• Publisher Home


Purpose of the study: The main purpose of this study is to provide a new, macro-level model of strategic staffing to bridge the gap in the knowledge regarding how practices within recruitment and selection systems can work to provide a competitive advantage among various sectors. This study identifies the various methods of recruitment and selection process through a systematic review of literature, which would be the right fit for attracting and selecting employees in an organization.

Design/methodology/approach: Content analysis method is adopted to review the literature and subcategories were formed to analyze the research. Literature was collected from 40 articles of a reputed journal from 2010 to 2018.

Main findings: The review of literature revealed that the recruitment and selection process is carried out in organizations by adopting latest technologies like online portals, outsourcing, job fair, campus interviews, and mobile recruitment applications. The representation of this practice is to find the best candidate for an organization. Besides adopting the latest technology, consideration of the expatriate factor would lead to an effective way of recruitment practices in finding out the right candidate for the right job and thus create a healthier work environment. The expatriate factors have not been considered well in the Indian context, but have been given importance in the global context in the process of recruitment and selection.

Social Implications: Highlighting the significance of various recruitment practices results in the selection of the right person in the right job, which enhances a healthier working environment in organizations, in turn rendering high quality products and services to the society.

Originality of the study: Prior research has studied various factors that influence internal recruitment, external recruitment, and selection process. This study is an attempt to analyze the expatriate factors and other factors through the content analysis method.

Literature Review: Recruitment and Selection Process


Nowadays, every organization necessitates personnel planning as one of the most vital activities. Human Resource Planning is, by far, an essential ingredient for the success of any organization in the long run. There are a number of techniques that need to be followed by every organization that guarantees that it possesses the right number and type of people, at the right time and right place, so as to enable the organization to achieve its planned objectives. Commonly, the objectives of Human Resource Planning department include resource, planning, recruitment and selection, career planning, training and development, promotions, risk management, performance appraisal, to name a few. Each of these objectives requires special attention and accurate planning and execution.

It is of utmost importance for every organization to employ a right person on a right position. And recruitment and selection plays a pivotal role during such situations. With shortage of skills and the rapid spread of new technology exerting considerable pressure on how employers perform recruitment and selection activities, it is recommended to conduct a step-by-step strategic analysis of recruitment and selection processes. With reference to the current context, this paper presents an incisive review of previous literature on the recruitment and selection process. This paper is primarily based on an analysis of six pieces of literature conducted by practitioners and researchers in the field of Human Resource management.

Various researchers have contributed to the field of HRM, and have offered intensive and profound knowledge on the branches of HRM such as scientific recruitment and selection, Manpower management, Job analysis, Need and purpose of Recruitment, and so on.

Literature Review:


Edwin Flippo defines Recruitment and selection process as “A process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.”

In simpler terms, recruitment and selection are concurrent processes and are void without each other. They significantly differ from each other and are essential constituents of the organization. It helps in discovering the potential and capabilities of applicants for expected or actual organizational vacancies. It is a link between the jobs and those seeking jobs.

Work by Korsten (2003) and Jones et al. (2006):

According to Korsten (2003) and Jones et al. (2006), Human Resource Management theories emphasize on techniques of recruitment and selection and outline the benefits of interviews, assessment and psychometric examinations as employee selection process. They further stated that recruitment process may be internal or external or may also be conducted online. Typically, this process is based on the levels of recruitment policies, job postings and details, advertising, job application and interviewing process, assessment, decision making, formal selection and training (Korsten 2003).

Jones et al. (2006) suggested that examples of recruitment policies in the healthcare, business or industrial sector may offer insights into the processes involved in establishing recruitment policies and defining managerial objectives.

Successful recruitment techniques involve an incisive analysis of the job, the labour market scenario/ conditions and interviews, and psychometric tests in order to find out the potentialities of job seekers. Furthermore, small and medium sized enterprises lay their hands on interviews and assessment with main concern related to job analysis, emotional intelligence in inexperienced job seekers, and corporate social responsibility. Other approaches to selection outlined by Jones et al. (2006) include several types of interviews, role play, group discussions and group tasks, and so on.

Any management process revolves around recruitment and failure in recruitment may lead to difficulties and unwanted barriers for any company, including untoward effects on its profitability and inappropriate degrees of staffing or employee skills (Jones et al. 2006). In additional, insufficient recruitment may result into lack of labour or hindrances in management decision making, and the overall recruitment process can itself be advanced and amended by complying with management theories. According to these theories, the recruitment process can be largely enhanced by means of Rodgers seven point plan, Munro-Frasers five-fold grading system, personal interviews, as well as psychological tests (Jones et al. 2006).

Work by Alan Price (2007):

Price (2007), in his work Human Resource Management in a Business Context, formally defines recruitment and selection as the process of retrieving and attracting able applications for the purpose of employment. He states that the process of recruitment is not a simple selection process, while it needs management decision making and broad planning in order to appoint the most appropriate manpower. There existing competition among business enterprises for recruiting the most potential workers in on the pathway towards creating innovations, with management decision making and employers attempting to hire only the best applicants who would be the best fit for the corporate culture and ethics specific to the company (Price 2007). This would reflect the fact that the management would particularly shortlist able candidates who are well equipped with the requirements of the position they are applying for, including team work. Since possessing qualities of being a team player would be essential in any management position (Price 2007).

Work by Hiltrop (1996):

Hiltrop (1996) was successful in demonstrating the relationship between the HRM practices, HRM-organizational strategies as well as organizational performance. He conducted his research on HR manager and company officials of 319 companies in Europe regarding HR practices and policies of their respective companies and discovered that employment security, training and development programs, recruitment and selection, teamwork, employee participation, and lastly, personnel planning are the most essential practices (Hiltrop 1999). As a matter of fact, the primary role of HR is to develop, control, manage, incite, and achieve the commitment of the employees. The findings of Hiltrop’s (1996) work also showed that selectively hiring has a positive impact on organizational performance, and in turn provides a substantial practical insight for executives and officials involved. Furthermore, staffing and selection remains to be an area of substantial interest. With recruitment and selection techniques for efficient hiring decisions, high performing companies are most likely to spend more time in giving training particularly on communication and team-work skills (Hiltrop 1999). Moreover the finding that there is a positive connection existing between firm performances and training is coherent with the human capital standpoint. Hence, Hiltrop (1996) suggests the managers need to develop HR practices that are more focused on training in order to achieve competitive benefits.

Work by Jackson et al. (2009) and Bratton and Gold (1999):

As discussed by Jackson et al. (2009), Human resource management approaches in any business organization are developed to meet corporate objectives and materialization of strategic plans via training and development of personnel to attain the ultimate goal of improving organizational performance as well as profits. The nature of recruitment and selection for a company that is pursuing HRM approach is influenced by the state of the labour market and their strength within it. Furthermore, it is necessary for such companies to monitor how the state of labour market connects with potential recruits via the projection of an image which will have an effect on and reinforce applicant expectations. Work of Bratton & Gold (1999) suggest that organizations are now developing models of the kind of employees they desire to recruit, and to recognize how far applicants correspond to their models by means of reliable and valid techniques of selection. Nonetheless, the researchers have also seen that such models, largely derived from competency frameworks, foster strength in companies by generating the appropriate knowledge against which the job seekers can be assessed. However, recruitment and selection are also the initial stages of a dialogue among applications and the company that shapes the employment relationship (Bratton & Gold 1999). This relationship being the essence of a company’s manpower development, failure to acknowledge the importance of determining expectation during recruitment and selection can lead to the loss of high quality job seekers and take the initial stage of the employment relationship so down as to make the accomplishment of desirable HRM outcomes extremely difficult. In the opinion of Bratton and Gold (1999), recruitment and selection practices are essential characteristics of a dialogue driven by the idea of “front-end” loading processes to develop the social relationship among applicants and an organization. In this relationship, both parties make decisions throughout the recruitment and selection and it would be crucial for a company to realize that high-quality job seekers, pulled by their view of the organization, might be lost at any level unless applications are provided for realistic organization as well as work description. In view of Jackson et al. (2009) and Bratton & Gold (1999) applicants have a specific view of expectations about how the company is going to treat them; recruitment and selection acts as an opportunity to clarify this view. Furthermore, one technique of developing the view, suggested by Bratton and Gold (1999), are realistic job previews or RJPs that may take the form of case studies of employees and their overall work and experiences, the opportunity to “cover” someone at work, job samples and videos. The main objective of RJPs is to allow for the expectations of job seekers to become more realistic and practical. RJPs tend to lower initial expectations regarding work and a company, thereby causing some applications to select themselves; however RJPs also increase the degree of organization commitment, job satisfaction, employee performance, appraisal and job survival among job seekers who can continue into employment (Bratton & Gold 1999) Jackson et al. (2009).

Work by Silzer et al (2010):

However, the process of recruitment does not cease with application of candidature and selection of the appropriate candidates, but involves sustaining and retaining the employees that are selected, as stated by Silzer et al. (2010).

Work of Silzer et al. (2010) was largely concerned with Talent management, and through their work they were successful in resolving issues like whether or not talent is something one can be born with or is it something that can be acquired through development. According to Silzer et al (2010), that was a core challenge in designing talent systems, facing the organization and among the senior management. The only solution to resolve the concern of attaining efficient talent management was by adopting fully-executable recruitment techniques. Regardless of a well-drawn practical plan on recruitment and selection as well as involvement of highly qualified management team, companies following recruitment processes may face significant obstacles in implementation. As such, theories of HRM can give insights in the most effective approaches to recruitment even though companies will have to employ their in house management skills for applying generic theories across particular organizational contexts. Word conducted by Silzer et al (2010) described that the primary objective of successful talent strategies is to create both a case as well as a blueprint for developing the talent strategies within a dynamic and highly intensive economy wherein acquisition, deployment and preservation of human capital-talent that matter,, shapes the competitive advantages and success of many companies (Silzer et al. 2010).

Work by Taher et al. (2000):

Toward that end Taher et al. (2000) carried out a study to critique the value-added and non-value activities in a recruitment and selection process. The strategic manpower planning of a company, training and development programme, performance appraisal, reward system and industrial relations, was also appropriately outlined in the study. This study was based on the fact that efficient HR planning is an essence of organization success, which flows naturally into employee recruitment and selection (Taher et al. 2000). Therefore, demand rather than supply must be the prime focus of the recruitment and selection process and a greater emphasis must be put on planning, supervising and control rather than mediation. Extending this principle, a realistic approach to recruitment and selection process was demonstrated, and the study found that an organization is efficient only when the value it commands exceeds the price involved in determining the process of decision making or product. In other words, value-added and non-value added activities associated with a company’s recruitment and selection process impacts its role in creating motivated and skilled workforce in the country (Taher et al. 2000). Thus, the study identified the waiting time, inspection time and filing time as non value added tasks and the cost of advertisement as the only value added activity in the overall process. Taher et al. (2000) investigated the recruitment and selection section of Bangladesh Open University. It was found that whenever the recruitment and selection department of BOU received a recruitment request of new applicants from other sections, the officials failed to instantly advertise the vacancy in various media. The university had to follow some long sequential steps prior to doing so. After the vacancy is publicly advertised, what followed were the bureaucratic formalities and complications together with inspection and supervision by two departments thereby causing unnecessary waiting in the recruitment and selection process that eventually increases the cost of recruitment by keeping the organization’s image at stake. The study also witnessed some amount of repetition taking place at every step of recruitment where the applications of applicants circulating around too many departments for verifications. This repetitive work tends to engage unnecessary persons for a single task that results in unnecessary delay in the decision and unjust wastage of manpower.

After careful consideration of similar problems in the BOU, Taher et al. (2006) recommended for amending the recruitment process by stating that firstly processes like job analysis and searching internal and external sources must be followed by direct advertisement of the post as the HR’s own responsibility, and not by any intermediate officials. This will eliminate the non-value activities. Secondly, Taher et al (2000) suggested a ‘system’ to be introduced to ease the respective department to study the shortlisted candidates, which can be done only by the request of the HR department. A medical assistance must be sought by BOU in regards to the physical or mental abilities of applicants for the job function as well as their workers compensation and risk. A procedure needs to be devised pertaining to the privacy and confidentiality of medical reports. Thus, this privacy and decrease in noon-value added activity of the medical exam can be sustained effectively by testing the applicants via contracted medical advisors, or in-house doctors. Use of a computer based HR system should be installed in BOU to manage the pool of information about employees and to make the organization to take just-in-time HR recruitment and selection decisions.

Therefore, any organization is encouraged to development real-time recruitment strategies that must attempt to generate a pool of appropriately qualified and well-experienced individuals so as to effectively initiate the selection strategies and decisions. In essence, the potential applications are encouraged to apply for the open vacancies and also the relevant departments can engage in recruiting the best candidates to upgrade the department’s performance (Taher et al. 2000).


It can be clearly concluded that for a company to succeed all it takes is the proper recruitment and selection strategies which also shapes the overall manpower management of the company. By conclude this literature review, the study emphasizes on the fact that the recruitment and selection process is integrated with other processes such as strategic plan of the company, training and development schemes, compensation, rewarding/incentive system, performance appraisal, and lastly, industrial relations. Furthermore, according to Silzer et al (2010), there exist several reasons why the most apparent information have been more promising; including the well-structured nature of interviews, the use of questionnaires based on a job analysis, inclusion of panel of interviewers, the practice of note-making during the interview, and the use of rating scale based on behavioural factors to gauge the interviewee’s answers all play an integral part in the improvement of the recruitment validity.

Therefore, the study has offered an incisive review of literature of as many as six authors based on their individual studies and research on recruitment and selection processes.

Get $30 referral bonus and Earn 20% COMMISSION on all your friend's order for life! Start Earning

New User? Start here.

Popular Search

Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For

Writing Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!

Literature review on the recruitment & selection methods, introduction.

Recruitment and selection are considered to be the two most important functions of the human resource management (Jabbour & de Sousa Jabbour, 2016). Recruitment is the foremost stage in the process that continuous with the process of selection and then ends with candidate placement. This paper is going is present a brief analysis of the different recruitment and selection process used in three different manufacturing industries- the electronic industry, the Sugar industry and the Cement industry. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to identify the general practices that are used by the organisations for recruiting and selecting the employees.

Literature Review

The process of recruitment includes the process of findings, developing the prospective employees and then attracting them in order to apply for the jobs in the organisation. On the other hand, selection refers to the process of finding out suitable candidates for the job (Stone et al., 2015). It facilitates in acquiring the types and the number of people that are necessary for ensuring ongoing operations of the organisation. However, the main objective of the process of selection is to determine whether or not the prospective candidate is possessing the skills and qualification that is required for the specific job. As stated by Trivedi and Muduli (2015), recruitment is the process of searching for the prospective employees as well as stimulating these employees in order to apply for various jobs in the company. Also, as it is defined in the business dictionary, selection of employee is a process of evaluating and interviewing the candidates for a particular job and then selecting an individual for the purpose of employment depending on different criteria. Also, the process of selection is defined by Swider, Zimmerman and Barrick (2015), as a process of differentiating applicants for identifying the ones with greater possibility of success in the job. Hence, there is a difference in the recruitment and selection process.

literature review on recruitment and selection process

Fig 1: Recruitment and Selection Process

Data analysis and Interpretation

Different industries have different recruitment and selection method based on their needs and requirements (Boxman & Flap, 2017). In the cement industry, the ability to learn new things and flexibility are the key competencies that are evident in all the new recruits. The staffs and the management of the industry works in partnership in order to identify the learning needs and then seek ways for satisfying them. This industry provide considerable amount of coherent sources of energy for creating high quality of selection system (Ahmad & Tahar, 2014). The organisations in this sector capture the capacity of the applicants to do the work. The recruitment method that is used in this industry is looking for core competencies and pre-hire testing. In electronic industry, the recruitment is done either by internal methods like employee referrals and promotions or transfer, or by external methods such as job portals, outsourcing, and consultancy and campus recruitment (Gellert, Ramirez & Webster, 2015). They also Review Resumes. Furthermore, in sugar industry, the advertisement for the process of recruitment is done through leading local and national newspapers.  As being a seasonal industry, this industry has different types of staff strengths (Biddy et al., 2016). They also appoints the trainees through the applications that they receives. They hire both contract and fulltime labourers. They also use the method of Pre-hire testing and Prepare to recruit as their selection and recruitment method. The skills set for the employees in this industry are skilled, unskilled (seasonal based), technical, managerial, clerical, sales executive belonging form MBA, BBM and Bcom, chemical, mechanical, electrical and production engineers.

A number of 150 employees working in different sectors have been selected for this purpose and analysis has been done based on questionnaires.

Analysis of the sources of recruitment that are been followed in the three selected industries:

Interpretation-  from the above graph and table, it can be observed that 20 respondents have accepted that these industries make use of internal recruitment sources, 30 of them accepted that they follow the external sources, 100 of them have expressed their view that these industries adopts both the form of sources.

Analysis of the attributes that are taken into preference for the purpose of selection and recruitment procedure:

Interpretation- From the above graph and table, it can be said that 50 respondents have accepted that their company provides preference to the qualified candidates and 25 of them have said that their company prefer the ones with more experience in the field. However, majority of them (about 72) have stated that their company give opportunities to both the qualified and experienced candidates. Also, three among them have said that their company give preference to some other criteria expect these such as family relation, friendship etc.

Analysis of the major sources of selection in these three industries:

Interpretation- From the graph and table mentioned above, it can be observed that 30 of the total members have agreed that their company follows written test, 25 of them said that they follows group discussions with the candidates and the other management team. Also, 50 of them have expressed that their company takes interview of the candidates and the rest others have stated that their companies follow all the above mentioned particulars as the main sources of selection of candidates.

Recommendation and conclusion

This study has revealed that the selection and recruitment processes that are been followed by the Sugar, Cement and Electronic industry are effective. The human resource manager of these industries are focused on the selection of right candidate by means of different sources. They select the candidates based on their knowledge, skills, abilities and potentials.

Ahmad, S., & Tahar, R. M. (2014). Selection of renewable energy sources for sustainable development of electricity generation system using analytic hierarchy process: A case of Malaysia. Renewable energy, 63, 458-466.

Biddy, M. J., Davis, R., Humbird, D., Tao, L., Dowe, N., Guarnieri, M. T., ... & Beckham, G. T. (2016). The techno-economic basis for coproduct manufacturing to enable hydrocarbon fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 4(6), 3196-3211.

Boxman, E., & Flap, H. (2017). Getting started: the influence of social capital on the start of the occupational career. In Social capital (pp. 159-181). Routledge.

Gellert, G. A., Ramirez, R., & Webster, S. L. (2015). The rise of the medical scribe industry: implications for the advancement of electronic health records. Jama, 313(13), 1315-1316.

Jabbour, C. J. C., & de Sousa Jabbour, A. B. L. (2016). Green human resource management and green supply chain management: Linking two emerging agendas. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 1824-1833.

Stone, D. L., Deadrick, D. L., Lukaszewski, K. M., & Johnson, R. (2015). The influence of technology on the future of human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 25(2), 216-231.

Swider, B. W., Zimmerman, R. D., & Barrick, M. R. (2015). Searching for the right fit: Development of applicant person-organization fit perceptions during the recruitment process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 880.

Trivedi, J., & Muduli, A. (2015). Research on recruitment outcomes and recruitment methods under the mediating impact of credibility & satisfaction. International Journal of Advancement in Engineering, technology, Management and Applied Science, 2(9), 26-53

Free Membership to World's Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples . Please put your valid email id.


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

Upload Unique Document

Document Under Evaluation

Get Money into Your Wallet

Total 6 pages

*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as unique.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2019). Literature Review On The Recruitment & Selection Methods . Retrieved from .

"Literature Review On The Recruitment & Selection Methods." My Assignment Help, 2019, .

My Assignment Help (2019) Literature Review On The Recruitment & Selection Methods [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 28 May 2023].

My Assignment Help. 'Literature Review On The Recruitment & Selection Methods' (My Assignment Help, 2019) > accessed 28 May 2023.

My Assignment Help. Literature Review On The Recruitment & Selection Methods [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 28 May 2023]. Available from: .

Thank you for your interest

The respective sample has been mail to your register email id

$20 Credited

Successfully in your wallet..

* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for only 1 month.

Account created successfully!

We have sent login details on your registered email.

Stuck on Any Question

Our best expert will help you with the answer of your question with best explanation.

We will use e-mail only for:

We can help.

Get top notch assistance from our best tutors ! Excel in your academics & career in one easy click!

Other Samples

Operational Cost Control- Production And Operations Department

Mental Health Of Australia Young People

Managing Workplace Diversity Through Organizational Climate

Ethical Issues Faced By Amazon Company

 Cyber Threat Landscape And Ethics

Office Of Legislative Drafting And Publishing

Ontological Notion Of Learning Philosophy

Technologies & Applications Used In Cloud Computing

Book Of Business Analysis By Debra Paul

Security Implications In Biometric

Cancer Chemotherapy In Clinical Practice

A Contingency Theory Of Incentive Alignment

Cloud Computing Technology And Its Application

Little And Medium Measured Business Associations

Privacy Arrangements And Techniques For Hosted Desktop Solution

Employee Engagement Effective Performance

Artificial Intelligence On Human Workforce

Budgets And Financial Management In Higher Education

Foodora: Strategy Of Penetration Pricing

International Business Negotiation: Bidding And Closing

Shallow Foundation Using Recent Swarm Intelligence Techniques

Marketing Knowledge Tomarketing Principles

Female Infertility Characterised Embryonic

Security Of Block Chain Technology

Security & Privacy-Biometrics For Authentication

Cryptographic Technique Using Biometric Authentication

Security & Privacy Issues In Internet Of Things

Integrated Marketing Communication: Coca-Cola HBC

Security Issues In Cloud Computing Technology

Integrated Marketing Communication: Digital Environment

An Evolutionary Macroeconomic Explanation

Cryptography In Various Technologies And Its Challenges

Discovery Of An Archetypal Protein Transport

Innovation And Strategy: People Solutions

Discussion On The Function Of ATM Machine

Innovation And New Technology: Blockbuster

Counter Memory In Maxine Hong Kingston China

Incubator Innovation And New Technologies: Taxi Cab Industry

Innovation And New Technologies: Transport And Environment

Customer Information System Development For TOSIG

Working Memory Design Of Health Materials

Development Of CRM System Within The Organization

Pedagogy For Christian Worldview Formation

Innovation And Entrepreneurship: NineSigma Strategic

Strategic Analysis Of Amazon Company

Drug Among Senior Citizens In Australia

Digital Management Of Professional Projects

Policy On Recruitment And Selection Of An Organisation

Engagement & Motivation Of Employees In An Organisation

Masters Of Professional Finance Accounting

International Journal Management Education

Socio Economical Impact Of Higher Housing

Classification Of Deferred Tax Assets Tax

Effects Of Economic Monetary Policy Shocks In USA

Creativity For Responsible And Sustainable

Positive Learning Climates Knowledgebase

Analysis Of The Robustness Of Australia Economy

Social Network Sites Brands Brand Communities

Youth Perceptions Of Positive Mental Health

Investments And Challenges For Enterprises

Employee Engagement Strategies In Scotia & CIBC Banks

Perspectives Of Services Marketers Marketing

Jiangsu Teachers University Of Technology

Challenges Of Tata Motors & Indian Automotive Industry

 International Of Multidisciplinary Research

Analysis of Human Resources Of The Moorings Hotel

Operations Management Processes Supply Chains

Importance Of Group Session

Recruitment Campaign For Brosnan Construction Company

Role Of Technology On Dynamics Of Mining Industry

Case On Domestic And Family Violence

Management Of Customer Relationships European

Journal Of Food Measurement Characterization

Smart City And Smart Traffic System

Overview Monetary Policy (Mp) In Your Chosen Country

Human Resource Plan Of The Airline Company

Issues In Marketing And Consumer Behavior

Innovation And Production In The Global Economy

Human Resource Managment-Case-Study Of Tesco

Impact Of Diversity Management On Organization

Trickle Down Effects Of Mining Boom In Australia

Exchage Of Information In The Organization

Guide to Download Purchased Solutions


After the successfull payment you will be redirected to the detail page where you can see download full answer button over blur text.You can also download from there.

Or you can also download from My Library section once you login.Click on the My Library icon


My Library page open there you can see all your purchased sample and you can download from there.

JOIN US! before it’s too late.

That's our welcome gift for first time visitors

Sign up now and Get The Exclusive offer* Limited Time Only

5% cashback.

On APP - grab it while it lasts!

Download app now (or) Scan the QR code

*Offer eligible for first 3 orders ordered through app!


5000+ experts.




RATED 4.9/5


Business Intelligence

Received my assignment before my deadline request, paper was well written. Highly recommend.


Have any Query?

Contact with us.

Only one step away from your solution of order no.

Attached Files

Book cover

Conference on e-Business, e-Services and e-Society

I3E 2020: Responsible Design, Implementation and Use of Information and Communication Technology pp 370–379 Cite as

Conceptualizations of E-recruitment: A Literature Review and Analysis

16k Accesses

2 Citations

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNISA,volume 12067)

There is diversity in understanding of electronic recruitment (e-recruitment) which results in confusion on the meaning and use of the term. The purpose of this paper is to bring conceptual clarity by investigating the alternative conceptualizations of e-recruitment in academic literature. Using Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM) techniques we analyzed literature to reveal five alternative conceptualizations; these being: (1) E-recruitment as a Technology Tool, (2) E-recruitment as a System, (3) E-recruitment as a Process, (4) E-recruitment as a Service, and (5) E-recruitment as a Proxy. The conceptualizations map to the scope of the definition and utilization of e-recruitment. Identifying conceptualizations of e-recruitment sets a platform for further research. Further research may include determining the relationships between the conceptualizations and determining conceptualizations in different settings among many other possible research focus topics.

Download conference paper PDF

1 Introduction

E-recruitment has many labels that include; internet recruitment, online recruitment, web-recruitment and many others. Unlike traditional recruitment, e-recruitment makes use of information technology to handle the recruitment processes. Breaugh et al. [ 1 ] defined a recruitment model that presents the recruitment process at a macro level with the following activities: Setting recruitment objectives, developing a strategy, performing the recruitment activity and obtaining and evaluating recruitment results. Recruiters compete with each other for candidates (jobseekers suitable for available jobs), while jobseekers compete for jobs; which drives both groups to adopt information technologies at accelerated rates in order to take the strain out of some of the recruitment activities [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. “ For most job seekers, the Internet is where the action is ” [ 3 , p. 140]. Thus, to get candidates, recruiters need to move swiftly to locate and hire, which may require use of a multitude of information technologies in the process [ 8 , p. 130].

There is evidence in research papers that academic disciplines and stakeholders have varied definitions of e-recruitment. The variety of definitions of e-recruitment is expected because it is part of e-HRM (electronic Human Resource Management) that has in itself different definitions depending on the context [ 6 , p. 26], [ 9 , p. 98]. Studies based on these definitions tend to reveal overlapping and contradictory results due to the overlaps or differences in definitions [ 9 , p. 100]. The differences in definitions, aside from being problematic, is evidence of the variety in conceptualization of e-recruitment. Thus to find a standard definition of e-recruitment, conceptualizations of e-recruitment need to be known. To our knowledge, no research paper in e-recruitment has focused on conceptualization of e-recruitment, however there are studies in other areas of information systems (IS) that have focused on conceptualization [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]. Most view conceptualization as the formulation of a view about the nature of a phenomenon. The research questions to be answered are:

What conceptualizations of e - recruitment exist in literature?

How can the conceptualizations be described and explained?

2 Methodology for Reviewing Literature

Because of the large number of research papers on e-recruitment we aimed at selecting papers for review that would embrace the full variety of conceptualizations of e-recruitment. Also, we wanted a flexible review methodology that would allow for selection and analysis of papers simultaneously, as the conceptualizations emerged, rather than a sequential review methodology that required all research papers to be selected beforehand. Such flexibility is provided for by applying grounded theory methodology (GTM) as a suitable review methodology [ 20 ]. GTM techniques used in this study included open coding to identify concepts, constant comparative analysis to refine and differentiate conceptualizations, and theoretical sampling to identify further relevant literature [ 21 , 22 ].

Figure  1 is a flowchart depicting how the literature was processed from search until conceptualizations of e-recruitment were identified, saturated and completed.

figure 1

GTM for reviewing literature

2.1 Searching for Articles

We used the web search engine Google Scholar to search electronically for the articles. We fed keywords synonymic with the word e-recruitment into the searching tool. These are: e-recruiting, e-HRM, e-Human Resource Management, electronic HRM, electronic Human Resource Management, e-recruiting, e-recruitment, internet recruiting, internet recruitment, online recruiting, online recruitment, recruiting online, recruiting on the internet, recruiting on the web, recruitment online, web-based recruiting, web-based recruitment, web recruiting, web recruitment [ 20 ].

After an initial search on Google Scholar and filtering of articles for relevancy based on paper titles and abstracts we had 445 journal articles and conference papers published in the period 1998 to 2019 in approximately 145 sources. The search process provided a set of many articles, but it did not qualify all of them as useful for the review. The selection process had to take place to sample useful and relevant articles for the review.

2.2 Theoretical Sampling of Articles

Ideally all papers on e-recruitment needed to be included in the review. Alternatively, papers included in the analysis had to be a representative sample of all papers in e-recruitment that were relevant for the developing conceptualizations. However with the vast amount of research in e-recruitment and the huge number of articles from our search and filtering it would be difficult or time consuming to include all relevant e-recruitment research articles for the review. The alternative of having a representative sample was viable and using GTM’s theoretical sampling [ 21 ] was feasible for the objectives of this research to be met.

An initial article to be analyzed was picked from the population of 445 articles. Picking of subsequent articles for inclusion in the sample was informed by the emerging conceptualizations. Theoretical sampling was performed until all the conceptualizations got saturated and completed. Glaser [ 22 ] defines saturation as a state where new data does not bring new properties to the concepts. In an effort to attain completeness a check was done to make sure all conceptualizations were included. Theoretical sampling ended when saturation and completeness was achieved. This is the point at which the number of research articles involved in identifying conceptualizations in e-recruitment were counted. In the end 26 research articles were relevant for identifying and explaining conceptualizations of e-recruitment.

2.3 Analyzing Articles

Analysis of the articles that let conceptualizations of e-recruitment emerge (see Fig.  1 ) required that constant comparison be applied by comparing codes to codes and concepts to concepts to find and note their relationships and further develop the labelled conceptualizations [ 21 , 22 ]. The emerging conceptualizations served as a framework for further selection of articles and using systematic deduction from the emerging conceptualization possibilities and probabilities were determined to guide the next cycle of article selection. Memos were created to note the emergent ideas. Memoed ideas also served to direct which article to sample next.

Every sampled article was investigated for its perspective on the essence of e-recruitment or the most essential or most vital part that embodied the conceptualization of e-recruitment. Indicators in the article brought forth the conceptualizations. The moment of departure from the analysis to getting another article for analysis came only after the article was fully analyzed. The resulting conceptualizations are detailed in the next section.

3 Conceptualizations of E-recruitment

Five conceptualizations of e-recruitment emerged from extent literature, namely: e-recruitment as a technology tool, e-recruitment as a system, e-recruitment as a process, e-recruitment as a service and e-recruitment as a proxy. Although many of the articles had a mixture of conceptualizations, one or two stood out in each article and for each conceptualization Table  1 gives example research articles. After the presentation in Table  1 each of the conceptualizations is described and explained in sub-sections that follow.

3.1 E-recruitment as a Technology Tool

E-recruitment as a technology tool is a conceptualization of e-recruitment as a technical artefact [ 19 ]. This means is demonstrated by Faliagka et al. [ 23 ] who presented a tool to automate the ranking of applicants in recruitment.

3.2 E-recruitment as a System

Studies that view e-recruitment as a system conceptually divide e-recruitment into independent but interrelated elements, at the core of which is information technology, society, organizations, etc. The system view allows each component to receive input from the other elements and produce input for other components [ 25 ]. The system view of e-recruitment assigns all automating functions to the IT artefact of the system while organizational recruitment experts evaluate the outcome [ 24 ]. While some stakeholders view e-recruitment as a system, others view it as a process.

3.3 E-recruitment as a Process

Instead of focusing on entities, the process view of e-recruitment focuses on e-recruitment activities [ 37 ]. There is no attempt to set boundaries between the IT artefact, society and organization, but activities are clearly identified and can be performed by either the IT artefact or by human actors. Examples include e-recruitment being seen as data collection activity using an online system [ 33 ]. However recruitment activities can be performed by human actors too [ 37 ]. With the process view of e-recruitment the end goal is the execution of all the recruitment activities.

3.4 E-recruitment as a Service

The view exists that e-recruitment is a service to recruiters and job-seekers. Many e-recruitment platforms are independent of the organizations or societies they serve. Sub-views of e-recruitment as a service include: e-recruitment as a repository, e-recruitment as a medium, and e-recruitment as a program.

E-recruitment as a repository.

Some studies portrayed e-recruitment as a repository for data about jobs, recruiters and employers [ 40 ]. In another study online forms were filled in by jobseekers and the data provided on the forms was stored for recruiters and other stakeholders to retrieve [ 33 ]. While the view of e-recruitment as a repository is usually held when e-recruitment is newly adopted, other services follow suit.

E-recruitment as a medium is another view held, e.g. Bartram [ 41 ] portrays e-recruitment as a facilitator of communication between jobseekers and organizations. Traditional media like newspaper [ 42 ] are sometimes found inconvenient thus e-recruitment takes their place. Some organizations employ e-recruiters who form part of e-recruitment and serve to link the IT artefact and other elements in recruitment. Although e-recruitment as a medium improves communication speed it also comes with a downside, e.g. information overload [ 37 ].

E-recruitment as a program is a view that associates e-recruitment with calculations and logical interpretation and processing of data. One study included, as an algorithmic module, a Pre-screening Management System to automatically assess the extent of match between an applicant’s qualification and job requirements [ 25 ]. Such module or similar modules are found in many e-recruitment systems given the high volumes of applications associated with e-recruitment. Therefore, many studies espouse the view that e-recruitment serves to provide a convenient matching program.

3.5 E-Recruitment as a Proxy

Orlikowski and Iacono [ 19 ] reveal the pervasiveness of the proxy view of the IT artefact in IS literature. E-recruitment may act to present the image of the company, culture of the company, etc. Braddy et al. [ 45 ] examined the effects of website content features on people’s perceptions of organizational culture. Their study implies that e-recruitment, especially the IT artefact (website) acts on behalf of some corporate image management entity in the organization. Some studies focused on website content [ 45 ], while others focused on website characteristics [ 46 ].

4 Contribution and Implications of Conceptualizations of E-recruitment

Conceptualizations of e-recruitment contribute to understanding of e-recruitment and have implications for both practice and research as discussed in this section.

4.1 Contribution of the Research

This study mapped the scope of the definition of e-recruitment by explaining the diversity in understanding. This mapping was done by identifying five conceptualizations of e-recruitment and labelling them as: E-recruitment as a Technology Tool, E-recruitment as a System, E-recruitment as a Process, E-recruitment as a Service and E-recruitment as a Proxy. Taking note of conceptualizations provides practitioners with a tool to enhance productivity while allowing researchers to have more focus in their research.

4.2 Implications of Conceptualizations of E-recruitment

The implications of conceptualizations of e-recruitment stem from being able to attach a label to the said stakeholders’ conceptualizations and put it to their trade or scholarly pursuits. Labelling conceptualizations provides a pathway to standardization of e-recruitment. The benefits of such standardization include having common understanding of concepts, and ease of communication. While these are overarching implications, some implications are specific to practice or research.

Implications for Practice.

Labelled and well defined conceptualizations of e-recruitment sets bounds on what practitioners should expect in their practice and strive towards when they adopt a particular conceptualization. Well defined conceptualizations as ones in this study provide alternative conceptualization options that practitioners can adopt depending on their needs. Practitioners can always adopt a conceptualization that best reflects their situation. As there are implications for practice, there are implications for research as well.

Implications for Research.

Through this identification, description and explanation of conceptualizations of e-recruitment, there are a number of conceptualizations to consider. Therefore, focus on a specific conceptualization or focus on specific conceptualizations is possible. Such focus allows the researcher to delimit research.

5 Conclusion and Further Research

5.1 conclusion.

The study highlighted the problem of diversity in understanding of e-recruitment that goes without explicit attention in literature and proposed that identifying and labelling the varied conceptualizations of e-recruitment can be part of better articulation of the diversity. Using GTM, literature on e-recruitment was reviewed and conceptualizations of e-recruitment were identified. Taking note of conceptualizations provides practitioners with a tool to enhance productivity while allowing researchers to have more focus in their research. In addition this study provides insight into directions for potential further study.

5.2 Further Research

While this research contributes to understanding of e-recruitment, further research related to it can respond to several issues which are not addressed herein. Understanding of relationships between conceptualizations helps to avoid conceptual chaos. Therefore, further research aimed at relating the conceptualizations is essential. Conceptualizations of e-recruitment may be compared to conceptualizations of other forms of e-phenomena, and hence to the development of more general understanding of IS and the IT artefact.

Breaugh, J.A., Macan, T.H., Grambow, D.M.: Employee recruitment: current knowledge and directions for future research. Int. Rev. Ind. Organ. Psychol. 23 , 45–82 (2008)

Google Scholar  

Borstorff, P.C., Marker, M.B., Bennett, D.S.: Online recruitment: attitudes and behaviors of job seekers. J. Strateg. E-Commer. 5 (1/2), 1 (2007)

Cappelli, P.: Making the most of on-line recruiting. Harv. Bus. Rev. 79 (3), 139–146 (2001)

Cober, R.T., Brown, D.J., Levy, P.E.: Form, content, and function: an evaluative methodology for corporate employment web sites. Hum. Resour. Manage. 43 (2–3), 201–218 (2004)

CrossRef   Google Scholar  

Pfieffelmann, B., Wagner, S.H., Libkuman, T.: Recruiting on corporate web sites: perceptions of fit and attraction. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 18 (1), 40–47 (2010)

Simón, C., Esteves, J.: The limits of institutional isomorphism in the design of e-recruitment websites: a comparative analysis of the USA and Spain. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 27 (1), 23–44 (2016)

Smyth, B., Bradley, K., Rafter, R.: Personalization techniques for online recruitment services. Commun. ACM 45 (5), 39–40 (2002)

Koong, K.S., Liu, L.C., Williams, D.L.: An identification of internet job board attributes. Hum. Syst. Manag. 21 (2), 129–135 (2002)

Bondarouk, T., Parry, E., Furtmueller, E.: Electronic HRM: four decades of research on adoption and consequences. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 28 (1), 98–131 (2017)

Doherty, N.F., Coombs, C.R., Loan-Clarke, J.: A re-conceptualization of the interpretive flexibility of information technologies: redressing the balance between the social and the technical. Eur. J. Inf. Syst. 15 (6), 569–582 (2006).

Pinsonneault, A., Heppel, N.: Anonymity in group support systems research: a new conceptualization, measure, and contingency framework. J. Manag. Inf. Syst. 14 (3), 89–108 (1997).

Sun, J., Teng, J.T.C.: Information systems use: construct conceptualization and scale development. Comput. Hum. Behav. 28 (5), 1564–1574 (2012).

Hong, W., Thong, J.Y.L.: Internet privacy concerns: an integrated conceptualization and four empirical studies. MIS Q. 37 (1), 275–298 (2013)

George, J.F.: The conceptualization and development of organizational decision support systems. J. Manag. Inf. Syst. 8 (3), 109–125 (1991)

Wang, Y.-S., Liao, Y.-W.: The conceptualization and measurement of m-commerce user satisfaction. Comput. Hum. Behav. 23 (1), 381–398 (2007).

CrossRef   MathSciNet   Google Scholar  

Tilly, R., Posegga, O., Fischbach, K., Schoder, D.: Towards a conceptualization of data and information quality in social information systems. Bus. Inf. Syst. Eng. 59 (1), 3–21 (2017).

Jasperson, J., Carter, P.E., Zmud, R.: A comprehensive conceptualization of post-adoptive behaviors associated with information technology enabled work systems. MIS Q. 29 (3), 525 (2005).

Barki, H., Titah, R., Boffo, C.: Information system use—related activity: an expanded behavioral conceptualization of individual-level information system use. Inf. Syst. Res. 18 (2), 173–192 (2007)

Orlikowski, W.J., Iacono, C.S.: Research commentary: desperately seeking the ‘IT’ in IT research—a call to theorizing the IT artifact. Inf. Syst. Res. 12 (2), 121–134 (2001)

Wolfswinkel, J., Furtmueller, E., Wilderom, C.: Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature. Eur. J. Inf. Syst. 22 (1), 45–55 (2013)

Glaser, B.G.: Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory: Theoretical Sensitivity. Sociology Press, California (1978)

Glaser, B.G.: Doing Grounded Theory: Issues and Discussions. Sociology Press, California (1998)

Faliagka, E., Tsakalidis, A., Tzimas, G.: An integrated e-recruitment system for automated personality mining and applicant ranking. Internet Res. Bradf. 22 (5), 551–568 (2012)

Chiwara, J.R., Chinyamurindi, W.T., Mjoli, T.Q.: Factors that influence the use of the internet for job-seeking purposes amongst a sample of final-year students in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. SA J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 15 (1), 1–9 (2017)

Lee, I.: An architecture for a next-generation holistic e-recruiting system. Commun. ACM 50 (7), 81–85 (2007)

Yoon Kin Tong, D.: A study of e-recruitment technology adoption in Malaysia. Ind. Manag. Data Syst. 109 (2), 281–300 (2009)

Braddy, P., Thompson, L.F., Wuensch, K., Grossnickle, W.: Internet recruiting: the effects of web page design features. Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. 21 (3), 374–385 (2003)

Pavon, F., Brown, I.: Factors influencing the adoption of the world wide web for job-seeking in South Africa. South Afr. J. Inf. Manag. 12 (1), 1–9 (2010)

Lee, I.: Modeling the benefit of e-recruiting process integration. Decis. Support Syst. 51 (1), 230–239 (2011)

Ehrhart, K.H., Mayer, D.M., Ziegert, J.C.: Web-based recruitment in the millennial generation: work-life balance, website usability, and organizational attraction. Eur. J. Work Organ. Psychol. 21 (6), 850–874 (2012)

Feldman, D.C., Klaas, B.S.: Internet job hunting: a field study of applicant experiences with on-line recruiting. Hum. Resour. Manag. 41 (2), 175–192 (2002)

Parry, E., Tyson, S.: An analysis of the use and success of online recruitment methods in the UK. Hum. Resour. Manag. J. 18 (3), 257–274 (2008)

García-Izquierdo, A.L., Aguinis, H., Ramos-Villagrasa, P.J.: Science–practice gap in e-recruitment. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 18 (4), 432–438 (2010)

Kashi, K., Zheng, C.: Extending technology acceptance model to the e-recruitment context in Iran. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 21 (1), 121–129 (2013)

Jansen, B.J., Jansen, K.J., Spink, A.: Using the web to look for work: implications for online job seeking and recruiting. Internet Res. 15 (1), 49–66 (2005)

Smith, A.D., Rupp, W.T.: Managerial challenges of e-recruiting: extending the life cycle of new economy employees. Online Inf. Rev. 28 (1), 61–74 (2004)

Llorens, J.J.: A model of public sector e-recruitment adoption in a time of hyper technological change. Rev. Public Pers. Adm. 31 (4), 410–423 (2011)

Koch, T., Gerber, C., de Klerk, J.J.: The impact of social media on recruitment: are you LinkedIn? SA J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 16 (2), 1–14 (2018)

Vidros, S., Kolias, C., Kambourakis, G.: Online recruitment services: another playground for fraudsters. Comput. Fraud Secur. 2016 (3), 8–13 (2016)

Wang, B., Guo, X.: Online recruitment information as an indicator to appraise enterprise performance. Online Inf. Rev. Bradf. 36 (6), 903–918 (2012)

Bartram, D.: Internet recruitment and selection: kissing frogs to find princes. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 8 (4), 261–274 (2000)

Selden, S., Orenstein, J.: Government e-recruiting web sites: the influence of e-recruitment content and usability on recruiting and hiring outcomes in US state governments. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 19 (1), 31–40 (2011)

Sylva, H., Mol, S.T.: E-recruitment: a study into applicant perceptions of an online application system. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 17 (3), 311–323 (2009)

Van Hoye, G., Lievens, F.: Investigating web-based recruitment sources: employee testimonials vs word-of-mouse. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 15 (4), 372–382 (2007)

Braddy, P., Meade, A., Michael, J., Fleenor, J.: Internet recruiting: effects of website content features on viewers’ perceptions of organizational culture. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 17 (1), 19–34 (2009)

Walker, H.J., Feild, H.S., Giles, W.F., Bernerth, J.B., Short, J.C.: So what do you think of the organization? A contextual priming explanation for recruitment web site characteristics as antecedents of job seekers’ organizational image perceptions. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 114 (2), 165–178 (2011)

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Department of Computer Science, Namibia University of Science and Technology, 13 Jackson Kaujeua Street, Windhoek, Namibia

Department of Information Systems, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, 7701, South Africa

Irwin Brown

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Mike Abia or Irwin Brown .

Editor information

Editors and affiliations.

University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Marié Hattingh

Machdel Matthee

Hanlie Smuts

University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

Dr. Ilias Pappas

Swansea University, Swansea, UK

Ph.D. Yogesh K. Dwivedi

University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Matti Mäntymäki

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing

About this paper

Cite this paper.

Abia, M., Brown, I. (2020). Conceptualizations of E-recruitment: A Literature Review and Analysis. In: Hattingh, M., Matthee, M., Smuts, H., Pappas, I., Dwivedi, Y.K., Mäntymäki, M. (eds) Responsible Design, Implementation and Use of Information and Communication Technology. I3E 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 12067. Springer, Cham.

Download citation


Published : 01 April 2020

Publisher Name : Springer, Cham

Print ISBN : 978-3-030-45001-4

Online ISBN : 978-3-030-45002-1

eBook Packages : Computer Science Computer Science (R0)

Share this paper

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

The International Federation for Information Processing

Published in cooperation with no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

paper cover thumbnail

Literature Review on Recruitment and Selection Practices of RBL Submitted to

Profile image of Mahmudul Hassan Munna

Succession management is the process of ensuring that, a pool of skilled employees is trained and available to the organization to meet the strategic objective of the organization.


Reengineering the Recruitment Process

literature review on recruitment and selection process

The skills needed in many roles are continually changing—and sources of talent are too.

The Covid-19 pandemic has upended many traditional business practices. When it comes to recruiting, the crisis has not so much disrupted as accelerated shifts in the talent landscape that were already under way, leaving many companies poorly served by their current hiring practices. In a period of steep unemployment, it might seem that companies looking to add workers would be in the driver’s seat. But job openings have also been rising in recent months, meaning that competition for top talent remains keen—and in uncertain times, bringing on the right people is more important than ever.

A recent study from research and advisory firm Gartner examines those shifts in the workforce landscape and lays out a road map for navigating the new one. The researchers identified three trends that are rendering traditional recruitment tactics obsolete.

First, the skills needed in many roles have an increasingly short shelf life, owing in part to more-frequent and disruptive technological breakthroughs. A 2019 survey of 3,500 managers found that only 29% of new hires have all the skills required for their current roles, let alone for future ones. The research finds that in key functions such as finance, IT, and sales, positions filled today will require up to 10 new skills within 18 months. It also documents rising uncertainty about what skills will be needed in current and future jobs as the surge in remote work sparks the redesign or automation of many tasks.

Second, the talent pools recruiters have routinely tapped are becoming outmoded. Highly gifted candidates can now be found outside traditional talent clusters, such as leading universities and technical colleges. More and more people are acquiring critical skills informally on the job—or even in their own basements. “Work lulls and layoffs have driven a boom in virtual learning, giving workers new autonomy in developing skills outside their day jobs,” the researchers write.

“We Are Seeing Talent Emerge in Unlikely Places”

literature review on recruitment and selection process

How has the pandemic changed the talent market?

We’ve been talking for some time about the dispersion of skills outside tech clusters, but Covid has accelerated the timeline. People in lockdown have embraced online learning, and now we are seeing talent emerge in unlikely places. One example is a chef whose restaurant had to close, so she taught herself to program in [the computer language] Python.

How has this changed your approach to recruiting?

Our approach is different for managers and business leaders. For business leaders, we try to speak their language and focus on balancing quality with cost savings. We’ve created a tool that merges HR, finance, and population data, along with information about the labor market, which business leaders can use to build various workforce scenarios. What would happen if I hired 80 architects in Bangalore instead of in Eindhoven? If I used contract workers instead of hiring FTEs? If we hired more talent from universities rather than recruit experienced professionals? This data helps us question our assumptions about the types of workers we need and where to find them. And as a result, we aren’t as homogenous now. We’re tapping into new geographies and more-diverse types of workers to get the jobs done.

And at the manager level?

We are fortunate to have relatively low turnover at Philips. But that means our managers are not always aware of changes going on in the talent market. We strive to show them that the modern practice of hiring for skills can be more beneficial than hiring for résumés. We try to help them think more strategically, instead of reflexively trying to find a replacement candidate with the same credentials as the person who previously held the job. We say, “Let’s not talk about the job title; let’s talk about the objectives of the job and the skills needed to achieve them.”

We also use peers to help assess candidates in a program called Bar Raisers. For example, managers may not have the technical expertise to evaluate certain candidates, so they partner with software developers who test applicants and offer feedback. In doing so, the developers become adept at quickly spotting top talent.

How do you hire differently in a candidate’s market?

You have to be aggressive, particularly with hard-to-fill roles. You also have to tailor your recruitment approach and communications to the position; an engineer cares about different things than a sales executive does. We equip recruiters with “battle cards” on companies where we commonly look for talent. The cards provide continually updated information about the companies—press releases, Glassdoor and LinkedIn content, stock price, and so on—and highlight the areas in which we are the more attractive employer.

For instance, software developers typically prefer to work on a variety of high-impact projects, so Philips built a soft­ware center of excellence to rotate developers around the business. That sets us apart from our rivals, and candidates have responded well. Speaking to candidates about corporate purpose is also essential. When the pandemic hit, our work building ventilators and the stories coming from our employees were inspiring. We feel that our corporate purpose of improving lives gives us an edge in attracting top talent.

Finally, candidates are increasingly selective about whom they work for, so firms need a compelling “employment value proposition,” which might involve anything from competitive compensation and benefits to career-development opportunities and a reputation for stellar management. Talented candidates, particularly at high levels, are weighing opportunities differently. Factors such as meaningful work and proximity to family have taken on added importance during the pandemic. The freedom (often the imperative) to work remotely and to manage one’s own schedule has increased employees’ expectations that they can exert considerable control over the design of their jobs. Especially in a period of high unemployment, the researchers say, when people are reluctant to leave a secure position and take a chance on a new one, companies need to offer employee experiences that candidates truly value.

To adjust to these trends and build the workforces they need, companies should focus on two key courses of action.

Hire for potential, not experience.

The first step in adjusting to the new landscape is to stop thinking about hiring as a matter of replacing specific employees, the researchers say. When looking to fill a vacancy, too often managers simply put together a profile mirroring that of the person who has left, perhaps tacking on a few new requirements—the equivalent of saying, “I want Sally plus these three other qualifications,” the researchers write. At best, this yields candidates who are prepared for yesterday’s challenges but probably not ready for tomorrow’s.

Human resources leaders should push hiring managers to look beyond the immediate needs of their business units and consider what skills the larger organization must acquire to succeed in the future. “The first question HR asks a hiring manager shouldn’t be ‘Who do you need?’ The better question is ‘What do we need?’” says Dion Love, a vice president in Gartner’s HR practice. “HR executives are positioned to drive this conversation because they should have an understanding of long-term talent gaps at the organizational level.”

Hiring for skills pre­sents its own challenges, of course, including designing assessments that reliably identify potential. “Employers are asking, ‘How can I test for curiosity? For learning agility?’” says Lauren Smith, also a vice president in Gartner’s HR practice. “They are scanning résumés for indicators such as success in a variety of roles and for transportable rather than industry-specific experience. It’s no longer a question of ‘Is this person credentialed?’”

When hiring managers place less emphasis on academic degrees, certifications, and formal experience, they will naturally look beyond traditional talent pools—the second course of action. Recruiters should target the “total skills market,” looking at in-house talent with adjacent skills, candidates whose skills are self-taught, and—especially with the ubiquity of remote work—people in different geographic locations. Recruiting outside high-priced talent clusters can reduce costs. It should also boost diversity, because nontraditional pools tend to contain more women and people of color than are found in the usual recruiting hot spots.

Move beyond Ping-Pong and free snacks.

It’s critical that companies understand how candidates view them, the researchers say, and if necessary, find ways to boost those perceptions. Prospective hires are scrutinizing organizations’ responses to the pandemic and looking to see how companies have helped—or failed to help—their employees find a comfortable work/life balance. In a survey of 2,800 job candidates conducted as part of the research, 65% reported halting the application process because they found some aspects of the job or the company unattractive. “The increased scrutiny and workers’ demand for more influence…make it difficult for recruiters to rely on their usual incentives,” the researchers write.

In managing their employee value propositions, organizations might take a page from the playbook of consumer goods companies. “Firms must understand candidates’ expectations” and craft positions accordingly, “in the same manner in which they tailor their products to customers,” Love says. HR departments at some leading companies hold focus groups to assess job seekers’ expectations, benchmark their offerings against those of competitors, and scour social media and job-review sites such as Glassdoor to understand how they are viewed by current, past, and potential employees.

The pandemic is challenging companies to rethink traditional ways of doing business—thus providing an opportunity to reform outdated recruiting practices. “In my conversations with clients, I’ve found that the pandemic has opened their eyes,” Love says. “The world was already transforming, but now the changes are much easier to see.”

literature review on recruitment and selection process

Partner Center

CDCR's Week in Review Archives

CDCR Week in Review: May 26, 2023

Observations, ctf celebrates employees.

nurses appreciation at CTF

Correctional Training Facility (CTF) held multiple events in honor of National Correctional Officers, Teachers, Nurses, and Public Service Recognition Week. The institution recognized and thanked all staff for their hard work and dedication.

Throughout the week, CTF health care managers and supervisors provided all staff with food and beverages. Staff participated in a talent show, games, received prizes, face painting, and other entertainment.

CTF Administration and the Employee Action Committee provided staff with coffee, beverages and doughnuts. Staff received meals during alarm response training where CTF staff barbecued chicken, ribs, and provided macaroni salad.

In Memoriam

Cim retired k9 bosco passes.

photo of K9 Bosco

California Institution for Men (CIM) mourns the loss of retired K9 Bosco. The 11-year-old Belgian Malinois was a three-year veteran of the CDCR K9 Unit. K9 Bosco passed May 16, surrounded by family and his partner, retired K9 Officer M. Diaz.

K9 Bosco joined the CDCR K9 Team in July 2018 and retired November 2021. He had countless contraband discoveries throughout his successful career. Local, state, federal, and community organizations grew to depend on K9 Bosco and his reputation of excellence.  

CDCR Unlocked

Mental health awareness with cdcr/cchcs experts.

CDCR unlocked logo

In this week’s episode of the CDCR Unlocked podcast, Public Information Officer Kyle Buis sits down with Dr. Amar Mehta, Deputy Director of Statewide Mental Health for CDCR, and Dr. Brianna Rojas, Associate Director and Chief Psychologist with the Office of Employee Wellness. They discuss the wellness challenges of both living and working in a correctional setting, and steps people can take to improve their mental health.

(Listen to the latest episode of CDCR Unlocked.)

In Our Institutions

Dai director gipson visits ctf.

Connie Gipson, Director of the Division of Adult Institutions, scheduled a visit with Correctional Training Facility (CTF) to tour the programs and services the institution provides. Director Gipson met with executives to address recent policy changes. She thanked staff for all they do and spoke with members of the incarcerated population regarding programs they attended.

A woman in a sweater shakes hands with an incarcerated man.

During her visit, she toured:

“I am so happy to see the Veterans Yard at CTF.  The engagement of staff and the population in creating an environment conducive to staff and incarcerated persons wellness while promoting rehabilitation is a model to emulate. Awesome job CTF!” said Director Gipson.

group photo with Director Gipson at CTF

Alternatives to Violence Project at CTF

Correctional Training Facility (CTF) hosted a three-day Alternatives to Violence Project (AVP) event for the incarcerated population.

AVP is an experiential, multi-cultural volunteer program that dedicates resources to reducing interpersonal violence in society.  AVP is a nonprofit educational corporation funded entirely by private sources.

Although the original mission was prison programs, they have extended their outreach to include:

The workshops empower people to lead nonviolent lives through affirmation, respect for all, community building, cooperation, and trust. Throughout the three-day workshop, participants learned the three levels of training:

CTF incarcerated participate in alternative to violence program

DJJ recognizes National Crime Victims’ Rights Week

DJJ youth at the Capitol building

The Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) participated in a march at the State Capitol during National Crime Victims Week.

The march was in support of restorative justice and allowed DJJ to give back to the community. Formerly incarcerated youth from the Anti-Recidivism Coalition helped set up various booths and assisted with other tasks. DJJ donated $8,000 to Victims of Murdered Children and the Luis G. Alvarez, foundation.

Upward Mobility

Leanna Lundy has been assigned as acting Warden at California State Prison, Los Angeles County (LAC).

Raquel Buckel has been appointed as Assistant Deputy Director, Division of Adult Institutions, Facility Support.

tree of recovery wir

ISUDT poster release

The new Integrated Substance Use Disorder Treatment (ISUDT) poster is out!

Institutions across the state received the poster following a lengthy submission, selection, and voting campaign.  The ISUDT Insider received submissions and paved the way for voting among the population.

CDCR and CCHCS leadership reviewed the submissions with the most votes before a final selection. An incarcerated person at California State Prison Solano created the poster concept.

This poster’s colorful design focuses on the growth achieved through ISUDT. The focus being to thrive in recovery despite the root causes and risks associated with Substance Use Disorder.

The poster will be on display in institutions soon and is accessible to staff on the ISUDT Lifeline page.

SAC Shared Governance Kick-Off Event

California State Prison, Sacramento (SAC) nurses now have a formal role and a significant say in the decision-making process at the institution. Nurses must be considered concerning patient care protocols and work environments that have a direct impact on their practice outcomes. This achievement is possible with Shared Governance.

To celebrate Shared Governance at SAC, the institution organized a kick-off event. Attendees interacted with committee members, gained insights on the initiative, and received delightful treats.  The presence of headquarters leadership at the event reinforced dedication and support for the program.

For more information about the event and SAC Shared Governance team, please contact Nickolas Arnett, Gerhard Situmorang, or LaNette Silva.

For information about starting a Shared Governance team at your institution, please -mail CDCR CCHCS Nursing Shared Governance.

SAC shared governance booth


Lac welcomes defy ventures.

Defy Ventures logo week in review

California State Prison, Los Angeles County (LAC) incarcerated population attended an informational session hosted by Defy Ventures. Defy Ventures is dedicated to fostering the potential in incarcerated people to become successful entrepreneurs.

Attendees participated in leadership development, business pitch competitions, and executive mentoring. The experience highlighted the redemptive, authentic community Defy seeks to build between volunteers and the incarcerated population.

Years of successful cohorts at LAC spoke on the impact Defy’s dedication has had on the population.

Incarcerated members in attendance included individuals from past cohorts looking to facilitate and those entirely new to the program. Both groups were given opportunities to grow in their rehabilitative process.

CRC college students receive Bachelor’s Degree

CMC graduates group photo week in review

Eight incarcerated men at California Rehabilitation Center (CRC) completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in Organizational Studies from Pitzer College.

All eight graduates started earning their degrees through Pitzer’s Inside Out program. Current Pitzer undergraduate students attend classes alongside the incarcerated students at CRC.

Four of the graduates attended the graduation in person. They have paroled or are currently residing in a Male Community Reentry Program.

The remaining four graduates had their names read mid-ceremony. These individuals will participate in the graduation ceremony of Vista Del Rio Adult School at CRC in June.


Rjd hiring workshop.

CDCR HR Specialized Recruitment Unit (SRU) conducted their second hiring workshop this year. The event focused on current and future workforce needs for Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility (RJD). SRU highlighted 12 classifications for over 30 vacancies at the institution. 

CDCR recruiting table with two people

SRU collaborated with Examinations, Upward Mobility, Employment and Classification Services, and RJD staff to provide hiring services to 75 attendees.

Hiring services provided at the event included:

Over 80 event participants and online applicants were scheduled for interviews.

SRU continues to provide these services to CDCR programs and institutions statewide. For assistance with your vacancy needs, connect with a recruiter by visiting CDCR’s Careers web page.

SCC Recruitment Team at Delta College Job and Internship Fair

SCC recruitment team

Sierra Conservation Center’s (SCC) Recruitment Team participated in the Delta College Job & Internship Fair.

The event took place in the Marcopulos Gym at Delta College. Many local businesses and vendors participated in the event. SCC’s Recruitment Team consisted of Peace Officer and non-custody recruiters. More than 150 job seekers attended the event.

In the Community

Ccwf participates in every 15 minutes program.

CCWF staff and incarcerated at every 15 minutes program

Central California Women’s Facility (CCWF) visited Golden Valley High School to participate in the Every 15 Minutes Program.

Britaney Gomez, who is incarcerated at CCWF and works in the institution’s firehouse, shared her story with over 800 high school students and staff to deter them from drinking and driving. Many of the Golden Valley students were in tears as they listened.

Those also in attendance for the program included:

SCC incarcerated food sale

SCC holds food sale for local nonprofits

Sierra Conservation Center’s (SCC) incarcerated population participated in a Girl Scout cookie fundraiser.

The fundraiser benefitted the troops of Tuolumne County and the Infant Children Enrichment Services (ICES).  For every box purchased the incarcerated population made a $2 donation to the ICES foundation. Over 2.9k boxes of cookies were purchased resulting in a donation of over $5,900 to ICES.

SCC presented a check to ICES at the Citizens Advisory Committee meeting.

In the Media

Uc santa barbara humanities program brings literature courses to incarcerated individuals in california state prisons.

letter from Corcoran state prison week in review

It’s not the typical classroom situation, but then, these are not typical students. Their life journeys have taken them not to colleges and universities, but to one of the 34 facilities within California’s prison system. Most of them are serving life sentences.

And they are participating in Foundations in the Humanities, a correspondence program of UC Santa Barbara’s Interdisciplinary Humanities Center (IHC), where they explore the world of literature and broaden their perspectives in the process.

Visit the Santa Barbara Independent website to read the full article.

chowchilla incarcerated in gowns for college graduation week in review

Chowchilla incarcerated people become Merced College graduates

Patrick Wollett graduated from Merced College on Thursday, May 18. He heard his name called, heard the cheers from his family and instructors, received congratulatory handshakes from dignitaries, and celebrated afterward with his classmates and loved ones.

Wollett received special recognition at Thursday’s ceremony, having earned the lofty Superintendent’s Honors by maintaining a 4.0 GPA with at least 60 units completed. He was also chosen by the English faculty of Merced College as the program’s Outstanding Student.

It sounds like the typical story of an all-star student and a distinguished Merced College graduate, with one exception: Wollett is incarcerated at Valley State Prison in Chowchilla.

Visit Merced College’s website to read the full article.

Mule creek sac st graduates

10 Mule Creek State Prison incarcerated people graduate from Sacramento State

IONE, Calif. — A cap and gown, and a second chance are what incarcerated people at Mule Creek State Prison in the Ione area of Amador County celebrated Wednesday morning.

A total of 10 incarcerated people received their bachelor’s degrees in communications from Sacramento State. One of them is Michel Owens, who’s served 25 years in prison after a life of crime on the streets.

He said being a college graduate was the last thing he’d ever thought he would be.

Visit KCRA3’s website to read the full article.

Top Inside CDCR Stories

Lieutenant Monique Williams stays active in CDCR

CCWF celebrates 20 CALPIA graduates

Meet Correctional Business Manager Sonia Padilla

SQ bonds over pickleball

Meet Officer Sal Villagomez, 42 years on the job


  1. (PDF) A Systematic review of literature on Recruitment and Selection

    literature review on recruitment and selection process

  2. Literature Review Recruitment and Selection Process

    literature review on recruitment and selection process

  3. 🎉 Literature review on recruitment and selection. Literature Review Of

    literature review on recruitment and selection process

  4. (DOC) Literature Review on Recruitment and Selection Practices of RBL

    literature review on recruitment and selection process

  5. 🎉 Literature review on recruitment and selection. Literature Review Of

    literature review on recruitment and selection process

  6. 🎉 Literature review on recruitment and selection. Literature Review Of

    literature review on recruitment and selection process



  2. NCERT Non Academic Posts Recruitment 2023 । Apply Online Group B C Vacancy in NCERT Delhi

  3. How to write a literature review FAST! I literature review in research

  4. Visva Bharti University Group B C Recruitment 2023 । Apply Online MTS LDC Vacancy in Visva Bharti

  5. CPRI Recruitment 2022 syllabus



  1. Paving the way for research in recruitment and selection: recent

    Summary of key research findings in recruitment and selection. A systematic, fully comprehensive literature review of extent selection and recruitment literature is beyond the scope of this paper - rather, we focus our effort on recent meta-analyses as well as conceptual and literature review papers to identify the meta-trends in the recruitment and selection research.

  2. A Systematic review of literature on Recruitment and Selection Process

    Literature was collected from 40 articles of a reputed journal from 2010 to 2018. Main findings: The review of literature revealed that the recruitment and selection process is carried out in ...

  3. A Review of recruitment and selection process

    Abstract. The purpose of this review is to review what came in some studies and articles that talk about the topic of employment and selection during the time period between 2010 and 2020 in order ...

  4. (PDF) Critical Review of Recruitment and Selection Methods

    Abstract. The current paper is a critical review of the literature on the various recruitment and selection techniques that are actively used for staffing purposes. Different studies on the topic ...

  5. A Systematic Review of Literature on Recruitment and Selection Process

    Purpose of the study: The main purpose of this study is to provide a new, macro-level model of strategic staffing to bridge the gap in the knowledge regarding how practices within recruitment and selection systems can work to provide a competitive advantage among various sectors. This study identifies the various methods of recruitment and selection process through a systematic review of ...

  6. A Systematic Review of Literature on Recruitment and Selection Process

    Literature was collected from 40 articles of a reputed journal from 2010 to 2018. Main findings: The review of literature revealed that the recruitment and selection process is carried out in organizations by adopting latest technologies like online portals, outsourcing, job fair, campus interviews, and mobile recruitment applications. The ...

  7. Literature Review: Recruitment and Selection Process

    With reference to the current context, this paper presents an incisive review of previous literature on the recruitment and selection process. This paper is primarily based on an analysis of six pieces of literature conducted by practitioners and researchers in the field of Human Resource management.

  8. PDF Systematic Review of Literature on Recruitment and Selection Process

    Recruitment and selection is the process of getting human resources into the organizations' departments, sections, and jobs (McKenna & Beach 2008). Venkatesh and Jyothi (2009) use what might

  9. Literature Review: Recruitment and Selection Process

    By conclude this literature review, the study emphasizes on the fact that the recruitment and selection process is integrated with other processes such as strategic plan of the company, training and development schemes, compensation, rewarding/incentive system, performance appraisal, and lastly, industrial relations.

  10. Literature Review On The Recruitment & Selection Methods

    Literature Review. The process of recruitment includes the process of findings, developing the prospective employees and then attracting them in order to apply for the jobs in the organisation. On the other hand, selection refers to the process of finding out suitable candidates for the job (Stone et al., 2015).

  11. PDF A Study on Recruitment and Selection Process

    2. Do not rush the employee selection process. 3. Partner With Stakeholders. 4. Use a Job Benchmark with a valid pre-employment personality assessment. 5. Use Structured Interviews. Objectives Of The Study To find out the Recruitment and Selection process handled in the organization. To predict the sources of recruitment and Selection process.

  12. (PDF) Recruitment process outsourcing: a literature review

    Abstract. Purpose-This paper aims to review research on recruitment process outsourcing to establish the current body of knowledge and, on this basis, to identify gaps in our understanding. This ...

  13. Conceptualizations of E-recruitment: A Literature Review and Analysis

    3.1 E-recruitment as a Technology Tool. E-recruitment as a technology tool is a conceptualization of e-recruitment as a technical artefact [].This means is demonstrated by Faliagka et al. [] who presented a tool to automate the ranking of applicants in recruitment.3.2 E-recruitment as a System. Studies that view e-recruitment as a system conceptually divide e-recruitment into independent but ...

  14. Literature Review on Recruitment and Selection Practices of RBL

    It creates a pool of applicants. It is just sourcing of data. While selection is a negative process as the inappropriate candidates are rejected here. Recruitment precedes selection in staffing process. Selection involves choosing the best candidate with best abilities, skills and knowledge for the required job.

  15. PDF Effective Recruitment and Selection Procedures: an Analytical ...

    members of the selection process, committee or board. Related Literature Review Effective Recruitment and Selection From the human resource management perspective the first most crucial and difficult human resource management strategy for achieving organizational goals is recruitment and selection strategies as the outcome of

  16. Reengineering the Recruitment Process

    The researchers identified three trends that are rendering traditional recruitment tactics obsolete. First, the skills needed in many roles have an increasingly short shelf life, owing in part to ...

  17. Challenges in Recruitment and Selection Process: An Empirical Study

    The recruitment and selection process is a dynamic, complex and an important part of human resource management in organisations [].All the more critically, those in charge of selecting the successful applicant ought to have sufficient data whereupon to base their choices [].Due to these characteristic features listed above, it has caught the attention of both practitioners and researchers over ...

  18. Literature Review on Recruitment and Selection Process

    Recruitment is the process of identifying that the organisation needs to employ someone up to the point at which application forms for the post have arrived at the organisation. Employee selection is the "process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment (R.D. Gate wood and H.S ...

  19. Literature Review Literature On Recruitment And Selection

    2.0 Literature Review. 2.1 Recruitment. Recruitment and selection are very important elements that determine the prosperity and effectiveness of the organization including manufacturing companies. In this competitive business environment where employees' recruitment and selection seems to be global agenda, well planned and managed recruitment ...

  20. PDF Recruitment and Selection

    In short, Recruitment and Selection is the process of sourcing, screening, shortlisting and selecting the right candidates for the filling the required vacant positions. In this tutorial, we will discuss the various Aspects of Recruitment and Selection such As the recruitment process, the factors Affecting recruitment, recruitment

  21. CDCR Week in Review: May 26, 2023

    California Institution for Men (CIM) mourns the loss of retired K9 Bosco. The 11-year-old Belgian Malinois was a three-year veteran of the CDCR K9 Unit. K9 Bosco passed May 16, surrounded by family and his partner, retired K9 Officer M. Diaz. K9 Bosco joined the CDCR K9 Team in July 2018 and retired November 2021.