Microsoft Word and Google Docs have a Format Painter tool that will copy and apply basic formatting to any text! 

1. Highlight the formatting you want to apply. 

2. Select  Format Painter . 

3. Highlight the text you want to change. 

Note: If using the Format Painter on the Reference List, you'll need to go back and add italics. 

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  • NWTC Library

Citation Guide

  • APA Style: 7th edition

APA Quick Links

Basic overview of apa style, handouts & guides from the official apa website, paper format overview, student paper setup guide, sample apa papers, formatting the title page, formatting the (optional) abstract page, formatting the references page, formatting a powerpoint presentation in apa style, formatting an annotated bibliography, citations in the paper's body, authors' names in apa in-text citations, direct quoting and paraphrasing, capitalization, no page numbers, authors' names on the references page, journal articles, magazine articles, newspaper articles, webpage: individual author, webpage: government agency as group author, webpage: organization as group author, books/e-books and book chapters, published dissertation or thesis, online videos, powerpoint slides, legal sources (court cases, legislation, statutes), oral teachings of indigenous elders and knowledge keepers, chatgpt or other generative ai.

  • APA Formatting Tips
  • Citation Books in the Library
  • Citation Formatting in Word & Google Docs
  • Quoting and Paraphrasing
  • Citation Managers
  • Quick How-To Videos
  • Citation Generators
  • Quoting & Paraphrasing

APA icon

  • Quotations Handout UNC-Chapel Hill Writing Center
  • Quoting and Paraphrasing UW-Madison Writing Center
  • Direct Quotations Official APA Style & Grammar Guidlelines
  • Paraphrasing Official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines
  • Paraphrasing and Citation Activities Official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines
  • Plagiarism Overview Library Guide
  • Avoiding Plagiarism Guide Official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines
  • Interactive Plagiarism Tutorial Created by Dave Wehmeyer, NWTC Instructor
  • Avoiding Plagiarism Tutorial Topics include learning to recognize different kinds of plagiarism and how to avoid plagiarism by citing sources correctly and writing good paraphrases. (Excelsior University Online Writing Lab)


Every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s work, you must indicate:

  • who wrote the work
  • what is it called
  • and where we (the reader) can find a copy.

You give us this information in two places:

  • Author-Date Citation System
  • Parenthetical versus Narrative In-Text Citation Options
  • Creating an APA Style Reference List Guide (2-page handout)
  • Sample Annotated Student Paper  (7-page handout)
  • APA Format Quick Guide

The  official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines  website has a collection of Handouts and Guides , which include:

  • Student Paper Setup Guide Annotated diagrams illustrate how to set up the major sections of a student paper: the title page, body of the paper, and reference list. Short handout version of this one-hour A Step By Step Guide for APA Style Student Papers webinar .
  • Student Paper Checklist
  • Student Title Page Guide
  • In-Text Citation Checklist
  • Guide to Creating an APA Style Reference List
  • Common Reference Examples Guide
  • Reference Guide for Journal Articles, Books, and Edited Book Chapters
  • Journal Article Reference Checklist

The official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines  includes a section on Paper Format , with information on:

  • Page Headers : For student papers, the page header consists of the page number only. No running head! 
  • Font : Recommended fonts include 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, and 12-point Times New Roman
  • Line Spacing : Double-space all parts of the paper. (There are four main exceptions , including adding additional line spaces on the Title Page .)
  • Title Page : Should include the title, author names, author affiliation, course number and name, instructor name, assignment due date, and page number.  Title Page Quick Guide
  • Abstract Page: According to APA Style guidelines, " Student papers generally do not include an abstract unless requested " (APA, 2022). If your instructor does require an abstract, see  Formatting the Optional Abstract Page for guidelines.
  • Sample Papers

The official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines includes a Student Paper Setup Guide : "Annotated diagrams illustrate how to set up the major sections of a student paper: the title page or cover page, the text, tables and figures, and the reference list."

  • Sample Papers From the official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines
  • APA Sample Papers (Excelsior University) From the Excelsior University Online Writing Lab's APA Style Guide

For detailed explanation and sample title pages, see the official  APA Style Guidelines  Title Page Setup section and Student Title Page Guide  (PDF).

The student title page is the first page of your paper and includes:

  • centered and bolded 
  • 3-4 lines down from top of title page
  • Add one double-spaced blank line between the paper title and author name.
  • author affiliation (Northeast Wisconsin Technical College)
  • course number and name
  • instructor name
  • assignment due date
  • Sample APA Title Page for NWTC Students

According to the official APA Style  Abstract and Keywords Guide , "The abstract needs to provide a brief but comprehensive summary of the contents of your paper. It provides an overview of the paper and helps readers decide whether to read the full text" (APA, 2020).

Abstract basics:

  • The abstract is the second page of your paper (after the Title page).
  • At the top of the page, center and bold Abstract.
  • The first line of the abstract is NOT indented.
  • APA recommends the abstract be no more than 250 words.
  • One line below the Abstract comes the Keywords. “ Keywords need to be descriptive and capture the most important aspects of your paper .” Indent like a regular paragraph and type Keywords : (capitalized and italicized). Then in lowercase, type 3-5 words or phrases.

See slide three of the Excelsior College Online Writing Lab's APA Formatting Guide for a sample student paper Abstract page.

  • Sample APA Abstract Page for NWTC Students

This is a separate page at the end of your paper. Each citation in the text must be listed on the References page; each listing on the References page must appear in the text.

  • Center and bold the word References at the top of the page
  • All text is double-spaced, just like the rest of the paper.
  • List the sources alphabetically by authors' last names. If no author is listed, start with the title of the article, book or web resource.
  • To do this, highlight the citation and type CTRL-T

Go to the Paragraph ribbon in Word. Click the arrow in the bottom right hand corner. This opens a box: under “special”, click on “hanging”.  

Paragraph ribbon

  • Creating an APA Style Reference List 2-page guide from the official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines

The  APA Publication Manual  does not provide specific instructions on how to format a PowerPoint presentation; however, many college libraries recommend the following:

  • Include the same information on your title slide that you would have on a title page. 
  • Include  in-text citations  for any quote, paraphrase, image, graph, table, data, audio or video file that you use within your presentation. Please note that photographs are considered figures in APA style. See the  Figure Setup section  of the  APA Style & Grammar Guidelines  for more information about this.
  • The last slide will be your References page. 
  • “No citation, permission, or copyright attribution is necessary for clip art from programs like Microsoft Word or PowerPoint” (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 346).
  • Do not reproduce images without permission from the creator or owner of the image. See section 12.15 of the APA manual for more information about this.

How to format a PowerPoint presentation in APA Style (Goodwin College Library)

According to section 9.51 of the APA Manual, 

  • "Most APA Style guidelines are applicable to annotated bibliographies" (p. 307). So, follow the Paper Format guidelines for the margins, headers, font, line spacing, and title page. 
  • "Instructors generally set all other requirements for annotated bibliographies (e.g. number of references to include, length and focus of each annotation)" (p. 307).

Some basic rules:

  • Put the references in alphabetical order, just like you would on a References page.
  • Each annotation is a new paragraph below the reference entry.  Indent the entire annotation, just like you would a block quote ( using a quote that is more than 40 words) .
  • If an annotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second and any other additional paragraphs, an additional .5 inch.

The Excelsior College Online Writing Lab has a sample APA annotated bibliography . 

When you  quote directly  or paraphrase  from a source (book, article, or webpage) in your paper, you need to insert an in-text citation . 

Check out the new APA In-Text Citation Checklist !

You have two format options: parenthetical and narrative

Parenthetical In-Text Citation

This citation typically consists of the author’s last name(s), year of publication, and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. The period goes after the closed parenthesis.

“This is a direct citation” (Chapman, 2019, p. 126).

When paraphrasing the idea in your own words, do not use quotation marks and do not include a page number (Jackson, 1999).

Narrative In-Text Citation

Another option is to use the author’s name in the sentence, followed directly by the year in parentheses, with the page numbers in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

According to Chapman (2019), "This is a direct citation" (p. 216).

Jackson (1999) explains that when paraphrasing the idea in your own words, do not use quotation marks and do not include a page number.

Additional Resources from the Excelsior College Online Writing Lab :

  • APA Citations in the Body of Your Paper : multiple examples
  • APA Side by Side : Examples that "provide reference information and corresponding in-text citation information for common source types and situations you are likely to encounter while working with your sources". 


Chapman (2023)


(Chapman, 2023).

Two Authors

Schutz and Castleberg (2023) 

(Schutz & Castleberg, 2023).

Three or More Authors

Ornelas et al. (2023) 

(Ornelas et al., 2023).

Group Author with Well-Known Abbreviation

First citation in text:

American Psychological Association (APA, 2023)

Subsequent citations in text:

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2023).

(APA, 2023).

Group Author without Well-Known Abbreviation

University of Minnesota (2023)

(University of Minnesota, 2023).

Include the title and year of publication. If the title is long (more than 3 words), shorten it.

If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference (article or webpage), put quotation marks around the title.

If the title of the work is italicized in the reference (book, entire website), italicize the title.

For example, if you had an article with the title Practical oral care for people with intellectual disability, the parenthetical citation would look like ("Practical oral care," 2014). 

Direct Quoting - When you are using someone else's exact words.

The article goes on to say that “People don't do derby just for exercise but usually because it becomes a part of who they are” (Fagundes,  2012, p.1098).

Fagundes (2012) believes that roller derby gives participants "a chance to feel like a superstar" (p. 1098).

  • If you are using a quote that is more than 40 words, do not use quotation marks. Instead, put the quote on a new line and indent the whole block approximately 1/2 inch from the left margin. Keep the quote double-spaced. Remember to add a parenthetical citation and put the work on your References page.  The parenthetical citation comes after the final punctuation mark. This is called a Block Quotation .

He asserts the following:

More importantly, though, the notion of competing under derby names was a perfect fit with the recent reimagination of the sport as a punk-rock spectacle that allowed, and encouraged, participants to develop outrageous public personas. The story of derby-name emergence probably has more to do with coincidence and path dependence than with conscious design. Derby pioneer Ivanna S. Pankin’s classic derby name pre-dated her founding of Arizona Roller Derby in 2003. Rather, it was a handle and email address she used as a musician in Phoenix’s punk rock scene. When she publicized her nascent league using the alias Ivanna S. Pankin, and the entire Austin scene was already using skate names, the leagues that popped up in their wake followed suit,33 and the practice of using colorful nicknames has been used by virtually all derby leagues and skaters since. (Fagundes, 2012, pp.1093-1094)

Paraphrasing  - Restating others' ideas in your own words.

If you mention the author’s name in the paragraph, then just put the date in parentheses directly after the author's name.

If you do not mention the author’s name, then include the author’s name in parentheses before the date.

According to the APA Style Guide  section on Capitalization , "APA Style is a 'down' style, meaning that words are lowercase unless there is specific guidance to capitalize them."  

Here are some basic rules for capitalizing within APA papers:

Diseases, Disorders, Therapies, and More  

  • In general, do not capitalize the names of diseases, treatments, theories, concepts, etc.
  • Do capitalize personal names that appear within these kinds of terms.
  • Examples: lung cancer, art therapy, Alzheimer's disease, Adlerian therapy

Proper Nouns, Trade Names, and Generic Drug Names

  • Capitalize proper nouns, names of racial & ethnic groups, and trade & brand names.
  • Do not capitalize generic drug names.
  • Example: Prozac (trade name) vs fluoxetine (generic name)

When in doubt,  ask a librarian  or consult the  APA Dictionary of Psychology .

According to the official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines sections on Citing Specific Parts of a Source  and  Direct Quotation of Materials without Page Numbers , you have several options when quoting sources that do not have page numbers (webpages, eBooks, etc.). Use the option that will best help your reader find the quotation in the source.

Provide a paragraph number; you will probably have to count them manually.

According to the IceBridge Project leader, " in addition to the airborne and satellite measurements, scientists will be out on the ice taking height and density measurements as well" (Gray, 2019, para. 6). Source

Provide a heading or section name.

Medical consensus is that the flu is spread " mainly by tiny droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk"  (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, How Flu Spreads section).  Source

Provide an abbreviated heading or section name in quotation marks if the name is too long or unwieldy to cite in full.

Research has shown that an average of 8% of the U.S. population experiences flu symptoms each flu season,"  with a range of between 3% and 11%, depending on the season"   (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, "How Many People" section). Source

Provide a heading or section name, plus a paragraph number within that section.

Thompson's research is focused on understanding "factors that support speech-in-noise ability in early childhood" (DeAngelis, 2018, Auditory neurodevelopment section, para. 4).  Source

Invert all individual authors’ names, providing the last name first, followed by a comma and the author’s initials.

Ornelas, J. N. 

Rockwell-Kincanon, K.

Two to 20 Authors

List by their last names and initials, separated by a comma. Put an & between the final two names.

Knowles-Carter, B., Carter, B.I., & Carter, S.

21 or More Authors

Include the first 19 authors, insert an ellipsis ... (but no &), and then add the final author’s name:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.. (2018). 

Group Author 

Spell out the full name of a group author, such as an organization or government agency.

American Psychological Association.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Move the title of the source to the beginning of the entry, before the publication date.

Articles & Webpages

Generalized anxiety disorder. (2020). 

In-text citation: "Generalized anxiety disorder," 2020).

Interpersonal skills. (2020).

In-text citation: ( Interpersonal Skills , 2020).

  • APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) , when it is available. DOIs provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles.
  • If there is no DOI and the journal article is from a library research database, end the reference after the page number. The reference in this case will look the the same as for a print journal article.
  • If the journal article does not have a DOI and is not from a library database, but does have a URL that will resolve, include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.

Basic Scholarly Journal Article Format

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle words. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

Journal Article Reference Checklist  (from the official APA Style and Grammar Guidelines )

Example of Scholarly Article with DOI

Nguyen, T. T., Gildengorin, G., & Truong, A. (2007). Factors influencing physicians' screening behavior for liver cancer among high-risk patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22 (4), 523-526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-007-0128-1

Example of Scholarly Article from Library Database with No DOI

Ryan,E., & Redding, R. (2004). A review of mood disorders among juvenile offenders. Psychiatric Services, 55 (12), 1397-1407.

Example of Scholarly Article from Website with No DOI

Humphreys, B. L. (2002). Adjusting to progress: Interactions between the National Library of Medicine and health sciences librarians, 1961-200. Journal of the Medical Library Association , 90 (1), 4-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC64753/

  • If there is no DOI and the magazine article is from a library research database, end the reference after the page number. The reference in this case will look the the same as for a print journal article.
  • If the magazine article does not have a DOI and is not from a library database, but does have a URL that will resolve, include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.

Basic Magazine Article Format

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Subtitle words.  Title of Magazine, volume number (issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

Example of Magazine Article with DOI

Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science, 365 (6457), 981-982. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay3550

Example of Magazine Article from Library Database with no DOI

Lane, A., & Brody, R. (2019). No laughing matter. New Yorker, 95 (41), 65-67.

Example of Magazine Article from Website with URL

Hall, M. (2017, March). The faces of Obamacare. Texas Monthly, 45 (3), 116-197. https://www.texasmonthly.com/news-politics/the-faces-of-obamacare/

Basic Newspaper Article Format

  • If the newspaper article is from a library research database, end the reference after the page number. The reference in this case will look the the same as for a print newspaper article.
  • If the newspaper article is from an online newspaper website, include the URL of the article at the end of the reference. 
  • If the article is from a news website (e.g., CNN, HuffPost)—one that does not have an associated daily or weekly newspaper—use the format for a  webpage on a news website  instead.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Subtitle words.  Title of Newspaper, volume number (issue number), pages. 

Examples of Newspaper Article from Library Database 

Seitz, M. J. (2020, June 26).  El Paso's Bishop Mark Seitz: Black lives matter. National Catholic Reporter , 13-16.

Bowles, N. (2019, July 7). Virtual pre-K closes a gap, and exposes it. New York Times, 168 (58381) , 1, 15.

Example of Newspaper Article from Website with URL

Kowols, T. (2022, June 29). Sturgeon Bay Police issues warnings about fireworks. Door County Daily News . https://doorcountydailynews.com/news/641257

Example of a Webpage on a News Website  

Strickland, A. (2023, February 21). Earth’s driest place shows why it may be harder than we thought to find signs of life on Mars . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2023/02/21/world/atacama-desert-life-mars-scn/index.html

Basic Format for a Blog Post

  • Blog posts follow the same format as journal articles .
  • Italicize the name of the blog, the same as you would a journal title.

Meinholz, G. (2023, May 12). In Jordan Love we trust. Packers Talk Blog . https://packerstalk.com/2023/05/12/in-jordan-love-we-trust/

Basic Format  for Webpage or Document on an Organization or Government Website: Individual Author

Author, A. A. (Date published or updated).   Title of report or document: Subtitle of report. Organization Name .  http://someurl

Example of Webpage on an Organization Website

Schaeffer, K. (2022, April 5). In CDC survey, 37% of U.S. high school students report regular mental health struggles during COVID-19 . Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/04/25/in-cdc-survey-37-of-u-s-high-school-students-report-regular-mental-health-struggles-during-covid-19/

Example of Webpage on a Government Agency** Website

**Make sure to include the names of the parent department(s) and specific agency/center/office (hierarchy). 

Hoyert, D. L. (2021, March 23). Maternal mortality rates in the United States, 2019 . U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/maternal-mortality-2021/maternal-mortality-2021.htm

Basic Format  

  • Spell out the full name of a group author in the reference list entry, followed by a period.
  • While an  abbreviation for the group author  can be used in the text (e.g., NIMH for National Institute of Mental Health), do NOT include an abbreviation for a group author in a reference list entry.
  • When numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author of a work, use the most specific agency as the author in the reference. The names of parent agencies appear after the title as the publisher.

Examples of Documents or Webpages on a Government Website

Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. (2021, March 29). Educational materials for health professionals . U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/materials_for_professionals.htm

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2022, March 24). Heart treatments . U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/cardiac-rehabilitation 

National Institute of Mental Health. (2020, January). Coping with traumatic events .   U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/coping-with-traumatic-events

Basic Format

Name of Organization. (Date published or updated). Title of webpage or document: Subtitle of documen t. http://someurl

American Nurses Association. (2022).  Nurses bill of rights . https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/work-environment/health-safety/bill-of-rights/

Wisconsin Psychological Association. (2022). Mental health information . https://wipsychology.org/Mental_Health_Information

  • Use the same formats for both print books and e-books. For e-books, the format (e.g. PDF, EPUB), platform (e.g. Ebook Central, OpenStax), or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.
  • If an e-book without a DOI has a stable URL that will resolve for all readers, include the URL of the book. 
  • Include a  Digital Object Identifier (DOI) , when it is available.

Basic Book Formats

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle words . Publisher Name.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.),   Title of book  (pages of chapter). Publisher Name.

Print Book/E-Book  

Bonilla-Silva, E. (2017). Racism without the racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in America . Rowman & Littlefield.

Olsen, Y., & Sharfstein, J. M. (2019). The opioid epidemic: What everyone needs to know . Oxford University Press.

Chapter in an Edited Book  

Kindler, L. L., & Polomano, R. C. (2017). Pain. In S. L. Lewis, S. R. Dirksen, M. M. Heitkemper, & L. Bucher (Eds.), Medical-surgical nursing (10th ed., pp. 114-139). Elsevier.

Scott, C.L. (2014). Historical perspectives for studying workforce diversity. In M.Y. Byrd (Ed.), Diversity in the workforce: Current issues and emerging trends (pp. 3-33). Routledge.

Whole Edited Book  

Pedersen, P. B., Lonner, W. J., Draguns, J. G., Trimble, J.E., & Scharrón-del Río, M. R. (Eds.). (2016). Counseling across cultures (7th ed.). Sage.

Ramos, K. S., Downey, A., & Yost, O. C. (Eds.). Nonhuman primate models in biomedical research: State of the science and future needs . National Academies Press. https://nap.nationalacademies.org/read/26857/chapter/1

For more examples, see the Book/Ebook References section on the APA Style & Grammar Guidelines

A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, an institutional repository, or an archive. ( Published Dissertation or Thesis References )

Basic Format

Author, A. A. (Date published). Title of dissertation: Subtitle of dissertation  [Doctoral dissertation, Name of University]. Name of Repository or Database. url

Author, A. A. (Date published). Title of thesis: Subtitle of thesis  [Master's thesis, Name of University]. Name of Repository or Database. url

Robinson, G. D. (2019). Promoting persistence among LGBTQ community college students [Doctoral dissertation, Illinois State University]. ISU ReD Repository. https://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2041&context=etd

Lindmark, S. A. (2019). "W atching their souls speak": Interpreting the new music videos of Childish Gambino, Kendrick Lamar, and Beyoncé Knowles-Carter [Master's thesis, UC Irvine]. University of California eScholarship. https://escholarship.org/content/qt5gw3v7bf/qt5gw3v7bf.pdf

YouTube Video Basic Format

Author, A.A. [Screen name]. (year, month day).  Title of video  [Video]. YouTube. http://xxxxx

Use the name of the account that uploaded the video as the author.

If the user’s real name is not available, include only the screen name, without brackets

The capitalization [or lack thereof] in the screen name is in keeping with how it appears online.

  • In text, cite by the author name that appears outside of brackets, whichever one that may be.

YouTube Video Examples

Bozeman Science. (2014, March 10).  Integumentary system [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/z5VnOS9Ke3g

Fox, D. J. [Dr. Daniel Fox]. (2019, February 19).  Empathy paradox and borderline personality disorder [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/mGa3tQCoJ-E

TED Talk from YouTube

Follow the YouTube video basic format shown above.

List the owner of the YouTube account as the author. In most cases, it will be the TED YouTube account .

  • Credit YouTube as the publisher of the TED Talk and then provide the URL.

TED. (2022, May 10). An Olympic champion's mindset for overcoming fear | Allyson Felix  [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIne-UO7wUo

TED Talk from the TED website

Use the name of the speaker as the author.

Include [Video] after the title of the talk.

Credit TED Conferences as the publisher of the TED Talk and end with the URL.

Schor, J. (2022, April). The case for the 4-day work week [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/juliet_schor_the_case_for_a_4_day_work_week

Films on Demand Video Basic Format

Title of video: Subtitle of video  [Video]. (year). Films on Demand. http://xxxxx

Films on Demand Video Examples

Method and madness: In search of science  [Video]. (2013). Films on Demand. https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=102581&xtid=55680

Suctioning: Nasotracheal suctioning and monitoring complications  [Video]. (2018). Films on Demand. https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=102581&xtid=154477

PowerPoint Slides Accessed on Canvas: Basic Format

  • If you are writing for an NWTC audience with access to the specific Canvas course, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login).
  • If the audience for which are you writing does not have access to the slides,  cite them as a personal communication .

Instructor last name, Initial. (year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [PowerPoint slides]. NWTC Canvas. https://nwtc.instructure.com/login/saml

PowerPoint Slides Example

Chapman, J. M. (2019). Overview of citations: What's new with APA [PowerPoint slides]. NWTC Canvas. https://nwtc.instructure.com/login/saml

If you want to cite an interview, email, chat, text message or other personal communication , you only need to do so as a parenthetical citation in the body of your paper; you do NOT need to include it in your References.

Use this format for the parenthetical citation:

(A. Lastname, personal communication, date of communication).

(P. Malone, personal communication, December 3, 2020).

The  official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines  do not include reference examples for legal references, such as court cases. 

Chapter 11 Legal References of the  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition  begins with this statement: "In APA Style, most legal materials are cited in the standard legal citation style used for legal references across all disciplines" (p. 355).

Chapter 11 does contain some examples of common legal references (see below), but recommends consulting The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation . There is a copy of the 21st edition (2020) at the Green Bay Library Desk, as well as copies of the 20th edition (2015) in the Reference Collections in Green Bay, Marinette, and Sturgeon Bay.

Federal Statutes (Laws and Acts)

The template for federal statutes is:

Reference list: Name of Act, Title Source § Section Number (Year). url

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 (1990). https://www.ada.gov/pubs/adastatute08.htm

Parenthetical citation: (Name of Act, Year).

Narrative citation: Name of Act (Year)

Supreme Court Case, With Page Number (cases published through 2012 term)

Name of Party v. Name of Party, volume number U.S. page number (year of decision). url

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). https://www.loc.gov/item/usrep347483/

In-text citation: ( Brown v. Board of Education, 1954)

Supreme Court Case, Without Page Number (cases published after 2012 term)

Name of Party v. Name of Party, volume number U.S. ___ (year of decision). url

Gallardo v. Marstiller, 596 U.S. ___ (2022).  https://www.oyez.org/cases/2021/20-1263

In-text citation: ( Gallardo v. Marstiller,  2022)

From the APA Style section on Personal Communications :

"To describe Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions that are not recorded (and therefore are not recoverable by readers), provide as much detail in the in-text citation as is necessary to describe the content and to contextualize the origin of the information. For example, if you spoke with an Indigenous person directly to learn information (but they were not a research participant), use a variation of the personal communication citation.

  • Provide the person’s full name and the nation or specific Indigenous group to which they belong, as well as their location or other details about them as relevant, followed by the words “personal communication,” and the date of the communication.
  • Provide an exact date of correspondence if available; if correspondence took place over a period of time, provide a more general date or a range of dates. The date refers to when you consulted with the person, not to when the information originated.
  • Ensure that the person agrees to have their name included in your paper and confirms the accuracy and appropriateness of the information you present.
  • Because there is no recoverable source, a reference list entry is not used."

APA issued preliminary guidance on an April 7, 2023 blog post:  How to Cite ChatGPT

Quoting or reproducing the text created by ChatGPT in your paper

Remember that the results of a ChatGPT chat you did are not accessible by others. According to APA , "Quoting ChatGPT’s text from a chat session is therefore more like sharing an algorithm’s output; thus, credit the author of the algorithm with a reference list entry and the corresponding in-text citation.

In-text citation example from APA blog

When prompted with “Is the left brain right brain divide real or a metaphor?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that although the two brain hemispheres are somewhat specialized, “the notation that people can be characterized as ‘left-brained’ or ‘right-brained’ is considered to be an oversimplification and a popular myth” (OpenAI, 2023).

References page entry

OpenAI. (2023).  ChatGPT  (Mar 14 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat

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🤔 What is an APA Citation Generator?

An APA citation generator is a software tool that will automatically format academic citations in the American Psychological Association (APA) style.

It will usually request vital details about a source -- like the authors, title, and publish date -- and will output these details with the correct punctuation and layout required by the official APA style guide.

Formatted citations created by a generator can be copied into the bibliography of an academic paper as a way to give credit to the sources referenced in the main body of the paper.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an APA Citation Generator?

College-level and post-graduate students are most likely to use an APA citation generator, because APA style is the most favored style at these learning levels. Before college, in middle and high school, MLA style is more likely to be used. In other parts of the world styles such as Harvard (UK and Australia) and DIN 1505 (Europe) are used more often.

🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?

Like almost every other citation style, APA style can be cryptic and hard to understand when formatting citations. Citations can take an unreasonable amount of time to format manually, and it is easy to accidentally include errors. By using a citation generator to do this work you will:

  • Save a considerable amount of time
  • Ensure that your citations are consistent and formatted correctly
  • Be rewarded with a higher grade

In academia, bibliographies are graded on their accuracy against the official APA rulebook, so it is important for students to ensure their citations are formatted correctly. Special attention should also be given to ensure the entire document (including main body) is structured according to the APA guidelines. Our complete APA format guide has everything you need know to make sure you get it right (including examples and diagrams).

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's APA Citation Generator?

Our APA generator was built with a focus on simplicity and speed. To generate a formatted reference list or bibliography just follow these steps:

  • Start by searching for the source you want to cite in the search box at the top of the page.
  • MyBib will automatically locate all the required information. If any is missing you can add it yourself.
  • Your citation will be generated correctly with the information provided and added to your bibliography.
  • Repeat for each citation, then download the formatted list and append it to the end of your paper.

MyBib supports the following for APA style:

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Referencing and formatting with APA 7th ed. (STA): APA References

  • APA References
  • APA In-Text Citations
  • APA Formatting

About this guide

This page provides resources to assist with citing and referencing sources in APA 7th ed. 

  • APA Style by the American Psychological Association is the referencing style that the UWI thesis guide states should be used by students in the School of Education (SoE), Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus.

All SoE UWISTA students from 2022-2023 onward are to use APA Style 7th. ed.

EndNote 20 - Reference Management Software

  • EndNote 20 by Shamin Renwick Last Updated Mar 12, 2023 532 views this year

Additional Resources APA 7th ed. References

  • APA style: References
  • APA style blog
  • Purdue University: APA 7th formatting and style guide
  • Curtain University: APA 7th LibGuide
  • APA Examples - Scribbr

Other Citation Styles - UWI LibGuides

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  • VANCOUVER CITATION STYLE (UWISTA) by Niala Dwarika-Bhagat Last Updated Jul 27, 2021 1066 views this year
  • Plagiarism, Citing and Referencing at UWI St. Augustine by Shamin Renwick Last Updated Jun 22, 2023 702 views this year
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  • MLA 8th ed. PowerPoint - Dr. Karen Eccles
  • MLA 8th ed. Handout by Dr. Karen Eccles
  • Referencing with Chicago 16th Author-Date format by Shamin Renwick Last Updated Sep 14, 2022 483 views this year

APA Style 7th ed. References

These handouts for APA 7th ed. prepared by the Librarian, Dr Shamin Renwick, at the School of Education Library (SoEL).

APA 7th ed. was released in July 2019.

  • SoELib: APA 7th ed - Examples of References How to do in-text citations and references in APA 7th ed. -updated Dec 10, 2022.
  • How to Cite ChatGPT in APA 7 Style
  • Citing Government Docs in APA 7th ed. Updated Oct 20, 2022
  • Citing Legal Docs in APA 7th ed. Updated Feb 20, 2023
  • SoEL: Changes from APA 6 to APA 7
  • What's new in APA 7th ed.

Reference list example in APA 7th ed style

apa bibliography 2021

Date - In-text Citation Format

apa bibliography 2021

Introducing the APA 7th edition

References in APA 7th ed.

In-text Citation in APA 7th ed.

APA style: 7th ed.

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  • Comparison of APA 6th and 7th manuals

Missing Elements in a Reference (Section 9.4, p. 284 of the Manual)

  • Missing Reference Information
  • Citing with missing information

Abbreviations in APA references

Source: APA 7the ed. Manual, pp. 306-307

See Handout from APA Style.

APA Style 6th ed. References

  • SoEL: APA Style 6th ed. Handout
  • Purdue University: APA 6th ed. references

How to alphabetize "a," "an," and "the" in APA Style References

  • How to alphabetize insignificant words in APA
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BibGuru APA Citation Generator

Cite websites, books, articles, ...

BibGuru APA Citation Generator citation generator

APA citation basics

Apa in-text citations, apa reference list.

  • Citation examples
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Lightning-fast and accurate citations with the BibGuru APA citation generator

Getting citations and reference lists correctly done can be very confusing and time-consuming. We have created BibGuru to help you focus on the content of your work instead of worrying about how to get your reference list done correctly. We believe that students should not waste their time entering data manually or lose grades on incorrect bibliographies.

BibGuru is a fast, free, and ad-free APA citation generator specifically designed for students. Its powerful search bar allows you to search for books, websites, and journal articles and add them directly to your bibliography. Start citing here:

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Want to know how the APA citation style works in detail? Learn all the rules of the APA citation style below.

The ultimate guide to citing in APA

APA is one of the most popular citation styles, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences, but also in many other fields. APA stands for American Psychological Association . APA citation style was developed by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing and is currently in its 7th edition.

If you are not sure which citation style to use in your paper, ask your instructor. There are many different citation styles and using the style your instructor or institution has established correctly can have a positive impact on your grade.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) is the basis of this guide. It contains guidelines on paper structure and content, writing and formatting, and crediting sources in APA. This guide focuses on crediting sources and aims at answering all of your questions about citing in APA.

The APA citation rules stretch more than 50 pages in the official APA publication manual, and yes, they are complex. We have created the BibGuru citation builder to help you focus on the content of your work instead of worrying about how to get your reference list done correctly.

For general tips and tricks on writing your papers in APA, or to learn how to format your APA title page and abstract page , visit our blog . Or just use our free APA format citation generator to automatically create accurate APA citations with only a few clicks.

The APA guide recommends that you cite any works or individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. This means that you should cite only works you have read and ideas you have incorporated into your writing. If possible cite primary sources, and secondary sources sparingly.

A primary source reports original content; a secondary source refers to content first reported in another source.

APA citation style uses in-text citations and a reference list. Both can be created with just a click with BibGuru's APA citation generator .

For in-text references, APA uses the author-date citation system. This system allows readers to find the sources cited both within the text and in the reference list, where each source is listed alphabetically. Each work cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text.

To insert a citation in the text, include the author's last name and year of publication. For a direct quotation , include the page number or specific location of the phrase or sentence in the original work.

In-text references have two formats: parenthetical and narrative . In parenthetical citations , the author's name and publication date appear in parentheses. When a parenthetical citation is at the end of a sentence, place the period or other end punctuation after the closing parentheses. Here is an example:

EXAMPLE Parenthetical citation

In the production process nowadays, skilled labor and computerized machines are used (Rode, 2012).

In narrative citations, the name and publication date is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence. The author appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author's name:

EXAMPLE Narrative citation (with parenthesis)

Rode (2012) claims that productive activities have been part of human civilization since ancient times.

In some cases, author and date might both appear in the narrative. In this case, no parentheses are needed:

EXAMPLE Narrative citation (without parenthesis)

In 2012, Rode wrote about the productive activities...

If you cite multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons, like in this example:

EXAMPLE Multiple parenthetical citations

(Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017)

If multiple sources are cited within a sentence, they can appear in any order:

EXAMPLE Multiple sources in a sentence

Suliman (2018), Gutiérrez (2012, 2017), and Medina and Reyes (2019) examined...

If you cite a work with more than one author or editor, additional rules apply:

  • If a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text.
  • When citing a work with 3-5 authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. After the first time, you only need to include the last name of the first author, followed by "et al."
  • When citing 6 or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by "et al." for all citations.

According to the 7th edition of the APA Manual , if you are citing 3 or more authors, you only need to list the first author, followed by "et al." Click here to learn more about the difference between APA 6th and 7th editions.

The BibGuru free APA 7 citation generator has incorporated all the new APA 7th edition rules, so you don’t have to worry about the differences between the versions.

Basic in-text citation styles

Direct quotations.

When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation in the in-text citation. When citing a single page, use the abbreviation "p." (e.g., p. 26, p. S44, p. e283); for multiple pages, use the abbreviation "pp." and separate the page range with an en dash (e.g., pp. 34-36). If pages are discontinuous, use a comma between the page numbers (e.g., pp. 65, 72).

Here are two examples of direct quotations:

EXAMPLE Direct quotation

"For both parties to gain from trade, the price at which they trade must lie between the two opportunity costs" (Mankiw, 2015, p. 54).

EXAMPLE Direct quotation (narrative)

In his book, Bonnett asks "What is the difference between being white and being Western?" (2004, p. 14).

However, APA strongly recommends paraphrasing whenever possible instead of using a direct quotation. A paraphrase restates another's idea (or your own previously published idea) in your own words.

How to use Bibguru for APA citations

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The reference list at the end of your paper provides the information that a reader would need to identify and find each source that you have used. An accurate reference list helps to establish the credibility of your work and of yourself as the author. You should only include works that you have used in the research for, and preparation of, your paper.

A reference list generally has four elements: author, date, title, and source. Each of these elements answers a question:

apa explainer image

When formatting the author part , follow these guidelines:

  • Invert all individual author's names, providing the last name first, followed by a comma and the initials: Author, A. A.
  • Use a comma to separate an author's initials from additional author names, even when there are only two authors. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
  • For up to 20 authors, provide last names and initials. Use an ampersand before the final author's name.
  • For 21 and more authors, include the first 19 names, insert an ellipsis (...), and then add the final author's name.
  • People who contributed substantially in roles other than the author can also be credited - an example would be an editor abbreviated as "(Ed.)"

APA 7th edition allows you to include up to 20 authors' names in an individual reference.

By using an APA 7 citation generator like BibGuru you can be on the safe side with the specific rules of the new version.

When formatting the title part , follow these guidelines:

  • For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. journal articles, edited book chapters), do not italicize the title or use quotation marks, and capitalize it using sentence cases.
  • For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports, websites), italicize the title, and capitalize it using sentence cases.
  • Finish the title element with a period, unless it ends with a question mark or exclamation point. In that case, use that punctuation mark.

The source either has one or two parts, depending on the reference category. A source from a printed book without a DOI has one part: the book's publisher. A source from a journal article with a DOI has two parts; the periodical information (journal title, volume number, issue number, and page range or article number) and the DOI.

The publication place of printed sources is no longer required in APA 7th edition. Visit our post on the differences between APA 6th and 7th edition to learn more.

The DOI or URL is the final component of the reference list entry in the APA style. A DOI, or digital object identifier , is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version. If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI, but if the source only has a URL, include the URL.

You no longer need to include "retrieved from" prior to listing a URL, according to APA 7th edition.

How to format the reference list in APA:

  • Begin the reference list on a new page after the text.
  • Name it "References", and center the section label in bold at the top of the page.
  • Order the reference list alphabetically by author (last name of the first author followed by the initials of the author's given name(s)).
  • Alphabetize entries by authors who have the same given name and last name with suffixes indicating birth order chronologically, oldest first.
  • Double-space the entire list (both within and between entries).
  • Apply a hanging indent of 0.5 in. to each entry. This means that the first line of the reference is flush left and subsequent lines are indented 0.5 in. from the left margin.

An example of an APA reference page made with BibGuru's APA citation generator .

apa page example image

Citation Examples

  • Books and Reference Works
  • Journals and Periodicals
  • Webpages and Websites
  • Dissertations and Theses

Books and Reference Works includes authored books , edited books , translated books , anthologies, religious works, classical works, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and diagnostic manuals. This template shows you how to cite them.

EXAMPLE Authored book with a DOI

Posselt, J. R. (2016). Inside graduate admissions: Merit, diversity, and faculty gatekeeping . Harvard University Press. https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674915640

Parenthetical citation: (Posselt, 2016)

Narrative citation: Posselt (2016)

EXAMPLE Authored book without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version

Hess, E. J. (2012). The civil war in the West: Victory and defeat from the Appalachians to the Mississippi . University of North Carolina Press.

Parenthetical citation: (Hess, 2012)

Narrative citation: Hess (2012)

EXAMPLE Edited book with a DOI, with multiple authors

Brooks, R., & O'Shea, S. (Eds.) (2021). Reimagining the higher education student: Constructing and contesting identities . Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367854171

Parenthetical citation: (Brooks & O'Shea, 2021)

Narrative citation: Brooks and O'Shea (2021)

EXAMPLE Dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia

Hodges, W. (2006). First-order logic. In D. M. Borchert (Ed.), The encyclopedia of philosophy (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 639–659). Thomson Gale.

Parenthetical citation: (Hodges, 2006)

Narrative citation: Hodges (2006)

EXAMPLE Book in another language

When a book is in a different language than your paper, include a translation of the book title in square brackets:

Piaget, J. (1957). Le jugement moral chez l'enfant[The moral judgement of the child]. Presses Universitaires de France.

Parenthetical citation: (Piaget, 1957)

Narrative citation: Piaget (1957)

Periodicals are generally published on a continuous basis and include journals , magazines , newspapers , newsletters, and even blog posts. This template shows you how to cite them.

EXAMPLE Journal article with a DOI

Hart, E. K., & Annear, C. M. (2020). Research coherence: A framework for successful student research. College Teaching , 68 (3), 112–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2020.1758022

Parenthetical citation: (Hart & Annear, 2020)

Narrative citation: Hard and Annear (2020)

EXAMPLE Journal article with a DOI, 21 or more authors

Grantham, H. S., Duncan, A., Evans, T. D., Jones, K. R., Beyer, H. L., Schuster, R., Walston, J., Ray, J. C., Robinson, J. G., Callow, M., Clements, T., Costa, H. M., DeGemmis, A., Elsen, P. R., Ervin, J., Franco, P., Goldman, E., Goetz, S., Hansen, A., … Watson, J. E. M. (2020). Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity. Nature Communications , 11 (1), 5978. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3

Parenthetical citation: (Grantham et al., 2020)

Narrative citation: (Grantham et al., 2020)

EXAMPLE Magazine article version

Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science , 365 (6457), 981–982. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay3550

Parenthetical citation: (Schaefer & Shapiro, 2019)

Narrative citation: (Schaefer & Shapiro, 2019)

EXAMPLE Newsletter

Darwish, F. (2014). How being a cat person can dramatically enhance your psychological health. Psych Daily, 6 (4), 4-5. https://www-psychdaily-com/the-pets-cats-report/emotional-health/

Parenthetical citation: (Darwish, 2014)

Narrative citation: Darwish (2014)

If you cite a source from a website and no other reference category fits and the work has no parent or overarching publication (e.g. journal or blog), use this template for your reference.

EXAMPLE Webpage on a news website

France-Presse, A. (2021, June 10). Child labour worldwide increases for first time in 20 years.  The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/law/2021/jun/10/child-labour-worldwide-increases-for-first-time-in-20-years

Parenthetical citation: (France-Presse, 2021)

Narrative citation: France-Presse (2021)

EXAMPLE University website

Hamido, K. A., & Essam, J. A. (n.d.). Use of artificial intelligence in forensic analyses . Cairo Medical School. http://www.med.cairo.edu/AANLIB/

Parenthetical citation: (Hamido & Essam, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Hamido and Essam (n.d.)

EXAMPLE Blog post

Priyadarshini, S. (n.d.). How outreach blends my worlds as a scientist and mom. Indigenus. http://blogs.nature.com/indigenus/2021/05/how-outreach-blends-my-worlds-as-a-scientist-and-mom.html

Parenthetical citation: (Priyadarshini, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Priyadarshini (n.d.)

EXAMPLE Website with no author

Neuroscience. (n.d.).  Wikipedia . Retrieved June 6, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neuroscience

Parenthetical citation: ("Neuroscience", n.d.)

Narrative citation: "Neuroscience" (n.d.)

EXAMPLE Government website

Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy. (n.d.). Becoming a research volunteer . https://www.ECNE.gov/cne/sites/default/files/ohrp/research/ brochures/3panelfinal.pdf

Parenthetical citation: (Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy (n.d.)

EXAMPLE Entry in an online reference work

Sameer, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Rashed (Ed.), The encyclopedia of psychology (Fall 2014 ed.). http://pyche.com/entries/behaviorism

Parenthetical citation: (Sameer, 2005)

Narrative citation: Sameer (2005)

References for dissertations and theses are divided by whether they are unpublished or published. Unpublished works must be retrieved directly from the university in print form. Published works are available from a database, a university archive, or a personal website. This is how you cite them:

Unpublished works (only available at the college or univeristy in print):

EXAMPLE Unpublished dissertation or thesis

Eid, H. (2017). The anti-cancer effect of scorpion venom (Unpublished master’s thesis). Modern Sciences and Arts University.

Parenthetical citation: (Eid, 2017)

Narrative citation: Eid (2017)

EXAMPLE Published dissertation or thesis from a database

Mccarthy, M. D. (2014). The relationship between sleep deprivation and student performance (Order No. 3682837) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Parenthetical citation: (Mccarthy, 2014)

Narrative citation: Mccarthy (2014)

EXAMPLE Published dissertation or thesis from a database-no publication number

Brown, S. (2010). Impacts of jellyfish invasion in the red sea [Master’s thesis, American University in Cairo]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.

Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 2010)

Narrative citation: Brown (2010)

EXAMPLE Published dissertation or thesis from an online platform

Anthony, H. (2014). Link between childhood trauma and alcoholism (Doctoral dissertation). FloridaLink. Retrieved from https://etd.floridalink.edu/handle/10919/82854

Parenthetical citation: (Anthony, 2014)

Narrative citation: Anthony (2014)

EXAMPLE Dissertation or thesis in print

Hawk, E. J. (2017). Using artificial intelligence to prioritize covid-19 vaccine delivery (Master's thesis). Cairo University.

Parenthetical citation: (Hawk, 2017)

Narrative citation: Hawk (2017)


Azab, A. (2012, June). Why are people so rude? [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/why_are_people_so_rude

Parenthetical citation: (Azab, 2012)

Narrative citation: Azab (2012)

EXAMPLE YouTube video

Bomer, M. (2013, June 13). Does it puree? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=97KJhK-9yvc

Parenthetical citation: (Bomer, 2013)

Narrative citation: Bomer (2013)


Abdelaal, D. R (Host). (2017–2018). What should you be doing in your twenties? [Audio podcast]. The millennial. https://themillenial.com/

Parenthetical citation: (Abdelaal, 2017–2018)

Narrative citation: Abdelaal (2017–2018)

EXAMPLE Photograph

Hassan, A. (1908). The Nile River [Photograph]. Time. http://100photos.time.com/photos/asad-hassan-the-nile-river

Parenthetical citation: (Hassan, 1908)

Narrative citation: Hassan (1908)

EXAMPLE Facebook post

The girl project. (2020, January 10). Signs you have poor boundaries [Image attached] [Photo]. Facebook.

Parenthetical citation: (The girl project, 2020)

Narrative citation: The girl project (2020)

While all the specific rules of the APA citation style might sound very complicated, you don't need to worry about getting them wrong with BibGuru. Use our APA 7 citation maker to create the fastest and most accurate APA citations possible.

Ditch the frustrations for stress-free citations

Helpful resources, from our blog.

How to write an exploratory essay

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How to cite an appendix

University Guides on APA styles

  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
  • Williams College
  • Florida State University Libraries
  • New York University Libraries
  • University of Washington Libraries
  • Penn State University Libraries
  • University of Nevada, Reno Libraries
  • University of Texas at Arlington Libraries
  • Bowling Green State University Libraries
  • University of Missouri Libraries
  • Boston College Libraries
  • Hamilton College Writing Center
  • Bellevue University Writing Center
  • Hudson Valley Community College Library
  • University of South Carolina Libraries
  • University at Buffalo iLab
  • University of Portland Library
  • Duquesne University Library
  • Columbia College Library (Vancouver, BC, CA)
  • Simon Fraser University Library (BC, CA)

APA is the referencing style of the American Psychological Association. The principles of the APA style can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . The style is commonly used in psychology, education, and the social sciences.

In APA style, you need to cite your source in-text with the author's last name and year of publication in brackets, and then give a full reference in the alphabetic reference list. Our APA citation guides show you how to cite different sources in APA, taking into consideration all the rules set out in their Publication Manual .

In general, all parts of an APA-styled paper should be double-spaced, including the abstract, text, titles, notes, and reference list. There are some exceptions, however, which you can read all about here .

When you cite a source for the first time in a paragraph as part of a sentence, give the citation of your author's name and year. The second and subsequent time you use that source in a sentence, you do not need to include the year anymore.

In the fall of 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) issued the 7th edition of their publication manual. Some of the major changes in APA 7th are:

  • Book references now omit the publisher location.
  • Journal articles should always include an issue number.
  • You can add up to 20 authors in a reference list instead of only 7.
  • Websites’ URL s omit the “Retrieved from” or "Accessed from" phrase.

You can read more about the changes in the latest version in our blog post .

Citation generators

Citation guides, alternative to.

  • NoodleTools
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  • 📚 How to write a book report
  • 📝 APA Running Head
  • 📑 How to study for a test


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