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Unraveling the Intriguing Plot of Straw Dogs: A Comprehensive Synopsis
Straw Dogs is a psychological thriller that captivated audiences upon its release. Directed by Sam Peckinpah, this gripping film takes viewers on a tumultuous journey through the complexities of human nature. In this article, we will delve into the intriguing plot of Straw Dogs and provide a comprehensive synopsis of this thought-provoking movie.
Setting the Stage
The story of Straw Dogs unfolds in a small rural town in Mississippi. David Sumner, a mild-mannered mathematician played by Dustin Hoffman, relocates to this idyllic community with his wife, Amy, portrayed by Susan George. Seeking solace and peace away from the chaos of city life, they hope to find tranquility in their new surroundings.
As David and Amy settle into their new home, tensions begin to rise when they encounter the town’s locals. A group of laborers working on renovations at their property soon becomes a source of unease for David. Led by the enigmatic Charlie Venner (played by Del Henney), these men exhibit aggressive and confrontational behavior towards him.
The Breaking Point
The film takes a dark turn when Amy’s ex-boyfriend, an aggressive local named Norman Scutt (played by Ken Hutchison), enters the picture. Norman’s presence stirs up unresolved emotions between him and Amy, leading to a series of confrontations that escalate in intensity. As tensions reach their breaking point, David finds himself caught in a web of violence and must confront his own demons.
The Climactic Battle
The final act of Straw Dogs is an intense battle between David and his tormentors. Faced with imminent danger and pushed beyond his limits, David is forced to tap into his primal instincts to protect himself and those he loves. This climactic sequence is a visceral exploration of the human capacity for violence and the lengths one can go to survive.
In conclusion, Straw Dogs is a gripping psychological thriller that explores the darker aspects of human nature. From its serene rural setting to its unsettling encounters and explosive climax, this film keeps viewers on the edge of their seats. Through its thought-provoking narrative, Straw Dogs raises questions about morality, violence, and the fragility of our own identities. If you’re in search of a movie that will challenge your perceptions and leave you pondering long after it ends, Straw Dogs is an excellent choice.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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How to Write a Synopsis for Research
Last Updated: February 3, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was reviewed by Gerald Posner and by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Gerald Posner is an Author & Journalist based in Miami, Florida. With over 35 years of experience, he specializes in investigative journalism, nonfiction books, and editorials. He holds a law degree from UC College of the Law, San Francisco, and a BA in Political Science from the University of California-Berkeley. He’s the author of thirteen books, including several New York Times bestsellers, the winner of the Florida Book Award for General Nonfiction, and has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in History. He was also shortlisted for the Best Business Book of 2020 by the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 181,253 times.
Your synopsis describes the plan for your research project and is typically submitted to professors or department heads so they can approve your project. You might also submit a synopsis to organizations to get funding for a research project. Most synopses are between 3,000 and 4,000 words, although some are shorter. While the specific types of information you need to include in your synopsis may vary depending on your department guidelines, most synopses include the same basic sections.
Research Synopsis Template
Organizing Your Document
- Find out what citation format you're supposed to use as well, and whether you're expected to use parenthetical references or footnotes in the body of your synopsis.
- Literature Review
- Methodology and methods
Tip: Your synopsis might have additional sections, depending on your discipline and the type of research you're conducting. Talk to your instructor or advisor about which sections are required for your department.
- Keep in mind that you might not end up using all the sources you initially found. After you've finished your synopsis, go back and delete the ones you didn't use.
Drafting Your Synopsis Sections
- The introduction gives you the opportunity to set out for your reader exactly why the question you're trying to answer is vital and how your knowledge and experience make you the best researcher to tackle it.
- Support most of the statements in your introduction with other studies in the area that support the importance of your question. For example, you might cite a previous study that mentioned your problem as an area where further research needs to be done.
- The length of your introduction will vary depending on the overall length of your synopsis as well as the ultimate length of your eventual paper after you've finished your research. Generally, it will cover the first page or two of your synopsis.
- Typically, you should be able to conduct a thorough literature review by discussing 8 to 10 previous studies that are related to your research problem.
- As with the introduction, the length of your literature review will vary depending on the overall length of your synopsis. Generally, it will be about the same length as your introduction.
- Generally, the overall objective doesn't relate to solving a specific problem or answering a specific question. Rather, it describes how your particular project will advance your field.
- For specific objectives, think in terms of action verbs such as "quantify" or "compare." Here, you're hoping to gain a better understanding of associations between particular variables.
- Specify the sources you used and the reasons you arrived at your hypotheses. Typically, these will come from prior studies that have shown similar relationships.
- For example, suppose a prior study showed that children who were home-schooled were less likely to be in fraternities or sororities in college. You might use that study to back up a hypothesis that home-schooled children are more independent and less likely to need strong friendship support networks.
- Expect your methodology to be at least as long as either your introduction or your literature review, if not longer. Include enough detail that your reader can fully understand how you're going to carry out your study.
- This section of your synopsis may include information about how you plan to collect and analyze your data, the overall design of your study, and your sampling methods, if necessary. Include information about the study setting, including the facilities and equipment that are available to you to carry out your study.
- Use between 100 and 200 words to give your readers a basic understanding of your research project.
- Include a clear statement of the problem, the main goals or objectives of your study, the theories or conceptual framework your research relies upon, and the methods you'll use to reach your goals of objectives.
Tip: Jot down a few notes as you draft your other sections that you can compile for your abstract to keep your writing more efficient.
Finalizing Your Synopsis
- If you don't have that kind of time because you're up against a deadline, at least take a few hours away from your synopsis before you go back to edit it. Do something entirely unrelated to your research, such as take a walk or go to a movie.
- Eliminate sentences that don't add any new information. Even the longest synopsis is a brief document — make sure every word needs to be there and counts for something.
- Get rid of jargon and terms of art in your field that could be better explained in plain language. Even though your likely readers are people who are well-versed in your field, providing plain language descriptions shows that you know what you're talking about. Using a lot of jargon can seem like you're trying to make yourself sound like you know more than you actually do.
Tip: Free apps, such as Grammarly and Hemingway App, can help you identify grammatical errors as well as areas where your writing could be more clear. However, you shouldn't rely solely on apps since they can miss things.
- Reference list formatting is very particular. Reading your references out loud, including the punctuation and spacing, can help you pick up on errors you wouldn't have noticed if you'd just read over it.
- Compare your format to the format in the stylebook you're using and make sure all of your entries are correct.
- Read your synopsis backward by starting on the last word and reading each word separately from the last to the first. This helps you isolate spelling errors. Reading backward sentence by sentence will help you isolate grammatical errors without being distracted by the content.
- Print your synopsis and circle every punctuation mark with a red pen. Then go through them and focus on whether they're correct.
- Read your synopsis out loud, including the punctuation, as though you were dictating the synopsis.
- Have at least one person look over your synopsis who isn't familiar with your area of study. If they can understand your project, that tells you that your writing is clear. If there are any parts that confuse them, you know that's an area where you can improve the clarity of your writing.
- If you make significant changes to your synopsis after your first or second round of editing, you may need to proofread again to make sure you didn't introduce any new errors. Don't be surprised if you go through several drafts of your synopsis before it reaches its final form.
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- ↑ https://admin.umt.edu.pk/Media/Site/iib1/FileManager/FORMAT%20OF%20SYNOPSIS%2012-10-2018.pdf
- ↑ https://eduflair.com/blog/how-to-write-a-synopsis-for-your-research/
- ↑ https://www.scientificstyleandformat.org/Tools/SSF-Citation-Quick-Guide.html
- ↑ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279917593_Research_synopsis_guidelines
- ↑ http://www.ijdvl.com/article.asp?issn=0378-6323;year=2008;volume=74;issue=6;spage=687;epage=690;aulast=Betkerur
- ↑ https://www.tesaf.unipd.it/en/sites/tesaf.unipd.it.en/files/ResearchSynopsisWriting_vers.0.pdf
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/
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Difference between a Research Proposal and a Synopsis
- September 5, 2022
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In the beginning, we can say that a summary is a brief, compact overview of the main points in a longer document. The purpose is to give readers an idea of what’s in the full-length document without reading it all & how to write synopsis. A synopsis for thesis can be a shorter version of your document that’s designed to give readers an overview of your ideas and conclusions. A research proposal is a formal document that outlines the scope and direction of an academic study or research project. It includes a plan for how you will collect data and analyze it, as well as how you will present your results with un understanding the difference between research proposal and synopsis
An Overview of both Documents:
Synopsis vs Research Proposal
A synopsis is a short form of your full research proposal and is just the introduction to the report. It convinces readers that you understand their problem and can provide a solution.
A research proposal is a detailed plan of how you will conduct your study. The research proposal includes a study design, which includes the specific questions that need to be answered, sampling strategy, data collection methods, analysis plan and reporting format.
How to write a Synopsis?
A synopsis for thesis is a brief, concise description of your paper. With learning how to write synopsis, communicate the main ideas and arguments in your paper and to tell someone else what you’re going to say. A good synopsis is a way for you to organize your ideas before you write the whole thing, and it helps others determine if they want to read further.
A synopsis for thesis is a summary of your article. It should be written in the following format:
- Title of your book or article (in bold)
- Author’s name and contact details (in italics)
- The main idea of your article or book (in bold)
- Introduction (optional)
- Body (in bold)
- Conclusion (optional)
How to write a Research Proposal?
Research Proposal – It is a document in which you state your thesis and goals, along with the method and rationale for your research. A thesis statement is the single most important part of a research proposal. It should be clear, concise, and specific.
The main purpose of this proposal is to get funding for your research. The proposal should also demonstrate how well-equipped you are to do the research.
This proposal aims to develop a new way of understanding the world through a systematic and comprehensive analysis of how society learns about the world.
This paper will focus on how people make sense of the w around them by using tools such as languages, maps, technology and science, thereby contributing to our ability to understand our surroundings.
Difference between a Research Proposal and a Synopsis for thesis:
The basic difference between a research proposal and a synopsis is that the former is more in-depth, whereas the latter is more condensed. However, this does not mean that researchers should not write synopses for their publications. To do so is to miss out on useful information that can be added later.
The advantage of writing a synopsis is that it provides a reader with an overview of your research project without having to read through large amounts of text. It also helps to explain your research topic and why it is relevant. A synopsis will help you decide whether or not your topic is worth pursuing further by ensuring that there are enough sources available for you to continue your research.
What is the purpose of our research proposal?
The purpose of the research proposal is to convince your advisor or committee that there is enough merit in your proposal to justify their funding of the project and their time reviewing it. A good proposal will include:
- An overview of the problem or question you are addressing
- A detailed description of how you plan to address this question or solve this problem
- A clear statement of what evidence supports your claim and how you will use this evidence to support your claim
- A discussion about how well-known and accepted methods can be used as part of this work (this is called quantitative analysis).
Why do people confuse the two?
In the first place, a research proposal is not a synopsis. A summary should be brief and to the point, while a research proposal would have all of your data and evidence lined up on one page.
A synopsis for thesis is written in the first-person voice and focuses on the story’s main points without delving too far into details. A synopsis can help readers get an idea of what you’re writing about or help them find information on a particular topic. It’s often used in book sales to determine if they have enough information on their hands to sell your book or not.
An academic or professional author writes a research proposal as part of their job. It is meant to provide evidence that supports their argument through data and statistical analysis.
Tips for writing a Research Proposal flawlessly:
- Writing a research proposal is not as easy as it seems. You must choose the right topic and then write the proposal in a way that will convince your reader of your ability to carry out the research.
- The first step in writing a research proposal is to select an area of study or research in which you are interested. If you have any previous experience with this topic, consider using it as part of your proposal. If not, find someone with previous experience in the field and ask them for their advice.
- Once you have decided on a topic, begin by writing down what you know about this area of interest. This can include anything from books or articles to news stories or television shows that have aired about the topic. Ensure all relevant information about this topic, including key terms or definitions.
- Once you have written down everything you know about your topic, it’s time to develop an outline for your dissertation proposal. An outline is an organised list of topics that will make up each chapter of your dissertation proposal and should include subtopics within each topic area (for example, introduction, background information; objectives; methods; data collection).
The more important your paper, the more likely you’ll need to write a research proposal and a synopsis. A research proposal is usually the first step in the writing process, an overview of the topic you plan to tackle later. A synopsis, on the other hand, is a concise summary of the content of your paper. We hope this blog has given you a proper explanation for understanding the differences.
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Guidelines for writing a research project synopsis or protocol
"Success is often the result of taking a mis - step in the right direction. "
A protocol or a synopsis of a research project is a document submitted to an authority or an institution for the purpose of
- Ethical clearance
- Formal registration to universities for the award of a degree or doctorate
- Peer review
- Financial assistance from organizations like ICMR, DST, NACO, DGHS, and MHRD
Synopsis is the gist of your planned project submitted for approval from competent authorities. It gives a panoramic view of your research for quick analysis by the reviewers.
Thus, a protocol or a synopsis forms an integral part of a research project or a thesis. Many universities have made it mandatory for the postgraduate degree student to prepare a thesis as a part of their postgraduate training. A good knowledge about how a protocol or a synopsis is written is imperative to all people involved in medical research.
Literally, protocol (Greek word, protokollon - first page) means a format procedure for carrying out a scientific research. Synopsis (Greek word, sun - together, opsis - seeing) means brief summary of something. Frequently, both the terms are used as synonyms but the term ′synopsis′ is used more often.
A synopsis should be constructed in a manner that facilitates the reviewer to understand the research project at a glance. It should be brief but precise. A synopsis can be structured in the following manner:
- Statement of the problem and hypothesis
- Aims and objectives
- Review of literature
- Research methodology
- Official requirements
Title The title of the research project should be brief but informative; sensationalization of the title is best avoided. It should neither be too short nor too long. Any name of the institution, the number of cases to be studied should not be included. The hypothesis to be studied can be included.
a. "Study of ectopic pregnancy"
This was a title chosen for university registration. The title is too short. It does not state the problem or the hypothesis and is least informative. More meaningful title shall be, "Study of ectopic pregnancy in relation to morbidity, mortality, and intervention in a referral hospital".
b. "A novel sustained release matrix based on biodegradable poly (esteramides) and, impregnated with bacteriophages and an antibiotic shows promise in management of infected venous stasis ulcer and other poorly healing wounds", (Int. J Dermat vol 8 2002). The title is long and ill conceived. It gives a confusing picture about the study problem. Such long titles are best avoided. Certain amount of sensationalization is also present by using term ′novel′. More meaningful title shall be, "Response of venous stasis ulcers and other poorly healing wounds to a biodegradable matrix impregnated with bacteriophages and an antibiotic". The other details about the new method can be mentioned while stating the problem.
c. "Fine needle aspiration, as a diagnostic tool for papulonodular skin lesions". This is an acceptable, informative, and precise title. It states the hypothesis correctly.
Statement of the problem or hypothesis The problem being studied should be mentioned in precise and clear terms. Understanding the problem aids the researcher in constructing the research proposal. It also allows the person to formulate the hypothesis. The problem under study should be relevant to the present. A brief account of its utility at the local or national level has to be discussed. The present status of the problem and the necessity for taking up the study needs to be mentioned.
Hypothesis is mentioned as a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables. Hypothesis should not be a haphazard guess but should reflect the knowledge, imagination, and experience of the investigator. Hypothesis can be formulated by understanding the problem, reviewing the literature on it, and considering other factors. A researcher can state the problem and the hypothesis in about 200 words covering all the aspects described above.
Aims and objectives All research projects should have objectives and aims and every effort should be made to achieve them. The objectives and aims should be only a few (2-3). They must pertain to the study problem. Usages of terms like "first study", "the only study", etc. should be avoided.
Review of literature Review of literature is a very important part of a research project. It achieves the following:
- Familiarizes the reader to the problem under study.
- It describes the work done by others either at local or international level on it or similar subject.
- It helps the researcher to understand the difficulties faced by others and the corrective steps taken or modifications made by them. The researcher can anticipate similar or additional problems during the study and review of literature helps him in anticipating them.
- Research methodology of the researcher can be structured and modified after reviewing the literature.
- The review assists in identifying various variables in the research project and conceptualizes their relationship.
- Review of literature in a synopsis helps the reviewer in assessing the knowledge of the researcher. The reviewer can assess the work put in by the researcher and also assists in assessing the feasibility of the study.
The review of literature in a synopsis need not be exhaustive. The relevant information should be covered in about 300 words quoting 8-10 authentic, easily retrievable references. Literature can be reviewed by using various scientific-information-gathering methods. These are journals, national or international; bulletins of organizations like WHO, CDC, and ICMR; books; computer-assisted searches like Medline and Medlar; and personal communications with other researchers. Internet provides a vast avenue for information gathering. Care must be taken to retrieve only relevant information. In this era of information technology review of literature is literally "just a click away".
Research methodology In a synopsis the research methodology adopted should be mentioned in about 150-200 words. The research methodology forms the core of the research project. The methodology should cover the following aspects:
- Study design
- Study methods - examinations or investigations
- Data collection
- Data analysis
Study design The methodology starts with selection of study design. A single study design or a combination can be selected e.g.:
Cross-sectional study or survey
Epidemiological description of disease occurrence
Study of natural history of a disease
Observational analytical designs
Therapeutic clinical trials - drugs
Prophylactic clinical trials- vaccines
A mention about the research setting should be made. This includes information about the institution, facilities available, time of study, and population of study.
Sampling Sampling is selecting a sample of appropriate size for the study. The sample size depends on the study design. The study population can be population of cases, population of people, or population of recipients of certain treatment.
There are many methods for sampling like simple random, systemic and stratified sampling, cluster sampling, etc. Care should be taken to ensure that the sample size is adequate to produce meaningful results. The sample size should be adequate to apply all relevant tests of statistical significance. The samples should be representative of the population and should be reliable. This minimizes sampling errors.
Variables Variables are the factors that can change. These changes can affect the outcome of a research project. Thus, it is important to identify the variables at the planning stage. They should be quantified with a measurable unit. Knowledge of the various variables in a research project will assist in refining the objectives. Usually, objectives of a research will be to see the effect of independent variables on dependent variables. There are four types of variables.
These are the variables that can be manipulated by the researcher and the effects of that are observed on the other variables. For example, predisposing factors, risk factors and cause.
The changes occur as a result of independent variables. For example, disease and outcome.
These may influence the effect of independent variables on the dependent variables. For example, while studying the response of HIV-AIDS to HAART the outcome may be influenced by the presence of antitubercular drugs.
These are changes that are relevant in the groups or population under study. These need to be included in the study. For example, age, sex, and ethnic origin.
Controls Control groups increase the validity of the research project. They usually consist of units of same population but differ in some respects. Controls are not necessary for all research projects. As far as possible they should be used in all analytical studies, drug trials, and intervention programs.
Study methods Here the researcher will have to describe the method of data collection, which may be in the form of:
- Medical examination
- Laboratory investigations
- Screening procedures
A sample of the proforma should be prepared and attached. The possible cost involved and any financial assistance received must be mentioned.
Data collection A brief note on how data are collected should be included. The information should be about:
- The organizational setup
- Training to data collecting team
- Logistic support
- Plans for collaboration with other organization should be included
Data analysis Data analysis is an important part of a research project. A good analysis leads to good results. The plans for data analysis should be mentioned under the following heads Statistical methods, Computer program used, and Data sorting method. A general statement "appropriate statistical methods will be used." must be avoided.
Ethical clearance Wherever necessary, ethical committee clearance from the institute should be obtained. The certificate must be attached. Ethical clearance is required in all human and animal studies.
References All references quoted in review of literature and anywhere else in the synopsis should be listed here. There are two styles for writing references, Vancouver style and Harvard style. Vancouver style is easy to follow as it depends on the numbers as quoted in text.
Official requirements A synopsis is incomplete if it does not contain the following information:
- Name of the researcher and designation
- Name and designation of the guide
- Name and designation of head of department\institution
- Name of the institution
- Signatures of all with official seal
Synopsis writing is an important step in a research project. A good synopsis will give maximum information in minimum words. A well-conceived synopsis will go a long way in convincing the reviewer about the ability of the researcher to conduct the project. In cases of need for financial assistance, the request will be considered favorably. Thus, all research workers should make efforts to prepare a well-structured synopsis.
The author is thankful to M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers for their permission to reproduce this article from the "Handbook on Health Professional Education" published by them.  [Table 1]
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What is Research Synopsis
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How to Write a Synopsis for Research
Table of Contents
What is synopsis?
The Synopsis is mainly the gist of your already planned research project submitted for approval from higher authorities. It shows a clear transparent view of your research work. On the other hand, it is the crux of a general survey that gives an idea about what a composition is all about. In other words, it is a brief view of the thorny work. It is a short outline of your thesis work.
It shows what your research work is all about. Moreover, it gives you and your supervisor a clear view of the research topic and provides clarity behind the research aim. In this, you tell your supervisor why did you conduct this research ? You also describe your time frame.
This paper views the supervisor a brief precise overview of the whole dissertation as well. Most of the supervisors specifically read this in the research work. Thus, a synopsis is only a promo that shows whether the research work is excellent or dull. The structure of the Synopsis should be authentic and precise as well.
Format Of writing synopsis
As we know, synopsis is imperative for all the researcher’s work. The supervisors’ primary focus in conducting the research papers is on this. Also, the format is a brief discussion of your project plan. There are various formats of Synopsis, varying from institution to institution. In addition, an institution offers many disciplines; sometimes, each field has its structure to conduct the research in real-time.
This focus on the general format that almost entire educational institutions are following. This is the most popular format. Moreover, this has some heading to represent your topic truly. The format must be facile so that readers can easily understand it.
In this, you divide your whole plan or idea into components so you can not miss any information regarding the research paper. You can say that the format gives you an in-depth picture of the research in the various components. So, you must follow these guidelines while conducting the study:
The first page of your dissertation consists of the title. It should be precise, not too long or short. Therefore, this reflects your study objective and should be decided and written after completing the Synopsis. This should be a clear representation of your topic and give you an overview of your research as well, in addition. Always think about the concise and clear topic so that it can raise interest in the reader.
So, it covers the title on which you conduct your title. This should adequately describe the entire research content. The synopsis topic elaborates on this category as well. Also, your name (student name), registration number, supervisor’s name, and supervisor details like his job title (professor or assistant professor). Moreover, your university name and department name are also in it.
The title is the central part of the synopsis that reads the most, and it should also be eye-catching. Because many readers first look at the title page. On the other hand, the catchy, unique topic creates a good image in the supervisor’s mind about the paper.
Table Of Content s
Table of a content list the chapters and the central dissertation section alongside the page numbers. So, it is easy to see what carrier holds what chapter. You can save your time by adding this table to your paper. It also demonstrates to your supervisor the covered chapters or headings.
Read More: How to Create Table of Contents for Research Paper?
You can generate an automatic table after formatting the whole paper or make a manual one. The synopsis should be reader friendly. The central synopsis part is this table, which also gives you a picture of the different research categories.
This category gives a good impression and presents the paper with a professional look. Moreover, it is complicated to search for any heading without it. It arranges all the information in the best way so that a supervisor or a reader can quickly assess it. So, it is a road map in complex cases. For example, chapter one (Introduction) covers the research gap , problems, and many more.
Chapter 1: Introduction
You add all the relevant detail to show that your topic is worth reading. This is named the first chapter in the synopsis writing. On the other hand, this is the central portion of the research study. So, the reader is more attentive during the reading of this portion. It would be the great if you state and follow such few headings in this first research chapter.
Background Of The Study
You will have to write your study background in this section. In addition, it describes your research study area as well. This section gives a reader in depth study of the research topic and it give you an overview of the study. Moreover, never focus on the ambiguous side in this heading. This area should not be too long or short. This category length depends on the overall size of the research paper synopsis. It should cover approximately one page of research synopsis.
A research gap shows a problem not being reviewed or solved in the existing research studies or publications. Moreover, it can be a new idea and a thought process that you can prove in real-time. It should cover approximately two pages. But it depends on the number of variables, and the limit can exceed if you use more variables in your study.
This is an area of the problem the researcher wants to address in the Synopsis. This is managed as a question mark in the Synopsis and should be a real-time problem . In addition, the problem should be measurable in real time as well. If we talk about the section length, it should cover a half page or one full page.
It helps to identify your research path. You first determine the total variables on which you want to conduct the study. Some are dependent, and some are independent variables. Also, some are mediators, and some are moderators. Therefore, you state the questions according to your variables. You will have to write down all your authentic research questions . The hypothesis is stated in this section.
You will have to state the study’s objective. So, this is the end result researcher want to achieve. It will clearly state the study’s purpose and focus on real-time, and should be measurable. Moreover, it is the guideline of the research performance.
Significance Of The Study
It consists of Theoretical Contribution and Applied Contribution. It shows why this study is needed in the research field. Moreover, this section also elaborates on the research topic’s importance and impact on others. It justifies your research study, and if you talk about the length, this covers approximately half of the page.
Chapter 2: Literature review
This is chapter two. It is the review of the existing research publication relevant to your topic. You also describe the variables and their relationship between them. So, you also add some researchers’ points of view with the citation to defend your statement regarding the topic. You will have to cover all the sections in it.
First, you will have to define all the independent variables. You can manipulate and control these variables, and, in the study, these are not influenced by any other variables. This is the single variable, and you see their effect on the dependent variables in the study.
You will have to define the mediators’ variables. In addition, the mediators’ variables describe that how the two variables show relationship to each other. These are the intervening variables, which also show the relationship between the two variables.
In this, you will have to state the definition of the dependent variable. This variable change with the independent variables’ manipulation. In addition, this is the variable being tested and measured in the research paper. So, this is the measurable variable in the study.
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In the study there are at least two moderators should present. After the dependent and independent variables, you should also state the definition of the first moderator. Moreover, the moderator shows the strength and the direction of the journal.
Moderators modify the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Therefore, you will also have to define this variable in your study. It influences the relationship among the variables also.
You will have to explain what theory supports your study and state the theory definition as well. Also, explain the proposed model based on your approach as well. The theoretical framework helps the investigation identify the real problem and show the impact of variables on each other.
Afterward, you will have to propose the research hypothesis of your study in the Synopsis. Therefore, Hypothesis 1, Hypothesis 2, Hypothesis 3, and Hypothesis 4 should mention here by looking at the impact of the variables. Well, H1 shows the positive or negative relationship between the independent and dependent variables. And H2 shows the connection between the independent, mediator, and dependent variables.
Read More: Directional vs. Non-Directional Hypothesis in Research
H3 shows the positive or negative relationship among the independent, moderator, and dependent variables. H4 shows the relationship between the mediator, moderator two, and the dependent variable. Other than that, it shows the independent variable impact positively or negatively on the other variable, and you will prove this through statistics. Moreover, this hypothesis should cover almost one page.
Research Mode l
Here you will show the clear diagram, which is the theoretical image of your research study.
Chapter: 3 Research Methodology
It is chapter three. This section includes detail on how this study was carried out. It provides research design, sample size, and many others. This ensures the supervisor the reliability and the validity of the study.
This covers the techniques chosen by the researcher. For example, the researcher will decide the tome horizon whether this research study will be cross-sectional or longitudinal .
This is an extensive collection of individuals. Also, you will elaborate on what sector you focus on, like banking, education, textile, etc.
Sample Size and Technique
There are many types of sampling techniques. Therefore, the researcher uses any of this according to the study’s nature and continence. You will state what sampling technique you use for your research study.
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Data Collection Procedure
In this section, you will decide how you will collect the information and how you will process all the data. Moreover, in this section, you will support your hypothesis based on the facts and the figures.
It consists of the measurements of all your variables on which scale you are measuring your variables. You will also state which study you will be adopted to describe such variables. First, you will have to measure your independent variable, which was estimated by 14 item scale developed in the past study. So, this variable is measured by 7-point Likert Scale.
Mediators should measure by adopting 20 items scale developed in the past study. So, this variable will measure by 7-point Likert Scale (from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree). The dependent variable should measure by adopting 20 items scale developed in the past study. So, this variable will measure by 7-point Likert Scale (from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree).
Moderator 1 should measure by adopting three items scale developed in the past study. So, this variable will measure by 7-point Likert Scale (from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree). So, Moderator 2 should measure by adopting 28 items scale developed in the past study. So, this variable will measure by 7-point Likert Scale (from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree)
You add other previous research contributions to your study, and it is important to mention them or give them credit by adding their journal links here in this category. You will have to add all the journal references from where you got all the data. Sites are in APA style, and the article link should also be authentic.
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It consists of the Questionnaire, starting with the questions of independent variables, then you will have to add mediators’ questions. Afterward, add questions of the dependent variable, then add moderato 1 and 2 questions.
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How to Write A Research Synopsis
February 12 2018, By CharlesBruno Eze
Have you been told by your research supervisor to draft a synopsis for your research work or you just want to write one? Or you simply want to know what it means and it's importance in research writing. Now this article is designed to give you a simplified guide to what a research synopsis is and how to go about writing one without breaking a sweat.
A research synopsis is a short outline of what your research thesis is and all the steps you propose to follow in order to achieve them. It gives you and your supervisor a clear view of what the research aims at achieving and within what time frame. It also helps you stay focused and makes the research work generally less tedious. This explains why your synopsis should be approached with clarity, systematically with unambiguous sentences.
The format for writing a synopsis varies from institution to institution and among disciplines. But even within a discipline, the format can always be tailored to best suit your specific research work. However, this article will focus on the major items that should be found in your synopsis in their most popular order. Below is the outline of how your research synopsis should look like. Note that the following items should only appear after you've written your research topic and the abstract to your research.
- Background: here you are meant to lead down from the research in your area of study generally down to your specific research topic. Discuss the importance of your proposed research work to research as a whole. Discuss also the academic gap which your research would fill which will lead to your research problem.
- Theoretical Framework/Methodology/Conceptual Framework: the above captions for this section aren't meant to be used interchangeably. It often depends on the discipline and the particular topic to determine which to use. The theoretical framework discusses the theory to employ in researching the object. Methodology indicates the methods of data gathering and analysis which can be quantitative and qualitative while the conceptual framewor explains the major concepts that the research revolves round on.
- Research Questions: These are the questions that will propel the research work and give it more focus along the line.
- Hypothesis: here you mention the assumption on which the research work is built. Note that this assumption might turn out to be false at the end of the research.
- Objectives of the study: this highlights the objectives of your study; what your research aims at achieving. Here, like other items in your synopsis required a great deal of clarity.
- Literature Review: thi contains a reading of other research works done on the area your work is centered. The idea is to show that your research topic hasn't been done before hence, it is researchable.
- Limitations: here you are to discuss the challenging factors that the research have or is likely to face. You and your supervisor would most likely make research choices based on this and determine whether to move ahead with the research.
- References: since the research work hasn't been carried out already, this section should indicate the major texts that will inform the knowledge upon which the research is built or whose findings your research work is propoing to refute. In the arts these texts are referred to "secondary texts".
The formats of the writing of the synopsis itself should follow the requirements of research writing in your discipline particularly. For instance, MLA requires 12 font size, double line spacing with Times New Roman font type.
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Learn how to prepare and write a synopsis assignment.
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A synopsis is a brief summary which gives readers an overview of the main points. In an academic context, this is usually a summary of a text (a journal article, book, report etc) but in some instances you might be writing a synopsis of a talk, film or other form of presentation. A synopsis is a neutral summary, objectively capturing the main points, rather than your own perspective or critique, and it focusses directly on the text you’re summarising rather than being a wider discussion of a topic, as an essay might be.
A synopsis aims to give the reader a full, if brief, account of the whole text so that they can follow its main points without having to read it themselves. It’s not a ‘trailer’ designed to tempt your audience to read the text itself, so you don’t have to worry about ‘hooking’ them in with hints and high points or ‘spoiling the ending’ - give the whole text equal coverage, including the conclusions. You could add some commentary which gives the reader a bit of context about the text, including the authors and circumstances it was written in (for example, if it is part of a debate, particular school of thought or its significance and what impact it’s had).
Writing a good synopsis is a skill, and there are a number of challenges:
- Separating the main points from the minor detail
- Knowing what to leave out as well as what to include
- Giving a sense of the overall narrative as well as listing the key points
- Covering the whole text within a small word limit
- Knowing how closely to stick to the original, especially in terms of the wording
- Whether to give all key points equal treatment, or cover some more briefly, even combining them
- Rephrasing things concisely without losing the meaning or misrepresenting it
- Not leaving out anything crucial to understanding the whole overall message
A good synopsis will allow the reader to feel as if they’d skimread the whole text themselves, understanding the overall gist and highlighting what they need to know. A poor synopsis will get bogged down in detail, giving a confused account of the whole story by just listing points, miss out major points or give an inaccurate or one-sided account or stick so closely to the original that it becomes plagiarism without demonstrating a real understanding by the person summarising it.
How to prepare a synopsis
Boiling down the key points and overall narrative of the original means good reading and note-taking skills which aim to identify and boil down key points to their essence. You could try some of the following approaches:
- Read the whole text, and afterwards, without re-reading, jot down your first initial summary in 50 words to capture its overall point. You can check it back for accuracy or anything you left out, but stick within ca 50 words
- Read the introduction and first line of each paragraph to get a sense of the overall structure and key points within it
- Highlight one sentence in each paragraph that you think is essential detail to understanding that section
- Alternatively, with a marker pen, cross out anything that isn’t essential to an understanding of the whole section or text
- Jot down only key words as a summary of each point rather than whole sentences
- Read each paragraph and summarise it without looking, in one sentence of your own
- Consider how many points you can make within your word count, and reduce or combine your list of summarised points down to this number
You could start small, identifying just keywords or sentences at first and then work them up into phrases, bullet points and sentences as a rough plan or draft, or you could start big with the original text and reduce each section, paragraph and sentence summary again and again until you have boiled it down to its essence.
When you start to prepare your first plan or draft, try to use your notes or memory and step away from the original as much as you can. You can go back and check it afterwards, but you need to create some distance to be able to create your own account and have confidence in the points you have identified as essential.
Writing a synopsis
The main decisions facing you as you write up your summary are about how closely to stick to the original in terms of structure and style, and how much attention to give to each point.
- You could begin your synopsis with a brief context, explaining who the authors are, the context and significance of their work, as well as anything you think might help the reader to understand the following summary
- The most common structure is to follow that of the original text, to give a sense of its narrative flow as well as the key points within it. You could choose to depart from it a little though, perhaps glossing over some points faster than others, combining two sections which go together or aren’t enough in their own right, possibly even changing the order a little where it helps to combine two similar points. Careful use of signposting language will help the reader clearly follow the structure (and note anywhere you’ve changed it from the original) so they can identify the bit you’re talking about in the original if they want to
- The style will naturally be strongly influenced by the original wording, but you should phrase it in your own words wherever possible. It’s harder to nibble away words from a much longer original than it is to start again and use your own concise phrasing, and you want to demonstrate your own understanding to the reader. You could use the odd original phrase or quotation here or there, but the synopsis needs to be more than a collage of quotations; it’s a thing in its own right rather than a cut-down version of the original
- You can also show your own response to the text in the way you use language to guide the reader to what you feel are the key points and (briefly) why. Your own voice doesn’t need to be very obvious in the synopsis, as it’s about the text rather than your reaction to it, but you have made analytical decisions about what is important, and might want to explain to the reader why these points are significant in understanding the whole
- What is the main purpose of this text? What did it aim to discover, explain or prove?
- Why was this research done? How significant is it?
- How was the research conducted? What kind of research is it?
- What were the three (or four, five) main things I should be aware of from this paper?
- What is their line of argument?
- What is their overall conclusion, recommendation, finding? Why is that important?
Managing word count
The trick to writing a concise synopsis which keeps within your word limit is not to start from the much bigger original text, but from your own boiled down notes. If you’re over the word count, you could start cutting out words that don’t seem essential, but if you go too far, you end up with a text which does not read well and doesn’t hang together. It might be better to remove whole sentences and perhaps whole points, than nibble away at words here and there.
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How to Write a Synopsis for Your Research |Steps in the Ph.D. Process
What is a Synopsis? Why do you need a synopsis for your doctoral research? What is the importance of a synopsis? How do you write and format a synopsis for your Ph.D.?
A synopsis, simply put, is a detailed summary of your research work that you will be doing for your doctoral degree.A synopsis is different from an abstract. You will submit your synopsis at the start of your research work along with your thesis title.
In simple terms, your synopsis is a write up which contains what you will be researching, the significance of your research to the field and how you will go about conducting this research. This document will be submitted before you start your research work and acts as a summary of what you plan to do in your research. In contrast, an abstract is the summary of your whole research thesis and will be written after the research is done and will be included along with your thesis.
The most important or significant use of a synopsis or why you should submit a synopsis is because this is the document that convinces the academic committee of your university as to why they should approve your research proposal. This is why the significance or contribution from your research to that particular field is included in the synopsis.
Writing a synopsis for your Ph.D. is an easy process once you have a clear idea about your research. The format of your synopsis will depend upon the guidelines provided by your university but we will provide you with a general outline on how to write a synopsis for a Ph.D.
The format for a synopsis will be as follows:
- Title of your research thesis: The title of your research project should be clearly defined in your synopsis. This will act as a clear indication of what your research is going to be.
- Introduction:Your introduction will contain a summary of the current level of knowledge in your field of research, the gaps in this knowledge and what your research will contribute to fill these gaps.
- Literature Review: Literature reviews are brief summaries of works that have already been published in journals and other academic forums which are concerned with the field of your research. You need to critically appraise what others have done and what they have found out pertaining to your field of research. Through this you can highlight where their work can be expanded on through your research.
- Aims and Objectives: This part of your synopsis is clear from its title. What is the aim of your research? What are you trying to find out? What are the objectives you are trying to achieve by conducting this research? You need to be very clear and concise while writing the aims and objectives of your research in the synopsis.
- Research Methodology: This is a very important part of your synopsis. Research methodology can be defined as“the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyse information about a topic”. In your synopsis you need to include the outline of your research process, i.e.: how you will be doing your research. In this section you need to include the tools and equipment you will be using, how you will collect your data, and the methods you will use to analyse this collected data. Your research methodology will provide an insight into whether your research is achievable.
- References: You need to provide a list of all the material that you have referred to in the process of writing your synopsis. The format of how to list your references will be provided by your university.
- Conclusion:In the conclusion of your research, you must once again briefly summarise your Ph.D. research that you will be undertaking and why your research is needed. You will also need to include the limitations of your research project in this section.
This is the basic format of how to write a Ph.D. synopsis in India. This may change from university to university so make sure you write it according to the guidelines your university has provided you with. On average, your synopsis will come to around 30 pages.
We hope that this post has provided you with a better understanding about what is a research synopsis, the importance of a research synopsis and how to write a synopsis for your Ph.D.
Eduflair will most certainly be with you as a guide in your journey to fulfil your dreams of a doctoral degree. We wish you luck on your research journey.
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