Synonyms of report

  • as in story
  • as in reputation
  • as in rumor
  • as in to describe
  • as in to record
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Thesaurus Definition of report

 (Entry 1 of 2)

Synonyms & Similar Words

  • thunderclap
  • hue and cry
  • commentaries
  • documentation
  • testimonial
  • case history
  • procès - verbal

Antonyms & Near Antonyms

  • scuttlebutt
  • disinformation
  • urban legend

Thesaurus Definition of report  (Entry 2 of 2)

  • particularize
  • let on (about)

Articles Related to report


‘Rapport’ vs. ‘Report’

An easygoing, detailed account

Thesaurus Entries Near report

Cite this entry.

“Report.” Thesaurus , Merriam-Webster, Accessed 28 Sep. 2023.

More from Merriam-Webster on report

Nglish: Translation of report for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of report for Arabic Speakers

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Cambridge Dictionary

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Meaning of report in English

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report verb ( TELL )

  • tell My friend told me you were looking for me.
  • let someone know Let me know if you'd like to come.
  • give Can you give the message to Jo?
  • communicate A 60-second TV commercial isn't always the best way to communicate a complex medical message.
  • inform The relatives of the injured have been informed of the accident.
  • notify The school has to notify parents if their children do not arrive at school.
  • Witnesses reported seeing a huge orange fireball as the oil refinery exploded .
  • Shortly before the crash the pilot had reported a malfunction of the aircraft's navigation system .
  • Her disappearance was reported to the police department's Missing Persons Bureau.
  • Do you have anything to report?
  • Several journalists have been killed or injured by stray bullets while reporting on the civil war .
  • dream sequence
  • narratively
  • omniscient narrator
  • paint a picture (of something) idiom
  • personalize
  • personification
  • world-building

You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics:

report verb ( GO )

  • be on the scene idiom
  • break someone in
  • roll up! idiom
  • set foot in somewhere idiom

Phrasal verbs

Report noun [c] ( description ).

  • The report contains numerous demonstrable errors .
  • The prime minister issued a denial of the report that she is about to resign .
  • The content of her report is shrouded in secrecy .
  • We file these reports under country of origin .
  • The newspaper reports of the discussion only roughly approximated to what was actually said.
  • construction
  • impact assessment
  • impact statement
  • interpretation
  • job evaluation
  • prognosticate
  • prognostication
  • re-evaluation
  • value judgment

report noun [C] ( NOISE )

  • bang She slammed the door with a bang.
  • slam The window closed with a slam.
  • clash I can still hear the clash of metal against metal during the car crash.
  • clank My mechanic asked me to describe the clanks that my engine makes.
  • clang The jail door closed with a resounding clang.
  • thump He dropped his suitcase with a loud thump and sprinted up the steps.
  • bang around
  • tintinnabulation

report | American Dictionary

Report verb ( go somewhere ), report noun [c] ( tell ), report | business english, examples of report, collocations with report.

These are words often used in combination with report .

Click on a collocation to see more examples of it.

Translations of report

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Word of the Day

to express something with a particular choice of words

Scarce, scant and sparse (Ways of saying ‘not enough’)

Scarce, scant and sparse (Ways of saying ‘not enough’)

report good meaning

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  • report (TELL)
  • be reported to be/do something
  • report (GO)
  • report (DESCRIPTION)
  • report (NOISE)
  • report (GO SOMEWHERE)
  • Business    Noun Verb
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Definition of 'report'

IPA Pronunciation Guide

Video: pronunciation of report

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report in American English

Report in british english, report in accounting, examples of 'report' in a sentence report, related word partners report, trends of report.

View usage over: Since Exist Last 10 years Last 50 years Last 100 years Last 300 years

In other languages report

  • American English : report / rɪˈpɔrt /
  • Arabic : تَقْرير
  • Brazilian Portuguese : reportagem
  • Chinese : 报告
  • Croatian : izvješće
  • Czech : zpráva zpravodajství
  • Danish : rapport
  • Dutch : rapport overzicht
  • European Spanish : informe
  • Finnish : selonteko
  • French : rapport dossier
  • German : Bericht
  • Greek : αναφορά
  • Italian : rapporto
  • Japanese : 報告
  • Korean : 보고
  • Norwegian : rapport
  • Polish : sprawozdanie
  • European Portuguese : reportagem
  • Romanian : știre
  • Russian : отчет
  • Spanish : informe
  • Swedish : rapport
  • Thai : รายงานข่าว
  • Turkish : rapor
  • Ukrainian : репортаж
  • Vietnamese : bản báo cáo
  • Arabic : يُبْلِغُ
  • Brazilian Portuguese : relatar
  • Chinese : 报导
  • Croatian : prijaviti
  • Czech : podat zprávu
  • Danish : rapportere
  • Dutch : rapporteren
  • European Spanish : informar
  • Finnish : selostaa
  • French : rendre compte
  • German : berichten
  • Greek : αναφέρω
  • Italian : riferire
  • Japanese : 報告する
  • Korean : 보고하다
  • Norwegian : rapportere
  • Polish : zrelacjonować
  • European Portuguese : relatar
  • Romanian : a comunica
  • Russian : отчитываться
  • Spanish : informar
  • Swedish : rapportera
  • Thai : รายงาน
  • Turkish : rapor vermek
  • Ukrainian : доповідати
  • Vietnamese : báo cáo
  • American English : report card / rɪˈpɔrt /
  • Arabic : تَقْريرٌ مَدْرَسيّ
  • Brazilian Portuguese : boletim escolar
  • Chinese : 成绩单
  • Czech : vysvědčení
  • Danish : karakterbog
  • Dutch : rapport van school
  • European Spanish : boletín de notas
  • Finnish : koulutodistus
  • French : bulletin scolaire
  • German : Zeugnis
  • Greek : σχολικός έλεγχος
  • Italian : pagella
  • Japanese : 通知表
  • Korean : 성적표
  • Norwegian : karakterkort
  • Polish : świadectwo
  • European Portuguese : ficha informativa de aluno
  • Romanian : raport
  • Russian : табель успеваемости
  • Spanish : libreta de calificaciones
  • Swedish : betyg
  • Turkish : karne
  • Ukrainian : звіт
  • Vietnamese : báo cáo học tập

Browse alphabetically report

  • repopularize
  • repopulation
  • report a case
  • report a claim
  • report a crime
  • All ENGLISH words that begin with 'R'

Related terms of report

  • case report
  • live report
  • news report
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an account or statement describing in detail an event, situation, or the like, usually as the result of observation, inquiry, etc.: a report on the peace conference; a medical report on the patient.

a statement or announcement.

a widely circulated statement or item of news; rumor; gossip.

an account of a speech, debate, meeting, etc., especially as taken down for publication.

a loud noise, as from an explosion: the report of a distant cannon.

a statement of a student's grades, level of achievement, or academic standing for or during a prescribed period of time.

Computers . output, especially printed, containing organized information.

a statement of a judicial opinion or decision, or of a case argued and determined in a court of justice.

reports, Law . a collection of adjudications.

repute; reputation; fame: a man of bad report.

to carry and repeat, as an answer or message; repeat, as what one has heard.

to relate, as what has been learned by observation or investigation.

to give or render a formal account or statement of: to report a deficit.

to send back (a bill, amendment, etc.) to a legislative body with a formal report outlining findings and recommendations (often followed by out ): The committee reported out the bill.

to make a charge against (a person), as to a superior: I intend to report him to the dean for cheating.

to make known the presence, condition, or whereabouts of: to report a ship missing.

to present (oneself) to a person in authority, as in accordance with requirements.

to take down (a speech, lecture, etc.) in writing.

to write an account of (an event, situation, etc.), as for publication in a newspaper.

to relate or tell.

to prepare, make, or submit a report of something observed, investigated, or the like.

to serve or work as a reporter , as for a newspaper.

to make one's condition or whereabouts known, as to a person in authority: to report sick.

to present oneself duly, as at a place: to report to Room 101.

Idioms about report

on report , Military . (of personnel) under restriction pending disciplinary action.

Origin of report

Other words for report, other words from report.

  • re·port·a·ble, adjective
  • non·re·port·a·ble, adjective
  • non·re·port·ed, adjective
  • o·ver·re·port, verb
  • pre·re·port, noun, verb
  • qua·si-re·port·ed, adjective
  • sub·re·port, noun
  • un·re·port·a·ble, adjective
  • un·re·port·ed, adjective
  • well-re·port·ed, adjective

Words Nearby report

  • répondez s'il vous plaît
  • report card
  • reported clause
  • reported speech Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2023

How to use report in a sentence

Developing and manufacturing vaccines, which are significant challenges in their own right, “won’t end the pandemic quickly unless we also deliver them equitably,” the report notes.

Separately, Yelp released a new local economic impact report this week.

He based his report on information from NSA leaker Edward Snowden.

More importantly, notice that more than 70% of my impression volume comes from search terms that are not in the search query performance report .

Of the report ’s 11 recommendations, the first highlighted safety.

Then add in all bored people, as well as people whose job it is to report on celebrities.

Despite the strong language, however, the neither the JPO nor Lockheed could dispute a single fact in either Daily Beast report .

Did he go to the authorities to file a report against the Guerreros Unidos drug cartel?

The Amazon biography for an author named Papa Faal mentions both Gambia and lists a military record that matches the FBI report .

Similarly, a recent NPR report covered the challenges many police departments are having recruiting officers of color.

Most of my observations are in keeping with Skutch's detailed report of the species in Central America.

Aguinaldo withheld his decision until Paterno could report to him the definite opinions of his generals.

William has thus been happily able to report to the society the approaching conversion of M'Bongo and his imminent civilization.

At last the report of several rifles from the island of trees gave us a clue to the mystery.

Mrs. Charmington hastened to spread the report that his Royal Highness was seriously smitten.

British Dictionary definitions for report

/ ( rɪˈpɔːt ) /

an account prepared for the benefit of others, esp one that provides information obtained through investigation and published in a newspaper or broadcast

a statement made widely known; rumour : according to report, he is not dead

an account of the deliberations of a committee, body, etc : a report of parliamentary proceedings

British a statement on the progress, academic achievement, etc, of each child in a school, written by teachers and sent to the parents or guardian annually or each term

a written account of a case decided at law, giving the main points of the argument on each side, the court's findings, and the decision reached

comment on a person's character or actions; reputation : he is of good report here

a sharp loud noise, esp one made by a gun

to give an account (of); describe

to give an account of the results of an investigation (into) : to report on housing conditions

(of a committee, legislative body, etc) to make a formal report on (a bill)

(tr) to complain about (a person), esp to a superior : I'll report you to the teacher

(tr) to reveal information about (a fugitive, escaped prisoner, etc) esp concerning his whereabouts

(intr) to present oneself or be present at an appointed place or for a specific purpose : report to the manager's office

(intr) to say or show that one is (in a certain state) : to report fit

( intr foll by to ) to be responsible to and under the authority of : the plant manager reports to the production controller

(intr) to act as a reporter for a newspaper or for radio or television

law to take down in writing details of (the proceedings of a court of law) as a record or for publication

Derived forms of report

  • reportable , adjective

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012


Report writing

  • Introduction

What is a report?

What makes a successful report, how are reports read, checklist for successful reports.

  • Structuring your report
  • Writing up your report

Useful links for report writing

  • Study Advice Helping students to achieve study success with guides, video tutorials, seminars and one-to-one advice sessions.
  • Maths Support A guide to Maths Support resources which may help if you're finding any mathematical or statistical topic difficult during the transition to University study.

report good meaning

  • Academic Phrasebank Use this site for examples of linking phrases and ways to refer to sources.
  • Academic writing LibGuide Expert guidance on punctuation, grammar, writing style and proof-reading.
  • Reading and notemaking LibGuide Expert guidance on managing your reading and making effective notes.
  • Guide to citing references Includes guidance on why, when and how to use references correctly in your academic writing.

Students often ask, "What's the difference between an essay and a report?" It can be confusing because university assignments can mix the features of both (e.g. an essay that allows sub-headings) and some assignments may not officially be called a report, but seem very "report-like" in their structure and criteria.

The guidance on this page will explain some of the key differences between essays and reports, and how the main features of reports make them economical to read. Understanding how reports are read and the features that make them effective will help you in any report-style assignment.

A report is a piece of informative writing that describes a set of actions and analyses any results in response to a specific brief. A quick definition might be: "This is what I did and this is what it means." You may be given an assignment which is not called a report but shares many of the same features; if so, aspects of this guide will be helpful.

It may help to know some of the key differences between reports and essays:

report good meaning

  • Badly structured
  • Inappropriate writing style
  • Incorrect or inadequate referencing
  • Doesn't answer the brief
  • Too much/too little/irrelevant material
  • Expression not clear
  • Doesn't relate results to purpose
  • Unnecessary use of jargon

How can you make sure your report does what it's meant to do, and does it well?

Make sure you know which sections your report should have and what should go in each . Reports for different disciplines and briefs will require different sections: for instance, a business report may need a separate Recommendations section but no Methods section. Check your brief carefully to make sure you have the correct sections. See the page on 'Structuring your report' in this guide to learn more about what goes where.

Remember that reports are meant to be informative : to tell the reader what was done, what was discovered as a consequence and how this relates to the reasons the report was undertaken. Include only relevant material in your background and discussion.

A report is an act of communication between you and your reader. So  pay special attention to your projected reader , and what they want from the report. Sometimes you will be asked to write for an imaginary reader (e.g. a business client). In this case it's vital to think about why they want the report to be produced (e.g. to decide on the viability of a project) and to make sure you respond to that. If it's your tutor, they will want to know that you can communicate the processes and results of your research clearly and accurately, and can discuss your findings in the context of the overall purpose.

Write simply and appropriately . Your method and findings should be described accurately and in non-ambiguous terms. A perfectly described method section would make it possible for someone else to replicate your research process and achieve the same results. See the page in this guide on 'Writing up your report' for more on this.

Spend time on your discussion section . This is the bit that pulls the whole piece together by showing how your findings relate to the purpose of the report, and to any previous research.

Every idea and piece of information you use that comes from someone else's work  must be acknowledged with a reference . Check your brief, or department handbook for the form of referencing required (usually a short reference in the body of the text, and a full reference in the Reference List at the end).

Be clear about the scope of the report . The word count will help you to understand this. For instance, a 5000 word report will be expected to include a lot more background and discussion than a 1000 word report - this will be looking for more conciseness in the way you convey your information.

report good meaning

This is not to suggest that you should spend less time on writing up your findings. But it does show that the sections you may think of as less important (like the  abstract or introduction ) are actually often the places a reader gets their first impressions. So it's worth getting them right.

report good meaning

  • Does it answer the needs of the projected reader?
  • Has the material been placed in the appropriate sections?
  • Has all the material been checked for accuracy?
  • Are graphs and tables carefully labelled?
  • Is data in graphs or tables also explained in words and analysed?
  • Does the discussion/conclusion show how the results relate to objectives set out in the introduction?
  • Has all irrelevant material been removed?
  • Is it written throughout in appropriate style (i.e. no colloquialisms or contractions, using an objective tone, specific rather than vague)?
  • Is it jargon-free and clearly written?
  • Has every idea taken from or inspired by someone else's work been acknowledged with a reference?
  • Have all illustrations and figures taken from someone else's work been cited correctly?
  • Has it been carefully proof-read to eliminate careless mistakes?
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  • Faith Live!

Philippians 4:8 - Thinking Things That Are of a Good Report

- this morning, we're looking at that sixth phrase, and talking about "Whatever Things Are Of Good Report".

I. the Kind of Thinking This Word Emphasizes

- you've noticed that some of the words Paul has used in this list have been very common, others are used less frequently in the Scriptures.

- this particular word that is translated "of good report" in the KJV, "of good repute" in the NASB, and "admirable" in the NIV is only used here in the entire NT (in this form). - there is a related use (cognate noun) in II Cor. 6:8 -- and there it is translated exactly the same.

- so we can't learn anything from other uses in the Scripture, but we can learn some very important things from the way the word breaks down.

- its the word "euphema" - eu - good - phema - report or news.

- a good definition would be -- "thinking that searches for the good rather than the bad in another."

- now I think you can see, just from that, why we would want to spend some time studying this. - we're going to divide our time out over these ideas:

II. The Opposite of This kind of Thinking

III. The Balance

- we can't take this to the extreme of "warm-fuzzyism" - or ignoring issues that need to be addressed.

IV. How Do You Put This Kind of Thinking On? - we want to come up with as many creative ideas as we can to grow in this area.

V. The Relationship Between Thoughts and Actions

- How does a person who thinks this way act? - How does a person who doesn't think this way act?

VI. How This Kind of Thinking Affects Relationships

- so let's move into:

II. The Opposite of This Kind of Thinking (and Resulting Actions)

- there are a couple of major ways where you or I could violate this principle.

A. Pessimism

- some folks, upon hearing any idea, always look at it through the worst possible light. - and while we of course have to evaluate ideas properly, some folks automatically dismiss new ideas out of hand because they search EXCLUSIVELY for the bad. - history is filled with examples: (taken from Wall Street Journal, March 8, 1996)

1) Lord Kelvin (scientist in England - 1824-1907) said:

- "Radio has no future."

- "Heavier than air flying machines are impossible."

- "X-Rays will prove to be a hoax."

2) Sir Richard Van Der Wooley - wrote in "The Astronomer Royal" in 1956:

- "Space travel is utter bilge."

3) Harry M. Warner (Founder of Warner Brothers Studios) said in 1927

- "Who (expletives deleted) wants to hear actors talk?"

4) Dionysius Lardner (scientist in England - 1793-1859) said:

- "Rail travel at high speeds is not possible because passengers, unable to breathe, would die of asphyxia."

5) Lee Forest (inventor in America - 1873-1961) said:

- "While theoretically and technically television may be feasible, commercially and financially I consider it an impossibility."

- John Vandergriff tells of a Munich schoolmaster who told his ten year old student, "You'll never amount to much." - the student? Albert Einstein.

- the point is that pessimism would surely be the opposite of the word we're studying this morning.

B. Evaluation/Appraisal that is overly negative, or purposely negative, or exclusively negative.

- there's surely nothing wrong with helping someone else see ways he needs to change, and we'll mention that under the next point, but some folks violate this characteristic in Phil. 4:8 by being overly negative, or exclusively negative. - so when they think about another person, instead of having a balanced opinion of them...its a very unbalanced (and unfair) opinion.

- John Vandergriff has some interesting charts in his chapter on this word that help explain why this dynamic might be taking place:

- on white board, discuss the charts on page 147 and 149.

- a third way this principle could be violated might be labeled:

C. Purposely digging up the dirt.

- there's an interesting biblical example of this in the book of Daniel. - Daniel 6:1-5 - READ and discuss.

- what we've read about is not far from the world in which we live. - National Enquirer, People Magazine, the TV shows that follow that format are as popular as they are for a reason.

- unfortunately, that negativism, and cynicism, and hyper- critical spirit can even characterize a person who calls himself a believer.

- so Paul's point is -- in our thinking, and our resultant actions, we are focus our attention on "whatsoever things are of good report."

- now, let's be sure we add some balance to this:

III. Keeping This Principle In Balance

INPUT - How do we know that Paul is not just talking about going around giving each other "warm-fuzzies" all the time without dealing with issues where a person needs to repent and change?

(various answers)

- having said that -- many of us would have to say that we're probably not anywhere near that ditch anyway.

IV. How Do You Put This Kind of Thinking On?

- I'd like us to take a few minutes and work on developing as many creative ideas as possible for how we can work at developing thinking that meets this biblical requirement. - INPUT?

V. The Relationship Between Thinking and Actions

- another step in this discussion is realizing the relationship between the way we think, and the way we act.

- this characteristic makes it easy to see that contrast.

- INPUT - Behavior that results from obeying this principle?

- INPUT - Behavior that results from disobeying this principle?

VI. How This Impacts Relationships

- let's conclude our time by thinking about how obeying this principle affects the relationships with those the Lord has placed around us, and how disobeying it affects them.

1) Marriage?

2) Child-rearing?

3) Extended family?

report good meaning

Dr. Steve Viars

Senior Pastor - Faith Church

Director - Faith Legacy Foundation

B.S.: Pre-Seminary & Bible, Baptist Bible College (Now Clarks Summit University) M.Div.: Grace Theological Seminary D.Min.: Biblical Counseling, Westminster Theological Seminary

Dr. Steve Viars has served at Faith Church in Lafayette, IN since 1987. Pastor Viars leads and equips Faith Church as Senior Pastor with a focus on preaching and teaching God’s Word and using his organizational skills in guiding the implementation of the Faith Church mission and vision. He oversees the staff, deacons, and all Faith Church ministries. Dr. Viars serves on the boards of the Association of Certified Biblical Counselors, Biblical Counseling Coalition, Vision of Hope, and the Faith Community Development Corporation. Steve is the author, co-author, or contributor to six books and numerous booklets. He and his wife, Kris, were married in 1982 and have two married daughters, a son, and five grandchildren.

Read Steve Viars’ Journey to Faith for the full account of how the Lord led Pastor Viars to Faith Church.

View Pastor Viars' Salvation Testimony Video

More from Dr. Steve Viars

  • Biblical Counseling in Pre-Engagement Counseling
  • Biblical Counseling in Japan
  • Jesus is Our Hope – He is Our Sacrifice
  • Biblical Counseling in Winter Break Childcare
  • The Hope of Avoiding Poisonous Responses to Trials

More from the series Philippians

  • Philippians 4:19-23 - Paul's Promise, Praise and Greeting
  • Philippians 4:10-18 - A Great Model of Church Giviving
  • Philippians 4:10-19 - The Christian's Contentment
  • Philippians 4:9 - Think Right, Then Do Right
  • Philippians 4:8 - Thinking That Is Praiseworthy

Your Article Library

Top 11 characteristics of a good report.

report good meaning


This article throws light upon the top eleven characteristics of a good report. The characteristics are: 1. Simplicity 2. Clarity 3. Brevity 4. Positivity 5. Punctuation 6. Approach 7. Readability 8. Accuracy 9. Logical Sequence 10. Proper Form 11. Presentation.

Characteristic # 1. Simplicity:

The language shall be as simple as possible so that a report is easily understandable. Jargons and technical words should be avoided. Even in a technical report there shall be restricted use of technical terms if it has to be presented to laymen.

Characteristic # 2. Clarity:

The language shall be lucid and straight, clearly expressing what is intended to be expressed. For that the report has to be written in correct form and following correct steps.

Characteristic # 3. Brevity:

A report shall not be unnecessarily long so that the patience of the reader is not lost and there is no confusion of ideas. But, at the same time, a report must be complete. A report is not an essay.

Characteristic # 4. Positivity:

As far as possible positive statements should be made instead of negative ones. For example, it is better to say what should be done and not what should not be done.

Characteristic # 5. Punctuation :

Punctuations have to be carefully and correctly used otherwise the meaning of sentences may be misunder­stood or misrepresented.

Characteristic # 6. Approach:

There are two types of approaches: (a) Per­son—When a report is written based on personal enquiry or obser­vations, the approach shall be personal and the sentences shall be in the first person and in direct speech, (b) Impersonal—When a report is prepared as a source of information and when it is merely factual (e.g. a report on a meeting), the approach shall be impersonal and the sentences shall be in the third person and in indirect speech.

Characteristic # 7. Readability:

The keynote of a report is readability. The style of presentation and the diction (use of words) shall be such that the readers find it attractive and he is compelled to read the report from the beginning to the end.’ Then only a report serves its purpose. A report on the same subject matter can be written differ­ently for different classes of readers.

Characteristic # 8. Accuracy:

A report shall be accurate when facts are stated in it. It shall not be biased with personal feelings of the writer.

Characteristic # 9. Logical Sequence:

The points in a report shall be arranged with a logical sequence, step by step and not in a haphazard manner. A planning is necessary before a report is prepared.

Characteristic # 10. Proper Form:

A report must be in the proper form. Some­times there are statutory forms to follow.

Characteristic # 11. Presentation:

A report needs an attractive presentation. It depends on the quality of typing or printing as well as quality of paper used. Big companies make very attractive and colourful Annual Reports.

Related Articles:

  • Principles of a Good Research Report
  • Report Control System in Large Organisations | Preparation of a Report

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Characteristics Of A Good Report

Characteristics Of A Good Report

Table of Contents

What are the characteristics of a good report? The report provides factual information depending on which decisions are made. Therefore, everyone should take conscious steps to ensure that a report has all the essential qualities which turn it into a good report. A report is a written document showing organized information using a specific format and presentation. The audience and objective are specific for a report. 

A well-written report “tells a story.” A report must answer the following questions: who, what, when, where, why, how, and how much. Writing a qualitative report may be a hard nut to crack. However, it is the opposite for those who know the essential characteristics of a good report because it helps to judge what qualities are present in their report.

Several characteristics of a good report include:

Characteristics Of A Good Report

In a good report, the report writer is very clear about the exact and definite purpose of writing the report. This central purpose directs the investigation, analysis, recommendations, and others. The precision of a report provides unity to the report and makes it a valuable document for best usage.

Accuracy of Facts

Information contained in a report must be based on accurate facts. Since decisions are based on report information, inaccurate information or statistics will lead to a wrong decision. It will hamper ensuring the achievement of the organizational goal.

The facts presented in a report should be accurate and relevant. Irrelevant facts make a report confusing and likely to be misleading. 

Simple Language

Simplicity is the best for anything. It is just another essential feature of a good report. A good report is written in simple language, avoiding vague and unclear words. The writer’s emotion or goal should not influence the report’s language. The message of a good report should be self-explanatory. A good reporter should use simple sentences instead of complex sentences in the narration of facts.


A good report should be concise, but it does not mean that a report can never belong. Rather it means that a report transmits maximum information with minimum words. It avoids unnecessary detail and includes everything significant and necessary to present proper information.


A good report is free from errors. Any faulty construction of a sentence may change its meaning in the reader’s mind and potentially make it confusing or ambiguous.

Unbiased Recommendation

Recommendations usually affect the reader’s mind. Therefore, if recommendations are made at the end of a report, they should be impartial and objective and come to a logical conclusion for investigation and analysis. 

Clarity depends on the proper arrangement of facts. A good report is absolutely clear. The reporter should clarify their purpose, define their sources, state their findings, and make a necessary recommendation A report must be clear to understand to ensure effective communication throughout.


The presentation of a report is also a factor that should be considered for a good report. The structure, content, language, typing, and presentation style of a good report should be attractive to make a clear impression in the mind of its reader.

Complete Information

A good report shows important information. Most of this information is analyzed as the basis of importance. The report should not contain useless or vague information.

Final Thoughts

A good report should have a summary by which the reader of the report can take a decision or stand on a particular decision. A summary can reflect the whole picture at a glance. Therefore, it has a large impact. The inclusion of the above factor features or characteristics makes a good report effective and fruitful. It also helps to achieve the report goal.

Corporate Data And Information

Understanding Corporate Data and Information


Roles of DFIO or Digital Forensics Investigation Officer

Types Of Evidence

Types Of Evidence: Different Types Of Important Evidences

Cybercrimes And Cybersecurity

Overview of Cybercrimes and Cybersecurity: The Importance of Cybersecurity in Combating Cybercrimes

Difference Between Fact And Opinion

Difference Between Fact And Opinion: The Important Definition Of Fact And Opinion

Forensic Accountant Required Background

Forensic Accountant Required Background: Detailed Background To Be A Forensic Accountant

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  • What is a Credit Score?

What Is a Credit Score?


  • A credit score is a three-digit number designed to represent the likelihood you will pay your bills on time.
  • There are many different types of credit scores and scoring models.
  • Higher credit scores generally result in more favorable credit terms.

A credit score is a three-digit number, typically between 300 and 850, designed to represent your credit risk, or the likelihood you will pay your bills on time. Creditors and lenders consider your credit scores as one factor when deciding whether to approve you for a new account. Your credit scores may also impact the interest rate and other terms on any loan or other credit account for which you qualify.

What is considered a good credit score?

Credit score ranges and what they mean will vary based on the scoring model used to calculate them, but they are generally similar to the following:

  • 300-579: Poor
  • 580-669: Fair
  • 670-739: Good
  • 740-799: Very good
  • 800-850: Excellent

There’s no “magic number” that guarantees you’ll be approved for a new credit account or receive a particular interest rate from a lender. However, higher scores typically suggest that you have demonstrated responsible credit behavior in the past, which may make potential lenders and creditors more confident when evaluating a new request for credit.

Why do I have different credit scores?

It’s a common misconception that you have only one credit score. In reality, there are many different credit scores and credit scoring models.

Your credit scores may vary depending on the consumer reporting agency (CRA) providing the score, the credit report on which the score is based and the scoring model.

Credit scores provided by the three nationwide CRAs — Equifax ® , TransUnion ® and Experian ® — may also vary because your lenders may report information differently to each. Some may report information to only two, one or none at all.

It’s also possible for your credit scores to vary by industry. If you’re in the market for a new car, for example, an auto lender might use a credit score that places emphasis on your history of paying auto loans. A mortgage lender, on the other hand, might use a formula to determine your risk as a mortgage borrower.

All of these factors can lead to differences in your credit scores.

How are credit scores calculated?

Your credit scores are calculated based on the information included in your credit reports. Like your credit score, you have more than one credit report.

Your credit scores may vary depending on the scoring model used to calculate them as well as the information on the respective credit report. However, most credit scoring models consider the same factors:

  • Your payment history. This is typically the most significant factor used in calculating your credit score. Your payment history includes information on any open credit accounts in your name. It also provides data on missed or late payments, bankruptcy filings and debt collection.
  • The amount of credit used vs. your total available credit. This calculation — also known as your credit utilization rate or your debt-to-credit ratio — is another important factor to lenders. Expressed as a percentage, your credit utilization rate generally represents the amount of revolving credit you’re using divided by the total revolving credit available to you. (Revolving credit accounts are things like credit cards, while mortgages and other fixed loans are considered installment accounts.) Lenders and creditors generally like to see a credit utilization rate of 30% or lower.
  • The types of credit accounts in your name. Some formulas may also consider the types of credit accounts you have. It’s usually a good idea to keep a mix of both revolving and installment accounts. This helps show lenders and creditors you’re comfortable managing many different types of credit.
  • The length of your credit history. The overall length of your credit history can also impact your score. Formulas may consider the age of both your oldest and your newest accounts.
  • The number of recent requests for credit you’ve made. Applying for a new line of credit triggers what’s known as a “hard inquiry” on your credit report. Numerous hard inquiries within a short period of time can negatively impact your credit score as it may suggest to lenders that you’re taking on more debt than you can reasonably expect to pay back. It’s a good idea to only apply for new credit when you need it. Credit score calculations generally don’t consider “soft inquiries,” which are requests to check your credit report that are not tied to an actual credit application (for example, when you receive a pre-qualified credit card offer). Checking your own credit score also will not impact your credit score or credit history.

Why are credit scores important?

Why is it important to strive for a higher credit score? Simply put, borrowers with higher credit scores generally receive more favorable credit terms, which may translate into lower payments and less interest paid over the life of the account.

Remember, though, that everyone’s financial situation is unique. Individual lenders may also have their own criteria when it comes to granting credit, which may include information such as your income.

The types of credit scores used by lenders and creditors may vary based on their industry. For example, if you’re buying a car, an auto lender might use a credit score that places more emphasis on your payment history when it comes to auto loans.

Credit scores may also vary according to the scoring model used and which CRA furnishes the credit report. That's because not all creditors report to all three nationwide CRAs . Some may report to only two, one or none at all. In addition, lenders may use a blended credit score from the three nationwide CRAs.

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If you use any of these 9 phrases, you have 'better etiquette skills' than most: Public speaking expert


Actions may speak louder than words, but words still matter — a lot . People can get easily offended, and if you rush around like most folks, it's easy to say the wrong thing in the wrong way .

As a public speaking expert , one thing I focus on is teaching good speech manners. There are nine phrases in particular that instantly show appreciation and respect.

If you use any of them every day, you have better etiquette skills than most people:

1. "What I'm hearing you say is ..."

People don't expect you to agree with everything they say. But they do want to know they've been heard and understood.

Use this phrase to clear your mind and confirm that you did consider their words before responding. If they spoke in a vague way the first time, you'll give them a chance to focus their thoughts and contribute more meaningfully to the conversation. 

2. "You may be right."

This phrase helps pave the way for disagreement, as in: "You might be right, but let's experiment with this new idea this time."

Don't miss: If you use any of these 9 phrases every day, 'you're more emotionally resilient than most'

It's also helpful for responding to off-topic comments and remarks from hyperactive colleagues who talk too much. No one likes to be negated, and a simple affirmation allows conversations to proceed without disharmony. 

3. "You were right, I was wrong."

This phrase is a gold star of conversational selflessness for two reasons:

  • It's impossible to say these words unless you mean them.
  • They're music to people's ears.

It is a great tool for defusing tension, clearing the slate, and earning respect. Surrender your ego to win the bigger fight for more productive, authentic relationships.

4. "Thank you for doing this ..."  

Old-school, elegant and simple. In a world where gratitude, respect and acknowledgement are hard to come by, it pays to be generous with praise.

If you want to encourage good behavior, force yourself to acknowledge it when you see it.

5. "I'll leave you to it."

Sometimes the hardest and most helpful thing you can do is overcome your impulse to control.

If someone is chopping carrots (rather than landing a plane), offer this simple gesture of trust — especially if your first thought is that you have a better technique. Say it like you mean it, and do it with a smile.

6. "Can you help me with something?"

No one likes to be barked at or ordered around, but most of us enjoy being asked for help.

Note the difference between saying, "Take out the garbage," versus, "Hey, I'm overwhelmed. Can I ask you to help me by taking out the garbage?"

7. "Your [hair/shirt/tie, etc.] looks so nice today!"

Don't lie, but do look for the good. People like compliments, even when they act like they don't.

We're all aging, we're all stressed, we all worry that we forgot something about our appearance. It's nice to hear that we did something right once in a while.

8. "That's interesting."

Even the melodic, prosodic flow of these words demands a slow-down, a bow to the speaker of sorts, before the conversation continues. It's an acknowledgement that something was said, heard and considered.

9. Say nothing at all.

When someone says something rude or ignorant and you're dying to lash back, remember the power of "I'm rubber and you're glue." Be rubber. Take a deep breath. Chalk the words up as somebody else's issue and walk away.

John Bowe  is a speech trainer, award-winning journalist, and author of  "I Have Something to Say: Mastering the Art of Public Speaking in an Age of Disconnection."   He has contributed to The New Yorker, The New York Times Magazine, GQ, McSweeney's, This American Life, and many others. Visit his website  here  and follow him on  LinkedIn .

Don't miss:

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  • If you use these 13 phrases every day, you have higher emotional intelligence 'than most people': Psychology experts
  • People who are good at small talk always avoid these 7 mistakes, says public speaking expert

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Jan. 6 defendants bring cases to Supreme Court. Here's what it could mean for Donald Trump

The cases are the first to reach the supreme court from those involved in the jan. 6, 2021, attack on the u.s. capitol. the outcome could affect the indictment of donald trump..

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WASHINGTON − Three men involved in the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol are asking the Supreme Court to wipe out part of their indictment − and the possibility of an extra 20 years in prison − in the first criminal cases involving the 2021 insurrection to reach the nation's highest court.

If the justices agree to hear the appeals, the decisions could ultimately affect part of a federal indictment lodged against former President Donald Trump for his effort to overturn the 2020 election − as well as hundreds of others charged in the deadly riot that unfolded across the street from the Supreme Court more than two years ago.

Edward Lang, Joseph Fischer and Garret Miller claim prosecutors overstepped their authority by charging them with a federal prohibition on obstructing “official proceedings,” a law approved in 2002 in response to the Enron financial meltdown. Lang documented on social media his participation in the Jan. 6 attack , and Miller gained attention after the riot for threatening Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez , D-N.Y.

More than 200 people have been charged with violating that same obstruction law in connection with Jan. 6, according to the Justice Department . One of them is the former president himself: Trump is facing the charge as part of the grand jury indictment handed up last month following an investigation by special counsel Jack Smith.

A ruling from the Supreme Court in favor of the defendants would undermine those charges in the other cases, including Trump's.

'Crushing dissent' or prosecuting a mob?

The Supreme Court has dipped into some legal questions surrounding the Jan. 6 attack.

Last year, the justices refused to block a House committee investigating the attack  from obtaining Trump administration documents.  Months later, the court turned away an emergency appeal from the former chairwoman of the Arizona Republican Party, Kelli Ward, who was  fighting a subpoena for phone records  from that committee.

But the new cases are the first involving defendants fighting criminal charges.

The Justice Department says that the counting of electoral votes − interrupted as lawmakers fled for their safety and police battled with rioters − qualifies as an “official proceeding.” The law, prosecutors say, would cover someone lying to a grand jury or “burning a building to conceal the bodies” of murder victims. 

“It also includes storming the Capitol to derail a congressional proceeding,” the department told a federal appeals court last year .

But the defendants say the provision was meant to stop people – like those involved with the Enron scandal − from tampering with evidence. Fischer described the crime at issue in the cases as an "anti-shredding" law in a court document. Their actions on Jan. 6, the lawyers say, had nothing to do with that.

What's more, they argue, allowing prosecutors to press the obstruction charge could lead to a slippery slope of prosecutions for less violent interruptions.

"It is no overstatement to say the future of the First Amendment hangs in the balance," attorneys for Lang told the Supreme Court in his appeal. A law "intended to combat financial fraud," they wrote, "has been transformed into a blatant political instrument to crush dissent."

The Justice Department did not respond to a request for comment.

Lang, Miller and Fischer are not asking the Supreme Court to toss the other charges they face.

Most courts have backed prosecutors. Will Supreme Court agree?

A U.S. District Court judge agreed with t he defendants, ruling that the law required them to have taken some action involving evidence to be charged under the Enron-era provision. Judge Carl Nichols, a Trump nominee, stood alone in that assessment: Fourteen other district court judges in Washington, D.C., agreed with the Justice Department’s reading of the law.

A divided appeals court in Washington reversed that ruling in April, teeing up the Supreme Court appeal. The 2-1 majority included one judge appointed by President Joe Biden and one by Trump.

Several experts have predicted the high court is unlikely to take up the cases – at least for now. That’s partly because appeals courts like to give deference to grand juries when it comes to criminal charges and partly because there has been little disagreement so far about how to interpret the law among appeals courts.

"What they're doing is what any defense lawyer in their position would be doing," said Craig Trocino, a University of Miami law professor. "That doesn't mean that they're going to win or that they're legally correct."

The argument Lang and Miller raise rests in part on what, exactly, lawmakers meant when they smooshed a provision banning the destruction of a document “with the intent to impair” an official proceeding up against another provision that bars obstructing or impeding “any official proceeding.”

In one sense, their case turns on how much the two provisions are connected to each other.

“When you look at a statute like this, for these purposes, you use the words’ ordinary meanings,” Trocino said.  “I don't believe that that's so outrageously vague as to offend due process under these circumstances.”

The Supreme Court will consider whether to grant the cases later this year.

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Even the meaning of the word 'abortion' is up for debate.

Selena Simmons-Duffin

Selena Simmons-Duffin

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As more states pass abortion restrictions, confusion over terms shows up in hospitals and courtrooms. Camila Galvez holds a sign during a march for abortion rights in Los Angeles in April 2023. APU GOMES/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

As more states pass abortion restrictions, confusion over terms shows up in hospitals and courtrooms. Camila Galvez holds a sign during a march for abortion rights in Los Angeles in April 2023.

For all that abortion is talked about in hospitals, courts, legislatures and the media, it turns out the public doesn't really agree on what the word means, a new survey finds.

The study by the Guttmacher Institute, a group that supports abortion rights, questioned people about a series of situations showing various circumstances in a pregnancy. Researchers asked: Is this an abortion? Yes, no or maybe?

"Our biggest takeaway is that people do not hold a shared standard definition of what is and isn't an abortion," says lead author Alicia VandeVusse . "We found that there's a lot of nuance and ambiguity in how people are thinking about these issues and understanding these issues."

Guttmacher did in depth interviews with 60 people and an online survey with 2,000 more people.

Not a single scenario, which they dubbed "vignettes," garnered complete agreement. One scenario had the phrase "had a surgical abortion." Still, "67% of respondents said, yes, that's an abortion, and 8% said maybe, but 25% said no," VandeVusse says.

To give you an idea of the scenarios people were thinking through, here is one of the vignettes posed in the study:

"Person G is 12 weeks pregnant. When they have their first ultrasound, there is no cardiac activity, and their doctor recommends having the fetus removed. Person G has a surgical procedure to remove the fetus."

"We consider that miscarriage intervention," says VandeVusse. The 2,000 people who took the survey weren't so sure. Two thirds of them agreed it was not an abortion, a third said it was.

Other scenarios described things like people taking emergency contraception, or getting abortion pills through the mail, or having a procedural abortion after discovering a fetal anomaly.

"Intention definitely played a very strong role in sort of how our respondents thought through the different scenarios," VandeVusse says. For instance, "when people were talking about taking emergency contraception the day after intercourse, we had folks who were saying, 'Well, you know, they wanted to end their pregnancy, so it's an abortion,' even if they're not pregnant."

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An opponent of abortion rights holds a sign at a press conference outside the South Carolina State House in May 2023. The state's abortion ban went into effect last month. LOGAN CYRUS/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

An opponent of abortion rights holds a sign at a press conference outside the South Carolina State House in May 2023. The state's abortion ban went into effect last month.

She says many respondents seemed unsure about how pregnancy works and how complications can unfold.

"We don't speak openly about a lot of reproductive experiences, particularly abortion, but also miscarriage," says VandeVusse. "These are both stigmatized and very personal experiences."

This isn't just an academic discussion – what counts as an abortion has huge implications for abortion restrictions and how reproductive care changes in states with those laws.

"I think it's really important research," says Ushma Upadhyay , professor and public health scientist at the University of California San Francisco, who was not involved in the study. "It sheds light on how important these terms are and how important it is for the public to have better knowledge about these issues that are constantly in our media, constantly being discussed in policy – and policymakers are making these decisions and probably have very similar misunderstandings and lack of understanding."

Upadhyay thinks clear terms and definitions can help. She recently published a statement on abortion nomenclature in the journal Contraception , which was endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists or ACOG.

Meanwhile, the American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists recently came out with its own glossary of terms , suggesting, for example, that people don't say abortion at all, and instead say "intentional feticide." The organization says the word abortion "is a vague term with a multitude of definitions depending on the context in which it is being used."

One key point about the Guttmacher study on the public's varying views of what counts as an abortion: The research was conducted in 2020, before the Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade . It's possible that in the time since the legal and political picture changed so dramatically, the public understands more about reproductive health now.

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Sore throat, then congestion: Common Covid symptoms follow a pattern now, doctors say

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How Covid symptoms have evolved since the pandemic

Doctors say they're finding it increasingly difficult to distinguish Covid from allergies or the common cold, even as hospitalizations tick up .

The illness' past hallmarks, such as a dry cough or the loss of sense of taste or smell, have become less common. Instead, doctors are observing milder disease, mostly concentrated in the upper respiratory tract.

"It isn’t the same typical symptoms that we were seeing before. It’s a lot of congestion, sometimes sneezing, usually a mild sore throat," said Dr. Erick Eiting, vice chair of operations for emergency medicine at Mount Sinai Downtown in New York City.

The sore throat usually arrives first, he said, then congestion.

The Zoe COVID Symptom Study, which collects data on self-reported symptoms in the U.K. through smartphone apps, has documented the same trend . Its findings suggest that a sore throat became more common after the omicron variant grew dominant in late 2021. Loss of smell, by contrast, became less widespread, and the rate of hospital admissions declined compared to summer and fall 2021.

Doctors now describe a clearer, more consistent pattern of symptoms.

"Just about everyone who I've seen has had really mild symptoms," Eiting said of his urgent care patients, adding, "The only way that we knew that it was Covid was because we happened to be testing them."

How do Covid symptoms progress?

Though three doctors interviewed said Covid commonly begins with a sore throat these days, they gave differing descriptions of the severity.

Dr. Grace McComsey, vice dean for clinical and translational research at Case Western University, said some patients have described "a burning sensation like they never had, even with strep in the past."

"Then, as soon as the congestion happens, it seems like the throat gets better," she said.

Along with congestion, doctors said, some patients experience a headache, fatigue, muscle aches, fever, chills or post-nasal drip that may lead to a cough — though coughing isn't a primary symptom.

McComsey said fatigue and muscle aches usually last a couple of days, whereas congestion can sometimes last a few weeks.

She estimated that only around 10-20% of her Covid patients lose their sense of taste or smell now, compared to around 60-70% early in the pandemic.

Eiting said he's not seeing a lot of diarrhea lately, either — a more common symptom in the past.

For the most part, the doctors said, few patients require hospitalization — even those who show up at emergency rooms — and many recover without needing the antiviral pill Paxlovid or other treatment.

"Especially since July, when this recent mini-surge started, younger people that have upper respiratory symptoms — cough, runny nose, sore throat, fever and chills — 99% of the time they go home with supportive care," said Dr. Michael Daignault, an emergency physician at Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center in Burbank, California.

Why Covid seems milder now

Dr. Dan Barouch, director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, attributed the mild symptoms that doctors are seeing to immunity from vaccines and previous infections.

"Overall, the severity of Covid is much lower than it was a year ago and two years ago. That’s not because the variants are less robust. It’s because the immune responses are higher," Barouch said.

Other doctors think that omicron itself also changed the presentation of Covid symptoms, since some studies have shown that early versions of it weren’t as good as previous variants at infecting the lungs .

The most prevalent subvariant circulating now is EG.5, followed by a strain called FL.1.5.1. Together, those two appear to be driving an uptick in Covid infections, though scientists are also watching BA.2.86 , a variant with a large number of mutations that looks significantly different from previous versions of omicron. Though cases of BA.2.86 are rising in the U.S., it isn’t among the top variants circulating.

Barouch said the new booster shots should be effective against those three strains and others. 

Who is being hospitalized?

The U.S. is recording around 19,000 Covid hospitalizations per week, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The weekly average rose around 80% from early August to the beginning of September.

Hospitalization rates are highest among people ages 75 and up, followed by babies under 6 months and adults ages 65 to 74. Most people hospitalized for Covid since January had not received a bivalent booster, according to the CDC.

Older people in particular may have waning immunity if they haven’t been infected or vaccinated recently, Daignault said.

"That’s why the priority should be to vaccinate that particular group of patients with the fall booster," he said.

Daignault said emergency rooms generally aren’t seeing the shortness of breath, low oxygen rates or viral pneumonia that led some patients to be put on oxygen tubes or ventilators in the past.

Instead, he said, the typical Covid patients hospitalized in Burbank are older and suffering dehydration, loss of appetite, weakness or fatigue.

What does long Covid look like now?

A study published this month found that long Covid rates declined once omicron became the dominant variant. Researchers don’t know if milder disease contributed to that trend, or if population immunity was largely responsible.

But McComsey — a principal investigator for the National Institutes of Health’s RECOVER Initiative, which studies long Covid — said she's still seeing new cases of long Covid. Rapid heart rate and exercise intolerance are among the most common lingering symptoms, she said. 

Each re-infection brings a risk of long Covid, McComsey added, so she doesn't think people should ignore the current rise in infections.

"What we’re seeing in long Covid clinics is not just the older strains that continue to be symptomatic and not getting better — we’re adding to that number with the new strain as well," McComsey said. "That’s why I’m not taking this new wave any less seriously."

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Aria Bendix is the breaking health reporter for NBC News Digital.

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Who does a government shutdown affect most? Here's what happens to the agencies Americans rely on.

By Melissa Quinn, Kathryn Watson, Caitlin Yilek, Stefan Becket

Updated on: September 27, 2023 / 10:54 AM / CBS News

Washington — With an  Oct. 1 deadline to fund the government looming and no deal in Congress in sight, the prospect of a government shutdown has many Americans wondering what the impact of a lapse in government funding might mean for the services they depend on.

A shutdown occurs when Congress fails to approve new spending for federal agencies, which are generally barred from spending money without congressional authorization. There are some exceptions, like activities needed to protect life and property. Each agency makes its own determination about which employees are needed to stay on the job, meaning the impact on federal operations can vary widely.

House Speaker Kevin McCarthy is scrambling to find a way forward with his fractious Republican caucus, with a vocal hard-right faction opposed to a short-term deal that would extend government funding, even with spending cuts.

  • Does Congress get paid during a government shutdown?

Since no annual spending bills have passed, a  government shutdown  would touch nearly every corner of the vast federal government, excluding programs that have permanent funding. Many federal employees would be required to keep working without pay. Hundreds of thousands more would be furloughed and sent home, with their paychecks delayed until there is a resolution.

The impact of the shutdown would depend on how long it lasts. Here are some of the federal government's functions that will and won't be impacted by a lapse in funding: 

The military and federal law enforcement

An aerial view of the Pentagon on Tuesday, June 30, 2020.

Members of the military and federal law enforcement would continue going to work, but may not be paid until Congress approved government funding. Most civilian personnel working for the Defense Department, such as military technicians, would be furloughed, and military personnel may step in to carry out their work, according to a  contingency plan for the continuation of essential operations issued by the Pentagon in August.

There are roughy 804,000 civilian employees at the Pentagon, and pay for more than 166,000 is financed outside of annual appropriations, according to the plan. The Defense Department said nearly 200,000 are "necessary to protect life and property," and would be kept on in the event of a shutdown. Roughly 2 million military personnel would continue to perform duties during a lapse in funding.

Nonessential government programs could also be paused — during the 2018 shutdown, the Army and Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve canceled training , and furloughs went into effect.

Training exercises "required to required to achieve and maintain operational readiness and to prepare for and carry out" operations necessary for national security would be exempted from a shutdown, according to the contingency plan.

Pentagon spokesperson Chris Sherwood told Politico in an emailed statement that furloughs and the Defense Department's pause of nonessential activities that are expected in the event of a shutdown could disrupt the "delivery of defense articles, services and/or military education and training" for Ukraine.

The IRS and taxes

File photo of the Internal Revenue Service building.

Because of money Democrats approved through their landmark healthcare, tax and climate legislation last year, normal operations at the IRS would continue, and the agency's 83,000 workers would be saved from furlough. Taxpayers are still required to pay taxes during a shutdown.

The tax agency's circumstances under a possible government shutdown this year would differ greatly from years past. In 2018, at least 26,000 furloughed IRS workers were called back to work without pay to get ready for the tax season, though 14,000 of those recalled employees didn't return , with thousands seeking permission under their union contract to be absent because of financial hardship. 

Military and veterans' health care

According to the White House, acute and emergency outpatient care in Defense Department medical and dental facilities will continue. All inpatient care will also continue at Defense Department medical facilities. 

The Department of Veterans Affairs said all Veterans Health Administration facilities are expected to remain open in the event of a shutdown. Employees who perform medical and prosthetic research are expected to be furloughed. 

VA doctors will remain on the job and the Veteran Choice Program will remain open, which means that prescriptions will still be filled and medical providers will still be open for appointments.

Other VA benefits

Pedestrians walk past the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., on Friday, May 10, 2013.

Veterans Affairs benefits continue as normal under a shutdown. Military retirees and bereaved families on the Survivor Benefit Plan can expect to continue to receive their pension checks. Disability checks will continue. 

"The [VA] is committed to providing quality, consistent care and services to Veterans and their families," the agency's contingency plan says. "VA's mission provides no exception to this standard even when operations are limited by the absence of appropriations."

But there can still be ramifications for veterans, especially if a shutdown drags on for an extended period of time. During the October 2013 shutdown, VA officials warned that disability payments might be stalled if the closure lasted beyond several weeks. 

Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid

Social Security checks will continue to be sent out in the event of a shutdown, so seniors and others on Social Security don't need to worry about missing payments. But other Social Security Agency services like benefit verification could be severely affected, and new applicants could temporarily be turned away. Social Security is funded by permanent appropriations, meaning it doesn't need funding renewed every year.

Medicare and Medicaid are also permanent programs, so benefits would continue uninterrupted.

The Postal Service

Postal Service operations aren't affected during a shutdown. That means the mail will still be delivered, and Post Offices will still be open. The U.S. Postal Service is an independent agency, and in previous shutdowns, operations have continued.

Food assistance

While funding for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP, is mandatory, the actual issuance of benefits can be affected by a shutdown, since Department of Agriculture employees aren't receiving a paycheck. Typically in a shutdown, according to the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, the USDA is authorized to send out SNAP benefits for 30 days. After that, benefits can become dicey.

National parks

During the government shutdown in 2013, visitors to national parks, including to monuments in Washington, D.C., were met with closure signs. The National Parks Service estimated that the shutdown resulted in more than $500 million in lost-visitor spending.

A Park Police officer walks passes a sign announcing the closure of the Lincoln Memorial due to a partial government shutdown in Washington, D.C., on Tuesday, Oct. 1, 2013.

Many parks stayed open during a shutdown in 2018 and 2019, but with fewer visitor services, such as trash collection and access to restrooms. Some states like Utah paid the federal government to keep certain properties open.

In anticipation of a lapse in government funding at the end of this month, Wyoming Sen. John Barrasso, the top Republican on the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, urged Interior Secretary Debra Haaland to use certain funds from the collection of fees to keep national parks and other public lands accessible.

"In previous years, it has been demonstrated that these funds can be successfully utilized to keep public lands open during a lapse in appropriations," Barrasso wrote.

People wait in a TSA screening line at Orlando International Airport three days before Thanksgiving in Orlando, Florida, Nov. 21, 2022.

Travelers may feel the pain at the nation's airports as a result of a shutdown, as air traffic controllers and Transportation Security Administration agents would have to work without pay, according to the White House. 

White House press secretary Karine Jean-Pierre said a shutdown could mean "significant" delays for travelers, and Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg told Congress on Wednesday that a lapse in funding would come at "exactly the wrong moment" and halt training for roughly 2,600 air traffic controllers. There is currently a shortage of roughly 3,000 air traffic controllers in the U.S., and Buttigieg warned a shutdown would come "at the very moment when we finally have those air traffic control workforce numbers headed in the right direction."

The Department of Transportation said in a shutdown plan issued in September 2022 that air traffic control services will continue as expected during a lapse in appropriations. According to the Department of Homeland Security's plan, an estimated 55,975 TSA employees are expected to be retained if funding runs out.

During the shutdown that began in late 2018, unscheduled absences at two Federal Aviation Administration facilities led to travel disruptions at New York's LaGuardia airport and other major airports in Atlanta, Philadelphia and New Jersey.

State Department's passport office

The State Department's Passport Agency remains open during a shutdown, but like many other offices, don't expect it to work at the same speed. Passport renewals have already been lagging for travelers, and a shutdown wouldn't help. 

  • Government Shutdown

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    Social Security is funded by permanent appropriations, meaning it doesn't need funding renewed every year. Medicare and Medicaid are also permanent programs, so benefits would continue uninterrupted.