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Add or change sources, citations, and bibliographies

Before you can add a citation, a works cited list, or a bibliography, you must add a source to your document. A works cited list is a list of sources, usually placed at the end of a document, that you referred to (or "cited") in the document. A works cited list is different from a bibliography, which is a list of sources that you consulted when you created the document. After you add sources, you can automatically generate a works cited list or a bibliography based on that source information. Each time that you create a new source, the source information is saved on your computer. You can use the Source Manager to find and reuse any source that you have created, even sources in other documents.

Citations are parenthetical references that are placed inline with the text. Citations are different from footnotes and endnotes, which are placed at the bottom of the page or end of the document. The source information stored in the Citations tool or Source Manager can be used to create citations, a works cited list, or a bibliography. However, you cannot use the information in the Citations tool or the Source Manager to create footnotes or endnotes.

For more information about templates for various styles, such as APA style, visit the Office for Mac templates web site.

Create a source

To add a citation to your document, first add the source you used.

On the References tab, click the arrow next to Bibliography Style , and click the style that you want to use for the citation and source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.

Choose a citation style

Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.

On the References tab, click Insert Citation .

In the Create Source dialog box, next to Type of Source , select the type of source you want to use (for example, a book section or a website).

Create a citation source

Enter the details for the source and click OK . The source is added as a citation at the place you selected in your document.

When you've completed these steps, the citation is added to the list of available citations. The next time you quote this reference, you don't have to type it all out again. You just add the citation (see the steps in the following procedure).

Edit a source

If you need to edit a source, on the References tab, click Citations , and then click the settings button in the bottom right corner of the Citations pane.

click Edit Source .

Citations pane with Edit Source highlighted.

Make the changes you want to the source, and then click OK .

To manage your list of sources, click Citation Source Manager , and then add, edit, or delete sources in the list.

Manage citation sources

Add citations to your document

Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite, and then on the References tab, click Citations .

On the References tab, Citations is highlighted.

In the Citations pane on the right, double-click the citation you want to add.

Citations pane with list of citations.

Add custom citations to your document

In addition to the citation options that are included in Word by default, you can add custom citation styles, such as Vancouver, to create the bibliographies and reference materials you want.

The easiest approach is to download citation styles from sources such as BibWord .

By working with XML code you can also create your own custom styles. For details, see Create Custom Bibliography Styles .

Insert a works cited list or bibliography

A works cited list is a list of all works you referred to (or "cited") in your document, and is typically used when you cite sources using the MLA style. A works cited list differs from a bibliography, which is a list of all works that you consulted when your researched and wrote your document.

In your document, click where you want the works cited list or bibliography to appear (usually at the very end of the document, following a page break).

On the References tab, click the arrow next to Bibliography , and then click Bibliography or Works Cited .

Change a works cited list or bibliography style

You can change the style of all the citations contained in a document's works cited list or bibliography without manually editing the style of the citations themselves. For example, you can change the citations from the APA style to the MLA style.

On the View menu, click Draft or Print Layout .

On the References tab, click Citations .

In the Citations pane, on the Citation style list, select a style.

All references in your document's bibliography change to the new style.

Add, edit, or remove a source

To add a citation, a works cited list, or a bibliography to your document, you first add a list of the sources that you used.

Use the Source Manager to add a source

The Source Manager lists every source ever entered on your computer so that you can reuse them in any other document. This is useful, for example, if you write research papers that use many of the same sources. If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current list . All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master list .

On the Document Elements tab, under References , click Manage .

Click New .

On the Type of Source pop-up menu, select a source type.

Complete as many of the fields as you want. The required fields are marked with an asterisk (*). These fields provide the minimum information that you must have for a citation.

Note:  You can insert citations even when you do not have all the publishing details. If publishing details are omitted, citations are inserted as numbered placeholders. Then you can edit the sources later. You must enter all the required information for a source before you can create a bibliography.

When you are finished, click OK .

The source information that you entered appears in the Current list and Master list of the Source Manager.

To add additional sources, repeat steps 3 through 6.

Click Close .

The source information that you entered appears in the Citations List in the Citations tool.

Use the Citations tool to edit a source

You can edit a source directly in the document or in the Citations tool. When you change the source, the changes apply to all instances of that citation throughout the document. However, if you make a manual change to a particular citation within the document, those changes apply only to that particular citation. Also, that particular citation is not updated or overridden when you update the citations and bibliography.

In the Citations List , select the citation that you want to edit.

Make the changes that you want, and then click OK .

If you see a message that asks whether you want to save changes in both the Master list and the Current list, click No to change only the current document, or click Yes to apply changes to the source of the citation and use it in other documents.

Remove a source from the Citations List

Before you can remove a source from the Citations List, you must delete all related citations.

In the document, delete all the citations associated with the source that you want to remove.

In the Current list , select the source that you want to remove, and then click Delete .

The source now appears only in the Master list.

Note:  If the Delete button is unavailable, or if you see a check mark next to the source in the list, there is still at least one related citation in the document. Delete all remaining related citations in the document, and then try deleting the source again.

The source that you removed no longer appears in the Citations List .

Insert, edit, or delete a specific citation

You can insert citations from a list of sources and make changes to a specific citation,

Insert a citation

In your document, click where you want to insert the citation.

In the Citations List , double-click the source that you want to cite.

The citation appears in the document.

Add page numbers or suppress author, year, or title for a specific citation

Use this option to make custom changes to a citation and keep the ability to update the citation automatically.

Note:  The changes that you make by using this method apply only to this citation.

Click anywhere between the parentheses of the citation. A frame appears around the citation.

Click the arrow on the frame, and then click Edit this Citation .

Add page numbers, or select the Author , Year , or Title check box to keep that information from showing in the citation.

Make manual changes to a specific citation

If you want to change a specific citation manually, you can make the citation text static and edit the citation in any way that you want. After you make the text static, the citation will no longer update automatically. If you want to make changes later, you must make the changes manually.

Click the arrow on the frame, and then click Convert Citation to Static Text .

In the document, make the changes to the citation.

Delete a single citation from the document

In the document, find the citation that you want to delete.

Select the whole citation, including the parentheses, and then press DELETE .

Insert or edit a works cited list or a bibliography

Insert a works cited list or a bibliography.

On the Document Elements tab, under References , click Bibliography , and then click Bibliography or Works Cited .

Change a works cited list or a bibliography style

On the Document Elements tab, under References , click the Bibliography Style pop-up menu, and then click the style that you want to change the bibliography's references to.

Update a works cited list or a bibliography

If you add new sources to the document after you inserted the works cited list or bibliography, you can update the works cited list or bibliography to include the new sources.

Click the works cited list or bibliography. A frame appears around it.

Click the arrow on the frame, and then click Update Citations and Bibliography .

Convert a works cited list or a bibliography to static text

Word inserts a works cited list or a bibliography as a field. The field frame indicates that the works cited list or bibliography was created automatically from the sources in the document. The frame enables you to convert the field into static text and edit it as you would any other text.

Note:  If you convert a works cited list or a bibliography to static text, you cannot use Word to automatically update it. Instead, you must delete the works cited list or bibliography and then insert a new one.

Click the arrow on the frame, and then click Convert Bibliography to Static Text .

Add or change footnotes or endnotes

Create or edit an index


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How to Write a Bibliography, With Examples

Lindsay Kramer

You spent the past six hours grinding out your latest paper, but finally, it’s finished. It’s late, you’re exhausted, and all you want to do is click “Submit Assignment” and then get some sleep. 

Not so fast. If your paper doesn’t have a properly formatted bibliography, it’s not finished. 

A bibliography is a list of all the sources you consulted while writing your paper. Every book, article, and even video you used to gather information for your paper needs to be cited in your bibliography so your instructor (and any others reading your work) can trace the facts, statistics, and insights back to their original sources. 

Give your paper extra polish Grammarly helps you communicate confidently Write with Grammarly

What is the purpose of a bibliography? 

A bibliography is the list of sources a work’s author used to create the work. It accompanies just about every type of academic writing , like essays , research papers , and reports . You might also find a brief, less formal bibliography at the end of a journalistic piece, presentation, or video when the author feels it’s necessary to cite their sources . In nearly all academic instances, a bibliography is required. Not including a bibliography (or including an incomplete, incorrect, or falsified bibliography) can be considered an act of plagiarism , which can lead to a failing grade, being dropped from your course or program, and even being suspended or expelled from your school. 

A bibliography accomplishes a few things. These include:

Additionally, future historians consulting your writing can use your bibliography to identify primary and secondary sources in your research field. Documenting the course information from its original source through later academic works can help researchers understand how that information has been cited and interpreted over time. It can also help them review the information in the face of competing—and possibly contradictory or revisionary—data. 

In nearly all cases, a bibliography is found at the end of a book or paper. 

What are the different kinds of bibliographies?

Different types of academic works call for different types of bibliographies. For example, your computer science professor might require you to submit an annotated bibliography along with your paper because this type of bibliography explains the why behind each source you chose to consult.

Analytical bibliography

An analytical bibliography documents a work’s journey from manuscript to published book or article. This type of bibliography includes the physical characteristics of each cited source, like each work’s number of pages, type of binding used, and illustrations. 

Annotated bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes annotations, which are short notes explaining why the author chose each of the sources. Generally a few sentences long, these notes might summarize or reflect on the source. 

An annotated bibliography is not the same as a literature review . While a literature review discusses how you conducted your research and how your work fits into the overall body of established research in your field, an annotated bibliography simply explains how each source you used is relevant to your work. 

Enumerative bibliography

An enumerative bibliography is the most basic type of bibliography. It’s a list of sources used to conduct research, often ordered according to specific characteristics, like alphabetically by authors’ last names or grouped according to topic or language. 

Specific types of enumerative bibliographies used for research works include:

National bibliography

A national bibliography groups sources published in a specific region or nation. In many cases, these bibliographies also group works according to the time period during which they were published. 

Personal bibliography

A personal bibliography lists multiple works by the same individual author or group of authors. Often, personal bibliographies include works that would be difficult to find elsewhere, like unpublished works. 

Corporate bibliography

In a corporate bibliography, the sources are grouped according to their relation to a specific organization. The sources can be about an organization, published by that organization, or owned by that organization. 

Subject bibliography

Subject bibliographies group works according to the subjects they cover. Generally, these bibliographies list primary and secondary sources, whereas other types of enumerative bibliographies, like personal bibliographies, might not. 

Other types of bibliographies

In some cases, it makes sense to use a bibliography format other than those listed here. These include:

Single-author bibliography

This type of bibliography lists works by a single author. With certain assignments, like an essay comparing two of an author’s books, your bibliography is a single-author bibliography by default. In this case, you can choose how to order the sources, such as by publication date or alphabetically by title. 

Selected bibliography

A selected bibliography is a bibliography that only lists some of the sources you consulted. Usually, these are the most important sources for your work. You might write a selected bibliography if you consulted a variety of minor sources that you didn’t end up citing directly in your work. A selected bibliography may also be an annotated bibliography. 

How is a bibliography structured? 

Although each style guide has its own formatting rules for bibliographies, all bibliographies follow a similar structure. Key points to keep in mind when you’re structuring a bibliography include:

As noted above, different kinds of assignments require different kinds of bibliographies. For example, you might write an analytical bibliography for your art history paper because this type of bibliography gives you space to discuss how the construction methods used for your sources inform their content and vice-versa. If you aren’t sure which kind of bibliography to write, ask your instructor. 

How do you write a bibliography?

The term “bibliography” is a catch-all for any list of sources cited at the end of an academic work. Certain style guides use different terminology to refer to bibliographies. For example, MLA format refers to a paper’s bibliography as its Works Cited page. APA refers to it as the References page. No matter which style guide you’re using, the process for writing a bibliography is generally the same. The primary difference between the different style guides is how the bibliography is formatted. 

The first step in writing a bibliography is organizing all the relevant information about the sources you used in your research. Relevant information about a source can vary according to the type of media it is, the type of bibliography you’re writing, and your style guide. Determine which information you need to include about each source by consulting the style guide you’re using. If you aren’t sure what to include, or if you’re not sure which style guide to use, ask your instructor. 

The next step is to format your sources according to the style guide you’re using. MLA , APA , and the Chicago Manual of Style are three of the most commonly used style guides in academic writing. 

MLA Works Cited page

In MLA format , the bibliography is known as the Works Cited page. MLA is typically used for writing in the humanities, like English and History. Because of this, it includes guidelines for citing sources like plays, videos , and works of visual art —sources you’d find yourself consulting for these courses, but probably not in your science and business courses.

In MLA format, books are cited like this:

If the cited book was published prior to 1900, is from a publisher with offices in multiple countries, or is from a publisher that is largely unknown in the US, include the book’s city of publication. Otherwise, this can be left out. 

Scholarly articles are cited in this format: 

APA References page

In APA format —the format typically used in psychology, nursing, business, and the social sciences—the bibliography page is titled References. This format includes citation instructions for technical papers and data-heavy research, the types of sources you’re likely to consult for academic writing in these fields. 

In APA format, books are cited like this:

Digital object identifier (DOI).

(issue  number) , article’s page range (i.e., 10-15). URL.

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS) permits authors to format bibliographies in two different ways: the notes and bibliography system and the author-date system. The former is generally used in the humanities, whereas the latter is usually used in the sciences and social sciences. 

Both systems include guidelines for citations on a paper’s body pages as well as a bibliographic list that follows the paper. This list is titled Bibliography.

In CMoS, books are cited like this:


number  (year published): page numbers of the article (i.e., 10-15).

Bibliography FAQs 

What is a bibliography.

A bibliography is the list of sources a work’s author used to create the work.

What are the different kinds of bibliographies? 

There are many different kinds of bibliographies. These include:

How do you write a bibliography for different style guides?

Each style guide publishes its bibliography guidelines online. Locate the guidelines for the style guide you’re following ( Chicago Manual of Style , MLA , APA ), and using the examples provided, format and list the sources for your work. 

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Word Tips  - How to Create a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in Word

Word tips  -, how to create a bibliography or works cited page in word, word tips how to create a bibliography or works cited page in word.

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Word Tips: How to Create a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in Word

Lesson 16: how to create a bibliography or works cited page in word.


How to create a bibliography or works cited page in Word

If you need to write a research paper, chances are you'll also be required to include a bibliography . Or you might be asked to include a works cited page or a list of references . These are all just different names for the same thing: a list of sources —such as books, articles, or even websites—that you used to research and write your paper. A bibliography makes it easy for someone else to see where you found your information. A short bibliography might look something like this:

Screenshot of Microsoft Word

You could create a bibliography manually, but it would take a lot of work. And if you ever decide to add more sources or use a different reference style, you’ll have to update everything all over again. But if you take the time to input your sources into Word, it can create and update a bibliography automatically. This can save you a lot of time and help ensure your references are accurate and correct.

Step 1: Choose a reference style

When you're creating a bibliography, you'll need to follow the guidelines of the required style guide . Different academic disciplines use their own styles guides, such as MLA , APA , and Chicago . Fortunately, Word comes with several built-in style guides; all you need to do is select the one you want to use, and Word will help you format your bibliography correctly.

To do this, click the References tab, then select the desired style in the Citations & Bibliography group.

Screenshot of Microsoft Word

You can use this same method to change the reference style at any time.

Step 2: Add citations and sources

Whenever you use information from one of your sources, you'll need to give credit—or cite them. This is known as making a citation. You'll include citations whenever you use information from a source or when you quote a source directly.

To add a citation, select the desired location for the citation in your document, click the Insert Citation command on the References tab, and select Add New Source .

Screenshot of Microsoft Word

A dialog box will appear. Enter the requested information for the source—like the author name, title, and publication details—then click OK .

Screenshot of Microsoft Word

The citation will appear in the document, and the source will be saved. You can quickly add another citation for the source by clicking Insert Citation and selecting the source from the drop-down menu.

Screenshot of Microsoft Word

Step 3: Insert the bibliography

Time for the easy part! Once you've added all of your sources, you can create your bibliography in just a few clicks! Just select the Bibliography command, then choose the desired style.

Screenshot of Microsoft Word

The bibliography will appear at the end of your document. Your sources will already be formatted to match the selected style guide. You should still double-check each of your sources against your style guide to make sure they're correct. If you need a quick reference for MLA, APA, or Chicago formatting, we recommend the Purdue Online Writing Lab .

If you add more sources to your document, you can easily update your bibliography—just click it and select Update Citations and Bibliography .

Screenshot of Microsoft Word

No matter how many sources you include in your document, Word's built-in tools make it easy to create and organize a bibliography. If you want further guidance with the process, check out this tutorial from Microsoft on how to Create a Bibliography .



Bibliography: Definition and Examples

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms

A bibliography is a list of works (such as books and articles) written on a particular subject or by a particular author. Adjective : bibliographic.

Also known as a list of works cited , a bibliography may appear at the end of a book, report , online presentation, or research paper . Students are taught that a bibliography, along with correctly formatted in-text citations, is crucial to properly citing one's research and to avoiding accusations of plagiarism . In formal research, all sources used, whether quoted directly or synopsized, should be included in the bibliography.

An annotated bibliography includes a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph (the annotation ) for each item in the list. These annotations often give more context about why a certain source may be useful or related to the topic at hand.

Examples and Observations

"Basic bibliographic information includes title, author or editor, publisher, and the year the current edition was published or copyrighted . Home librarians often like to keep track of when and where they acquired a book, the price, and a personal annotation, which would include their opinions of the book or of the person who gave it to them" (Patricia Jean Wagner, The Bloomsbury Review Booklover's Guide . Owaissa Communications, 1996)

Conventions for Documenting Sources

"It is standard practice in scholarly writing to include at the end of books or chapters and at the end of articles a list of the sources that the writer consulted or cited. Those lists, or bibliographies, often include sources that you will also want to consult. . . . "Established conventions for documenting sources vary from one academic discipline to another. The Modern Language Association (MLA) style of documentation is preferred in literature and languages. For papers in the social sciences the American Psychological Association (APA) style is preferred, whereas papers in history, philosophy, economics, political science, and business disciplines are formatted in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) system. The Council of Biology Editors (CBE) recommends varying documentation styles for different natural sciences." (Robert DiYanni and Pat C. Hoy II, The Scribner Handbook for Writers , 3rd ed. Allyn and Bacon, 2001)

APA vs MLA Styles

There are several different styles of citations and bibliographies that you might encounter: MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and more. As described above, each of those styles is often associated with a particular segment of academia and research. Of these, the most widely used are APA and MLA styles. They both include similar information, but arranged and formatted differently.

"In an entry for a book in an APA-style works-cited list, the date (in parentheses) immediately follows the name of the author (whose first name is written only as an initial), just the first word of the title is capitalized, and the publisher's full name is generally provided.

APA Anderson, I. (2007). This is our music: Free jazz, the sixties, and American culture . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

By contrast, in an MLA-style entry, the author's name appears as given in the work (normally in full), every important word of the title is capitalized, some words in the publisher's name are abbreviated, the publication date follows the publisher's name, and the medium of publication is recorded. . . . In both styles, the first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and the second and subsequent lines are indented.

MLA Anderson, Iain. This Is Our Music: Free Jazz, the Sixties, and American Culture . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2007. Print. The Arts and Intellectual Life in Mod. Amer.

( MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 7th ed. The Modern Language Association of America, 2009)

Finding Bibliographic Information for Online Sources

"For Web sources, some bibliographic information may not be available, but spend time looking for it before assuming that it doesn't exist. When information isn't available on the home page, you may have to drill into the site, following links to interior pages. Look especially for the author's name, the date of publication (or latest update), and the name of any sponsoring organization. Do not omit such information unless it is genuinely unavailable. . . . "Online articles and books sometimes include a DOI (digital object identifier). APA uses the DOI, when available, in place of a URL in reference list entries." (Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers, A Writer's Reference With Strategies for Online Learners , 7th ed. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2011)

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How to add a bibliography to a Word document

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If you use Microsoft Word, creating a bibliography is no longer as hard or harder than writing the document itself.

bibliography define word

A bibliography is a list of sources referred to in a document. Many scholarly documents require one, and you probably had to create a few while in school. The list comprises citations, which include the title, author, publisher, date of publication, and so on for each source. You’ll use a bibliography to credit quotes and other facts to lend legitimacy to your document. The technical process in Microsoft Word is similar to footnote/endnotes or indexing and has three steps: Adding the sources as a citation, citing the citation, and then generating the bibliography. I’ll show you how simple it is to add sources and generate a bibliography.

I’m using Office 365 , but you can use earlier versions of Word . When using the .doc format, you will lose some features. You can work with your own document or download the demonstration .docx and .doc files . Word’s browser edition will display existing bibliographies, but you can’t add or edit sources or generate a bibliography while in the browser.

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How to add a source in Microsoft Word

Sources can be any kind of published work, from books to articles on the web. The information you include for a source will depend on you or the publisher. Word supports several styles, but the three most common are Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA) and Chicago. These styles determine the information needed and how that information is formatted. We won’t cover individual styles in this article–you will need to do a little research to determine what your publisher or recipient requires.

First, you need a source, so let’s run through a quick example.

bibliography define word

Most of these fields ( Figure A ) are self-explanatory, though I want to call your attention to two options:

bibliography define word

Once the citation exists, you don’t have to enter the information again. When referencing that source again, click Inert Citation in the Citations & Bibliography group and choose it from the resulting dropdown ( Figure C ).

bibliography define word

Note about the author name and tags: When entering author names, you should be consistent because of the tags. Word uses the first three characters of the first name you enter: Susan Harkins 2001 is Sus01 but Harkins, Susan 2001 is Har01.

Before we continue, enter a few more sources using the different types of sources (books, periodicals, etc.)–you’ll want more than one citation when you create the bibliography. Notice that the fields change with different source types. Although this tool is flexible, it can’t correct typos. Be careful with your case, spelling, and so on. Bibliographies are very difficult and tedious to proof after the fact.

How to add a bibliography in Microsoft Word

After you have added all your sources and cited (marked) all your text references, you’re ready to create the bibliography. It’s similar to adding an index or table of contents—Word does most of the work for you. To add the bibliography, follow these steps.

That’s it! Everything you need is already in the document. Word will pull everything together for you. Figure D shows the results of choosing the first item in the dropdown list.

bibliography define word

If you had chosen a style other than APA, the list would be formatted a bit differently, but Word knows where to put all the commas, periods, what needs to be italicized or in quotes, and so on.

Understanding sources

If you don’t get all the items you expected, you might need to take one more step. In the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources. If there are citations in the left list (which is the master list) that aren’t in the current list to the right but should be in the current document’s bibliography, copy them to the current list ( Figure E ). You can also see a preview of the APA style. Then, try again. This isn’t a bug–you control which citations go in the document and which don’t. Once you add a source, it’s available to other documents.

bibliography define word

The Source Manager gives you access to all sources. You can search for a title or sort by author. You can edit a source. Sources are stored separately from the document, so you can cite a source that you created for one document in another. The master and current lists represent all sources and sources for the current document, respectively.

You can edit a source without using the Manage Sources dialog. You can do a lot from the citation at the document level because these “text” references are actually field codes. Simply click it and then click the dropdown arrow to display the available options shown in Figure F .

bibliography define word

How to fix a known bug with the APA style

There is a known bug with the APA style (sixth), and fortunately, it has an easy fix. If you end up with multiple citations from the same author, Word might fill in the title when it isn’t supposed to. If this happens, try this quick fix.

Share your experiences of creating a bibliography in Word

Creating a bibliography in Word is easy. You can create a custom style if necessary, but doing so requires specialized knowledge in .xml development. If you’ve had trouble with a complex document and worked through it, share your experience in the comments section below.

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bibliography (n.)

1670s, "the writing of books," from Greek bibliographia "the writing of books," from biblion "book" (see biblio- ) + graphos "(something) drawn or written" (see -graphy ).

The meaning "the study of books, authors, publications, etc.," is from 1803. The sense of "a list of books that form the literature of a subject" is attested by 1814. Related: Bibliographic .

Trends of bibliography

Entries linking to bibliography.

word-forming element meaning "book" or sometimes "Bible," from Greek biblion "paper, scroll," also the ordinary word for "a book as a division of a larger work;" originally a diminutive of byblos "Egyptian papyrus." This is perhaps from Byblos , the Phoenician port from which Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece (modern Jebeil, in Lebanon; for sense evolution compare parchment ). Or the place name might be from the Greek word, which then would be probably of Egyptian origin. Compare Bible . Latin liber (see library ) and English book also are ultimately from plant-words.

word-forming element meaning "process of writing or recording" or "a writing, recording, or description" (in modern use especially in forming names of descriptive sciences), from French or German -graphie , from Greek -graphia "description of," used in abstract nouns from graphein "write, express by written characters," earlier "to draw, represent by lines drawn," originally "to scrape, scratch" (on clay tablets with a stylus), from PIE root *gerbh- "to scratch, carve" (see carve ).



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Create Custom Bibliography Styles

Create a custom bibliography style in Word by learning the steps (and XML code) you need to construct a simple custom style. Also, learn to make a more complex style file. Before we start, there is some information that you need to know:

The bibliography sources you create are all listed in the following local file: %AppData%\Microsoft\Bibliography\Sources.xml.

The Sources.xml file won't exist until you create your first bibliography source in Word. All bibliography styles are stored in the user's profile here: %AppData%\Microsoft\Bibliography\Style.

Building a basic bibliography style

First, create a basic bibliography style that the custom style will follow.

Set up the bibliography style

To create a bibliography style, we will create an XML style sheet; that is, an .xsl file called MyBookStyle.xsl, using your favorite XML editor. Notepad will do fine. As the name suggests, our example is going to be a style for a "book" source type.

At the top of the file, add the following code:

As the comments indicate, Word uses HTML to represent a bibliography or citation within a document. Most of the preceding XML code is just preparation for the more interesting parts of the style. For example, you can give your style a version number to track the changes you make, as shown in the following example.

More importantly, you can give your style a name. Add this tag: <xsl:when test="b:StyleNameLocalized">; and then give your style a name, in the language of your choice, by using the following code.

This section contains the locale name of your style. In the case of our example file, we want our custom bibliography style name, "Simple Book Style," to appear in the Style drop-down list on the References tab. To do so, add the following XML code to specify that the style name be in the English locale (Lcid determines the language).

Your style will now appear under its own name in the Bibliography Style dropdown list-box in the application.

Now, examine the style details. Each source type in Word (for example, book, film, article in a periodical, and so forth) has a built-in list of fields that you can use for the bibliography. To see all the fields available for a given source type, on the References tab, choose Manage Sources , and then in the Source Manager dialog box, choose New to open the Create Source dialog box. Then select Show All Bibliography Fields .

A book source type has the following fields available:



Number of Volumes

Short Title

Standard Number

In the code, you can specify the fields that are important for your bibliography style. Even when Show All Bibliography Fields is cleared, these fields will appear and have a red asterisk next to them. For our book example, I want to ensure that the author, title, year, city, and publisher are entered, so I want a red asterisk to appear next to these fields to alert the user that these are recommended fields that should be filled out.

The text in the <xsl:text> tags are references to the Sources.xml file. These references pull out the data that will populate each of the fields. Examine Sources.xml in \Microsoft\Bibliography\Sources.xml) to get a better idea about how these references match up to what is in the XML file.

Design the layout

Output for bibliographies and citations is represented in a Word document as HTML, so to define how our custom bibliography and citation styles should look in Word, we'll have to add some HTML to our style sheet.

Suppose you want to format each entry in your bibliography in this manner:

Last Name, First Name. (Year). Title. City: Publisher

The HTML required to do this would be embedded in your style sheet as follows.

When you reference a book source in your Word document, Word needs to access this HTML so that it can use the custom style to display the source, so you'll have to add code to your custom style sheet to enable Word to do this.

In a similar fashion, you'll need to do the same thing for the citation output. Follow the pattern (Author, Year) for a single citation in the document.

Close up the file with the following lines.

Save the file as MyBookStyle.XSL and drop it into the Styles directory (\Microsoft\Bibliography\Style). Restart Word, and your style is now under the style dropdown list. You can start using your new style.

Create a complex style

One of the issues that complicate bibliography styles is that they often need to have a significant amount of conditional logic. For example, if the date is specified, you need to show the date, whereas if the date is not specified, you may need to use an abbreviation to indicate that there is no date for that source.

For a more specific example, in the APA style, if a date is not specified for a website source, the abbreviation "n.d." is used to denote no date, and the style should do this automatically. Here's an example:

APA website source with no date entered: Kwan, Y. (n.d.). Retrieved from APA website source with date entered: Kwan, Y. (2006, Jan 18). Retrieved from

As you can see, what is displayed is dependent upon on the data entered.

The output of virtually every style needs to change depending on whether you have a "Corporate Author" or a "Normal Author." You'll see how to use one of the most common rules for implementing such logic into your style, allowing you to display a corporate author if the corporate author is specified, and a normal author if the corporate author is not specified.

Solution overview

To display a corporate author only if appropriate, use the following procedure.

To display a corporate author

Add a variable to count the number of corporate authors in the citation section of the code.

Display the corporate author in the citation if the corporate author is filled in. Display the normal author in the citation if the corporate author is not filled in.

Add a variable to count the number of corporate authors in the bibliography section of the code.

Display the corporate author in the bibliography if the corporate author is filled in. Display the normal author in the bibliography if the corporate author is not filled in.

Getting started

Let's start by changing the citation. Here is the code for citations from last time.

Step 1: Define a new variable in the citation section to count the number of corporate authors

Declare a new variable to help determine whether a corporate author is available. This variable is a count of the number of times the corporate author field exists in the source.

Step 2: Verify that the corporate author has been filled in

Verify that the corporate author has been filled in. You can do this by determining if the count of corporate authors is non-zero. If a corporate author exists, display it. If it does not exist, display the normal author.

Now that you've made the change for citations, make the change for the bibliography. Here's the bibliography section from earlier in this article.

Step 3: Define a new variable in the bibliography section

Once again, let's start by adding a counting variable.

Step 4: Verify that the corporate author has been filled in

Verify that a corporate author exists.

Here's the complete final code.

This article showed how to create a custom bibliography style in Word, first by creating a simple style, and then by using conditional statements to create a more complex style.

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Bib•li•og•ra•phy, bibliography.

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Cambridge Dictionary

Meaning of bibliography in English

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bibliography noun ( LIST OF BOOKS )

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bibliography noun ( STUDY OF BOOKS )

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.css-50zrmy{text-transform:uppercase;} .css-48zkli{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;-ms-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap;} .css-du7esu{margin-right:8px;} synonyms for .css-44bdmm{position:relative;}.css-44bdmm::before{border-bottom:3px solid #F44725;content:'';left:0;position:absolute;top:90%;width:100%;z-index:0;} .css-burnx3{font-style:italic;position:relative;text-transform:lowercase;z-index:1;} bibliography .css-1ekpmrf{background:none;border:none;cursor:pointer;padding:0;}

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New words – 22 May 2023

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doomerism noun [U] /ˈduːmər.ɪz.ᵊm/ a feeling of worry and fear that a situation will not get better, especially with regard to climate change

Doomerism, or extreme pessimism, is an increasingly common attitude regarding the disheartening trends of climate change. It’s not uncommon to hear “We’re screwed, and nobody is going to help us.” While this attitude is understandable, it can distract from the fight against climate change. [, 15 August 2022]

danger season noun [S] UK /ˈdeɪn.dʒə ˌsiː.zən/ US /ˈdeɪn.dʒɚ ˌsiː.zən/ a new way of referring to summer because of the increased likelihood of droughts, wildfires and extreme heat caused by climate change

But summer isn’t what it used to be. The season is getting so hot that it might be time for a new name: “danger season.” … “Climate change has pushed a lot of these types of events into a new realm that is much more dangerous,” said Kristy Dahl, a climate scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists. “So as we were thinking about this season, and how we’re going to respond to it, the phrase ‘danger season’ seemed appropriate.” [, 18 June 2022]

flash drought noun [C] /ˌflæʃ ˈdraʊt/ a sudden period of little or no rain

Fast-forming droughts are occurring more often and with greater speed in many parts of the world due to climate change, a new study finds. These “flash droughts” are replacing more typical, slower ones and are harder to predict and prepare for, which could make their management more difficult. [, 13 April 2023]

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While informing or educating people about how to behave correctly in their habitats is very needed, climate change is a redundant concept since climate always changes, lets be more proactive and use all coperative tasks to help adapt to every climate situation now more than ever before cause we have so much tecnology just lest share it properly without prompting for fear, remembering that fear makes a lot of people to paralize or act incorrectly.

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A teacher is going viral on TikTok for his 'Gen Z term dictionary' featuring words like 'baddie' and 'no cap'

A high school teacher made a "Gen Z term dictionary" for his class in a series of recent TikToks , including phrases such as "no cap," "baddie," and "getting sturdy."

"All year long I've been listening to you and making a list, which I've compiled here for you — the Gen Z term dictionary," said the teacher, who uses the pseudonym Larry Lexicon.

Lexicon doesn't give his real name, but teaches somewhere in Vacaville, California.

He showed his class his work in a PowerPoint presentation.

"You guys can let me know if they're accurate or if I need to revise them, or maybe you can help me to use them in a sentence," he said.

Lexicon has grown a following of 1.8 million on TikTok for his relatable and educational videos that show his close relationship with his students. His Gen Z dictionary was delivered in three TikToks that got a combined 4.6 million views.

Another of his viral videos was an explanation of why many US classrooms now had buckets in them — they are full of supplies needed to survive for an extended period of time if there's a lockdown due to a school shooting.

@larrylexicon Let me know if there are more terms I need to add to my list! #larrylexicon #doyourbuckingvocab #genzterms #teacherlife #highschool #teachersoftiktok #school ♬ original sound - Larry Lexicon

The first word, "bruh," Lexicon said was "obvious" and a "staple" of the generation. He described it as an alternative for "bro," or that it "can be used as an exclamation."

The next word, "rizz," Lexicon said was fairly new to him, and had learned it meant "to have charisma."

He said he thought "bussin'" meant good, specifically when talking about food, and "bussin' bussin'" meant really good, also in regards to food. "Delulu," he thought, was an adjective to describe someone who was delusional.

In a second TikTok, Lexicon said he had compiled more words, and would be using them every day until the end of the school year.

Here are some examples:

"And if it's really, really no cap, it's 'on God,'" Lexicon said.

@larrylexicon Gen Z Term Guide Part 2. Far out, Man. #larrylexicon #doyourbuckingvocab #genzterms #teacherlife #highschool #teachersoftiktok #school ♬ original sound - Larry Lexicon

In a third TikTok, Lexicon responed to comments, saying he wanted to make some revisions to the title slide of his dictionary.

He said a lot of people pointed out that many of the terms have roots in African-American Vernacular English.

"I know you think you came up with a lot of these words, but you didn't, and they've been around for a long time," Lexicon said. "They kind of make their way into society, and into your lexicon, through pop culture and things like hip hop music and stuff. And they sneak their way into your daily vocab."

Traditionally, these terms and the language associated with them are "looked down upon by society as uneducated or something like that," Lexicon said.

"But then what happens is it makes its way into like, white suburbia, and you get a middle-aged dorky white dude mislabeling it just for a whole generation as a term dictionary," he said. "And it ends up erasing the importance of it, and the impact that it has on culture."

Lexicon said he would re-title the guide as "The AAVE-inspired Gen Z term dictionary."

"The mistake was just simply due to ignorance on my part," he said. "But that's OK, because all you've got to do is learn. I just write the feedback that I got, studied a little bit and learned and now I'm not so ignorant anymore."

Being ignorant was OK, he said, "but being willfully ignorant and not doing anything about it — not so OK."

@larrylexicon Food smacks, music slaps. Got it. #larrylexicon #aave #genzterms #teacherlife #teachersoftiktok #school #revisions #slaps ♬ original sound - Larry Lexicon

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The First 10 Words of the African American English Dictionary Are In

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Henry Louis Gates Jr., wearing a blue suit jacket and gray trousers, stands in a patch of grass, one hand resting on a black cane. His chin is angled up as he looks into the distance.

By Sandra E. Garcia

In a recent online presentation, editors and researchers working on a first-of-its-kind dictionary of African American English gave a status update on the project. As academics explained their various methodologies, slides displayed behind them showed words that are more often associated with Twitter than Oxford: “Bussin,” virtual attendees were told, means impressive or tasty, while a “boo” is a lover.

Those were two of the first 100 words that the Oxford University Press said it had prepared to include in the Oxford Dictionary of African American English, the hopeful result of the three-year research project announced last spring.

The researchers say they aim to publish a first batch of 1,000 definitions — some words and phrases will have more than one — by March 2025. But the more important goal of the project, which will be edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr., a scholar of African American history at Harvard University, is to underscore the significance of African American English and to create a resource for future research into Black speech, history and culture. Among his other bona fides, Professor Gates is something of a dictionary nerd.

“When I was in the third grade, we studied the dictionary,” he said in a recent interview. “We had a unit on how to use the Webster’s dictionary, and even then — third grade, that means I was 8 years old — I thought the dictionary was magical.”

Professor Gates now collects and cherishes rare and historical dictionaries, including one he bought in the early days of the pandemic, when the future did not seem as sturdy as it once was.

“I was sitting here in this kitchen, sheltering in, doing a Zoom,” he recalled. “I said: ‘You know what? We could die at any time. I’m going to buy a first edition of the Samuel Johnson dictionary .’”

To support their etymological claims, researchers and editors from Oxford Languages and the Harvard University Hutchins Center for African & African American Research have drawn on lyrics from jazz, hip-hop, blues and R&B as well as letters, diaries, newspaper and magazine articles, Black Twitter, slave narratives and abolitionist writings. Individual entries will be explained using quotations pulled from Black literature, including examples from Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Ralph Ellison, Toni Morrison and Martin Luther King Jr.

One of the main challenges for the researchers is finding Black sources to confirm the use of the words.

“The further back in history, the less we can find Black people having agency over how we’re written about,” said Bianca Jenkins, a lexicographer working on the project. “Due to enslavement, Black people were prevented by law from being educated, from being taught to read. Black people had to really take it upon ourselves and educate ourselves.”

But it is not simply about the words that appear in letters, books, poems and lyrics. It is also about the words that morphed into other pronunciations and evolved to have a veiled meaning, for the safety of Black people.

Black people take language and “wrap it around themselves,” Professor Gates said. “They turn words inside out.”

“We are endlessly inventive with language, and we had to be,” he continued. “We had to develop what literary scholars call double-voiced discourse. We had to learn to speak the master’s language, then you had to learn to speak under the masters so that you could have a coded way of speaking English that would allow you to voice your feelings without being killed, whipped or — worst-case scenario — without being lynched.”

The dictionary will exist as a living record well after March 2025 has come and gone: According to Professor Gates, the public will continue to be able to suggest entries for consideration even after the first edition is published. Professor Gates recalled asking his cousin, who fought in the Vietnam War, to add a few words. He submitted 200, Professor Gates said, his wide smile revealing the apples of his cheeks.

In April, Oxford Languages and the Hutchins Center shared 10 entries with The New York Times. Below are selected definitions, variant forms and etymologies.

bussin (adjective and participle): 1. Especially describing food : tasty, delicious. Also more generally : impressive, excellent. 2. Describing a party, event, etc. : busy, crowded, lively. (Variant forms: bussing, bussin’.)

grill (noun): A removable or permanent dental overlay, typically made of silver, gold or another metal and often inset with gemstones, which is worn as jewelry.

Promised Land (n.): A place perceived to be where enslaved people and, later, African Americans more generally, can find refuge and live in freedom. (Etymology: A reference to the biblical story of Jewish people seeking freedom from Egyptian bondage.)

chitterlings (n. plural): A dish made from pig intestines that are typically boiled, fried or stuffed with other ingredients. Occasionally also pig intestines as an ingredient. (Variant forms: chitlins, chittlins, chitlings, chitterlins.)

kitchen (n.): The hair at the nape of the neck, which is typically shorter, kinkier and considered more difficult to style.

cakewalk (n.): 1. A contest in which Black people would perform a stylized walk in pairs, typically judged by a plantation owner. The winner would receive some type of cake. 2. Something that is considered easily done, as in This job is a cakewalk .

old school (adj.): Characteristic of early hip-hop or rap music that emerged in New York City between the late 1970s to the mid 1980s, which often includes the use of couplets, funk and disco samples, and playful lyrics. Also used to describe the music and artists of that style and time period. (Variant form: old skool.)

pat (verb): 1. transitive . To tap (the foot) in rhythm with music, sometimes as an indication of participation in religious worship. 2. intransitive . Usually of a person’s foot: to tap in rhythm with music, sometimes to demonstrate participation in religious worship.

Aunt Hagar’s children (n.): A reference to Black people collectively. (Etymology: Probably a reference to Hagar in the Bible, who, with her son, Ishmael, was cast out by Sarah and Abraham [Ishmael’s father], and became, among some Black communities, the symbolic mother of all Africans and African Americans and of Black womanhood.)

ring shout  (n.): A spiritual ritual involving a dance where participants follow one another in a ring shape, shuffling their feet and clapping their hands to accompany chanting and singing. The dancing and chanting gradually intensify and often conclude with participants exhibiting a state of spiritual ecstasy.

In addition to appearing in the Oxford Dictionary of African American English, the entries will also be added to the wider word bank of the Oxford English Dictionary , Professor Gates said.

“That is the best of both worlds, because we want to show how Black English is part of the larger of Englishes, as they say, spoken around the world,” he said.

More than just a collection of words, Professor Gates said, the new dictionary will serve as a record of the ways Black people have molded the English language to protect themselves and also keep a morsel of autonomy in a world that would have them have none.

“Everybody has an urgent need for self-expression,” he said, adding, “You need to be able to communicate what you feel and what you think to other people in your speech community.

“That is why we refashioned the English language.”

Because of an editing error, an earlier version of this article referred imprecisely to plans for the Oxford Dictionary of African American English. Although the researchers plan to publish a first edition by March 2025, it will not necessarily be in print.

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Dictionary Week: Highlights From The Word Party

Dictionary Week was planned as a celebration of’s 28th birthday— a word party in honor of all the ways words touch our lives. We loved celebrating with you so much that w e’ve rounded up some of our favorite moments and highlights. Cheers!

😜 Wordplay Day

We kicked the week off with Wordplay Day by asking you to share some of your favorite puns—some of which even made it into our Pun Hall of Fame !

I saw a theatrical performance about puns. It was a play on words. — Kevan Brown (@KevanUSM) May 15, 2023
Believe it or not, I can cut a piece of wood in half just by looking at it. Seriously, I saw it with my own eyes. #DictionaryWeek — R.C. Liley (@going_dad) May 15, 2023
I was wondering why the ball was getting bigger. Then it hit me. My kid loved this one during tball season! — ThatRoadtripMom (@RoadTripMomDE) May 15, 2023

If you’re missing the Wordplay fun, you can still challenge yourself with our hand-picked word riddles and trivia.

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Tuesday was Word Love Day , and we spread the love with a Word Giveaway, handing out limited edition virtual word certificates of favorite words hand-picked by the team!

I got my very own word from @Dictionarycom and I will try to use it on a sentence weekly. — Laura Fawcett (@RogueFour) May 16, 2023
I just ordered some new undercrackers yesterday. Coincidence? 🤔 — Teri Carter (@teri_atthepaper) May 16, 2023
10 year old me needs to acknowledge the sheer joy of The Dictionary talking back to me today. 📚 — Teri Carter (@teri_atthepaper) May 16, 2023
I refrained from requesting a free word because I didn’t want to appear avaricious. With that said; this devotee is much grateful, @GrantBarrett . The word may have no cash value, however your gift is priceless. #DictionaryWeek — Classic Literature Enthusiast 📚 (@luftmenschNdrew) May 16, 2023

We also shared some of our favorite stories about the figures who changed the course of word history.

Learn the names of some of the people who left a legacy on language.

🤕 Word Pain Day

Wednesday was Word Pain Day and our Misspelling Bee, a wrong-answers-only communal commiseration about all the frustration words have inflicted upon us.

I loved spelling as a kid but I was foiled in the spelling bee way too early by my nemesis, broccoli 🥦- to this day, I have to think about how to spell it even though my father thought it was good to have us spell antidisestablishmentarianism in grade school Lolol — KRockRN (@krockrn) May 18, 2023
That’s a common mistake. Here’s the difference: Somersault is “an acrobatic movement, either forward or backward, in which the body rolls end over end.” Summersalt is what you use, along with summerpepper, to season your food in July. — (@Dictionarycom) May 17, 2023
There’s a reason why the Dictionary and the Encyclopedia don’t talk anymore. They know what they did. — (@Dictionarycom) May 17, 2023
Remember: miLLeNNials want more of everything: 2 Ls, 2 Ns, and 2 slices of avocado toast. (Our social media manager is a millennial, for what it’s worth.) — (@Dictionarycom) May 17, 2023

We also offered a cure for the Word Pain with our tips on tackling the most common misspellings.

Check out some of the most universally misspelled words—with helpful spelling tips for each one.

🤔 Word Curiosity Day

Thursday was Word Curiosity Day , an occasion for honoring all the way words spark our inquisitiveness.

Our “Ask Us Anything” session exceeded expectations—our readers posed some exceptional questions to our expert panel.

Ask Us Anything, starting… now! Our expert panel is ready and eager for your #DictionaryWeek questions. Reply to this tweet with anything you’d like to know about dictionaries, words, lexicography, etc. We’ll try to answer as many questions as we can! — (@Dictionarycom) May 18, 2023
Fiscally solvent. —John First-rate, formidable, fine, first class, fantastic, fabulous, fab, and now, famous. —Grant Fetching! I used to look up synonyms for adorable! 😍 —Dara — (@Dictionarycom) May 18, 2023
The first records of the use of the word “whoa” are in reference to the command to stop, especially when given to a horse. It’s thought to be a variant of the word “ho,” which was an earlier way of commanding a horse to stop. —John — (@Dictionarycom) May 18, 2023
Sibling is also gender-neutral. It has helped inspire gender-neutral words that fill some gaps in English, such as “nibling” (gender-neutral term akin to niece and nephew) and “pibling” (gender-neutral term akin to aunt and uncle). —John — (@Dictionarycom) May 18, 2023
In a word: yes! And it’s not just about the wonder of words. It’s about the people: the amazing team who makes the dictionary happen and our amazing community, like you, who uses it. —Dara — (@Dictionarycom) May 18, 2023
I knew it!! I’ve loved dictionary dot com for many, many years. I appreciate everything you guys do. 💜 — Jhennifer 💜 Scruff-Stan For Life (@Psylphen) May 18, 2023

Still have questions? Read our FAQs about how the dictionary works.

Learn how new words get added to the dictionary.

🤩 Word Inspiration Day

Dictionary Week culminated with Word Inspiration Day . We asked you to submit a word that inspires you—a word you love, that defines you, or that would want your name to appear next to in the Dictionary. We received more than 500 submissions! Stay tuned—we may choose some as our Word of the Day!

We’ve leave you with some inspiring quotes about the beauty of words and the potential they have to move us to action.

Read quotes about words and the power they have.

bibliography define word

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  1. 105 best annotated bibliography images on Pinterest

    bibliography define word

  2. What Is A Bibliography

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  3. Pronunciation of Bibliography

    bibliography define word

  4. Dictionary Definition Word Bibliography Stock Illustration 269069216

    bibliography define word

  5. Define a bibliography

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  6. Bibliography Def

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  1. The Best Productivity Tool of 2023


  3. Pierre Poilievre was asked to backtrack & define word “woke.” His response

  4. How to Add Citations, In-text Citations, and Bibliography in MS Word

  5. Bibliography (Online source)

  6. What is Citation and Bibliography|| How to Insert Citation And Bibliography Reference In MS Word


  1. Bibliography Definition & Meaning

    bibliography: [noun] the history, identification, or description of writings or publications.

  2. Create a bibliography, citations, and references

    Create a bibliography. With cited sources in your document, you're ready to create a bibliography. Put your cursor where you want the bibliography. Go to References > Bibliography, and choose a format. Tip: If you cite a new source, add it to the bibliography by clicking anywhere in the bibliography and selecting Update Citations and Bibliography.

  3. Bibliography

    bibliography: 1 n a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.) Type of: list , listing a database containing an ordered array of items (names or topics)

  4. BIBLIOGRAPHY definition

    bibliography meaning: 1. a list of the books and articles that have been used by someone when writing a particular book…. Learn more.

  5. Add or change sources, citations, and bibliographies

    Add or change sources, citations, and bibliographies. Word 2016 for Mac Word for Mac 2011. Before you can add a citation, a works cited list, or a bibliography, you must add a source to your document. A works cited list is a list of sources, usually placed at the end of a document, that you referred to (or "cited") in the document. A works ...

  6. How to Write a Bibliography, With Examples

    Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication. Date. If the cited book was published prior to 1900, is from a publisher with offices in multiple countries, or is from a publisher that is largely unknown in the US, include the book's city of publication. Otherwise, this can be left out.

  7. How to Create a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in Word

    To add a citation, select the desired location for the citation in your document, click the Insert Citation command on the References tab, and select Add New Source. A dialog box will appear. Enter the requested information for the source—like the author name, title, and publication details—then click OK.

  8. Bibliography: Definition and Examples

    A bibliography is a list of works (such as books and articles) written on a particular subject or by a particular author. Adjective: bibliographic. Also known as a list of works cited, a bibliography may appear at the end of a book, report, online presentation, or research paper. Students are taught that a bibliography, along with correctly ...

  9. How to add a bibliography to a Word document

    Click where you want to insert the bibliography—usually at the end of the document. Click the Reference tab. Then, click Bibliography in the Citations & Bibliography group. From the resulting ...

  10. bibliography

    word-forming element meaning "book" or sometimes "Bible," from Greek biblion "paper, scroll," also the ordinary word for "a book as a division of a larger work;" originally a diminutive of byblos "Egyptian papyrus." This is perhaps from Byblos, the Phoenician port from which Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece (modern Jebeil, in Lebanon; for sense evolution compare parchment).

  11. Create Custom Bibliography Styles

    Step 1: Define a new variable in the citation section to count the number of corporate authors. Declare a new variable to help determine whether a corporate author is available. This variable is a count of the number of times the corporate author field exists in the source. XML. Copy.

  12. Bibliography

    Bibliography (from Ancient Greek: βιβλίον, romanized: biblion, lit. 'book' and -γραφία, -graphía, 'writing'), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Ancient Greek: -λογία, romanized: -logía).English author and bibliographer John Carter describes bibliography as a word ...

  13. Bibliography Definition & Meaning

    Bibliography definition: A list of the works of a specific author or publisher.

  14. Bibliography

    Define bibliography. bibliography synonyms, bibliography pronunciation, bibliography translation, English dictionary definition of bibliography. n. pl. bib·li·og·ra·phies 1. A list of the works of a specific author or publisher. 2. a. A list of writings relating to a given subject: a bibliography of...

  15. Bibliography Definition & Meaning

    Bibliography definition, a complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle, as authorship, subject, place of publication, or printer. See more.

  16. What is a Bibliography?

    A bibliography is a detailed list of all the sources consulted and cited in a research paper or project. The bibliography structure always includes citing the author's name, the title of the work ...


    bibliography definition: 1. a list of the books and articles that have been used by someone when writing a particular book…. Learn more.

  18. Bibliography definition and meaning

    bibliography in British English. (ˌbɪblɪˈɒɡrəfɪ ) noun Word forms: plural -phies. 1. a list of books or other material on a subject. 2. a list of sources used in the preparation of a book, thesis, etc. 3. a list of the works of a particular author or publisher.

  19. Biobibliography Definition & Meaning

    a bibliography with biographical notes about the author or authors listed; also : a usually short biography especially concerned with the… See the full definition Hello, Username. Log In ... You must — there are over 200,000 words in our free online dictionary, ...

  20. BIBLIOGRAPHY Synonyms: 4 Synonyms & Antonyms for ...

    Find 4 ways to say BIBLIOGRAPHY, along with antonyms, related words, and example sentences at, the world's most trusted free thesaurus.

  21. New words

    On May 22, 2023 By Cambridge Words In New words. westend61 / getty. doomerism noun [U] /ˈduːmər.ɪz.ᵊm/. a feeling of worry and fear that a situation will not get better, especially with regard to climate change. Doomerism, or extreme pessimism, is an increasingly common attitude regarding the disheartening trends of climate change.

  22. TikTok Teacher's Gen Z Dictionary Goes Viral Defining Terms ...

    A teacher is going viral on TikTok for his 'Gen Z term dictionary' featuring words like 'baddie' and 'no cap'. Lindsay Dodgson. May 18, 2023, 3:30 AM PDT. A high school class (stock photo). carlosalvarez/Getty Images. High school teacher Larry Lexicon showed his class his "Gen Z term dictionary." It included words and phrases such as "baddie ...

  23. The First 10 Words of the African American English Dictionary Are In

    She talked about the process of filming the show. The African American English Dictionary: The first 10 words of Oxford's dictionary of words created or reinvented by Black people are in ...

  24. Dictionary Week: Highlights From The Word Party

    May 19, 2023. Wordplay Day. Word Love Day. Word Pain Day. Word Curiosity Day. Word Inspiration Day. Dictionary Week was planned as a celebration of's 28th birthday—a word party in honor of all the ways words touch our lives. We loved celebrating with you so much that we've rounded up some of our favorite moments and highlights.