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- 1. MENTAL HEALTH Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
- 2. WHO DEFINITION The positive dimension of mental health is stressed in WHO's definition of health as contained in its constitution.
- 3. FEW FACTS Depression is characterized by sustained sadness and loss of interest along with psychological, behavioral and physical symptoms. It is ranked as the leading cause of disability worldwide
- 4. FEW FACTS About half of mental disorders begin before the age of 14. Around 20% of the world's children and adolescents are estimated to have mental disorders or problems, with similar types of disorders being reported across cultures.
- 5. MENTAL HEALTH Mental health is not just the absence of mental disorder. It is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.
- 7. HISTORY Mentally ill were considered to be possessed by devils. Patients were locked up in tall jail like buildings, far removed from the centre of population, alienated from the rest of society During the 20th century ,psychiatry began to make scientific advance.
- 9. HISTORY Mental health is thus the balanced develop- meant of the individual’s personality and emotional attitude which enables him to live harmoniously with his fellow men. Mental health is not exclusively a matter of relation between persons. It is also a matter of relation of the individual towards the community he lives in ,towards the society of which the community is a part.
- 10. PROBLEM STATEMENT WORLD : Mental and behavioural disorders are found in people of all regions ,all countries and all societies. An analysis done by WHO shows that neuro psychiatric conditions ,which included a selection of these disorders had an aggregate point prevalance of 10% for adults.
- 11. INDIA Survey in India suggest morbidity rate of not less than 18 – 20 per 1000,and the types of illness and their prevalance are very much the same as in other parts of the world. The number of specialized hospitals for mental disorder patients in the country are 47 with total number of beds about 10329.
- 12. WHO DAY 2001 THEME MENTAL HEALTH : STOP EXCLUSION – DARE TO CARE
- 13. INDIA : NEW OPD CASES IN 2004 IN MENTAL HOSPITALS PSYCHOTIC SUBSTANCE - 6737 SCHIZOPHRENIA - 55869 MOOD DISORDER - 31555 NEUROTIC - 38482 BEHAVIOUR SYNDROME - 3417 PERSONALITY DISORDER - 906 MENTAL RETARDATION - 4256
- 14. INDIA : NEW OPD CASES IN 2004 IN MENTAL HOSPITALS CHILDHOOD DISORDER - 885 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER - 1151 ORGANIC DISORDER - 4577 UNSPECIFIED DISORDERS - 2904
- 16. CHARACTERISTICS OF A MENTALLY HEALTHY PERSON He feels comfortable about himself, he feels reasonably secure and adequate. He neither underestimates his own ability. The mentally healthy person feels right towards others. This means that he is able to be interested in others and to love them. He is able to like and trust others. The mentally healthy person is able to meet the demands of life. He is not bowled over by his own emotions of fear, anger, love or guilt.
- 18. WARNING SIGNALS OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH 1.Are you always worrying ? 2.Are you unable to concentrate because of unrecognised reasons ? 3.Are you continually unhappy without justified cause ? 4.Do you lose temper easily and often ? 5.Are you troubled by regular insomnia ?
- 19. Contd. 6.Do you have wide fluctuations in your mood 7.Do you continually dislike to be with people? 8.Are you upset if the routine of your life is disturbed ? 9.Do your children consistently get on your nerves ?
- 20. Contd. 10.Are you ‘browned off’ and constantly bitter 11.Are you afraid without real cause ? 12.Are you always right and the other person always wrong ? 13.Do you have numerous aches and pains for which no doctor can find a physical cause ?
- 21. TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS Organic disorders – eg .dementia in Alzheimer’s disease. Mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use – eg . alchohol, opoid dependence syndrome. Schizophrenia and delusional disorders – eg. Paranoid schizophrenia, delusional disorder, acute and transient psychotic disorder. Mood (affective) disorders – eg.bipolar affective disorder,depressive episode.
- 22. TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS Neurotic, stress related disorders – eg. generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive – compulsive disorders. Behavioural syndromes – eg. eating disorder, non-organic sleep disorders. Disorder of adult personality and behaviour eg.paranoid personality disorder. Mental retardation.
- 23. TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS Disorders of psychological development – eg. specific reading disorders, childhood autism. Behavioural and emotional disorders with onset in childhood – eg. hyperkinetic disorders, tic disorders ,conduct disorders. Unspecified mental disorder.
- 25. MAJOR MENTAL ILLNESSES SCHIZOPHRENIA OR SPLIT PERSONALITY MANIC DEPRESSIVE PSYCHOSIS PARANOIA MINOR MENTAL ILLNESSES : NEUROSIS OR PSYCHONEUROSIS PERSONALITY AND CHARACTER DISORDERS
- 27. CAUSES OF MENTAL ILLHEALTH ORGANIC CONDITIONS : 1.Cerebral arteriosclerosis 2.Neoplasms 3.Metabolic diseases 4.Neurological diseases 5.Endocrine diseases 6.Epilepsy,TB,Leprosy etc
- 28. Contd. HEREDITY : Child of 2 schizophrenic parents is 40 times more likely to develop schizophrenia. SOCIAL PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES : Social and environmental factors associated with mental ill health comprise : Worries, anxieties, emotional stress, tension, frustration, unhappy marriages, broken homes, poverty, industrialization, urbanization, changing family structure, population mobility, economic insecurity, cruelity,rejection,neglect.
- 29. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Toxic substances : carbon disulphide, mercury, manganese, tin, lead compounds. Psychotropic drugs :barbiturates,alcohol, griesofulvin. Nutritional factors :thiamine and pyridoxine deficiency. Minerals :deficiency of iodine.
- 30. Contd. Infective agents : infectious diseases e.g. measles, rubella during prenatal,perinatal, and postnatal period of life have adverse effect on brains development. Traumatic factors :Road and occupational accidents. Radiation : CNS is most sensitive to radiation during the period of neural development.
- 31. CRUCIAL POINTS IN LIFE OF HUMAN BEINGS Prenatal period :Pregnancy is a stressful period for some women. First 5 years of life :Roots of mental health are in early childhood. Broken homes are likely to produce behaviour disorders in children. School child :Everything that happens in school affects the mental health of child.
- 32. Contd. Adolescence :The transition from adolescence to manhood is often a stormy one and fraught with dangers to mental health manifested in form of mental ill health among the young. Old age :Causes are organic conditions of brain, economic insecurity, lack of home, poor status and insecurity.
- 33. NEEDS OF MAN / WOMAN 1.The need for affection. 2.The need for belonging. 3.The need for independence. 4.The need for achievement. 5.The need for recognition. 6.The need for sense of personal worth. 7.The need for self actualization.
- 34. PREVENTIVE ASPECTS PRIMARY PREVENTION : Improving the social environment, promotion of social, emotional and physical well being of all people. Working for better living conditions/health. SECONDARY PREVENTION : Early diagnosis of mental illness and of social and emotional disturbances through screening programmes in schools, university, industry and provision of treatment facilities. Family based health services have much role to play.Family counseling is also a method for helping the ill.
- 35. Contd. TERTIARY PREVENTION : It aims to reduce the duration of mental illness and thus reduce the stress they create for the family and the community. The goal at this level is to prevent further break down and disruption.
- 36. MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES Early diagnosis and treatment. Rehabilitation. Group and individual psychotherapy. Mental health education Use of modern psychoactive drugs. After care services.
- 37. COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMME Inpatient services Outpatient services Partial hospitalization Emergency services Diagnostic services Pre and after care services Education services Training, research and evaluation
- 38. HUMAN RIGHTS OF MENTALLY ILL “ ALL PERSONS WITH A MENTAL ILLNESS OR WHO ARE BEING TREATED AS SUCH PERSONS ,SHALL BE TREATED WITH HUMANITY AND RESPECT FOR THE INHERENT DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON … THERE SHALL BE NO DISCRIMINATION ON THE GROUNDS OF MENTAL ILLNESS …” UN 1991
- 39. THANK YOU
- 40. ALCOHOLISM AND DRUG DEPENDENCE DEFINITION : Drug is defined as any substance that when taken into living organism, may modify one or more of its functions (WHO). DRUG ABUSE : Self administration of a drug for non medical reasons, in quantities and frequencies which may impair an individuals ability to function effectively, and which may result in social, physical or emotional harm.
- 42. DRUG DEPENDENCE A state ,psychic and sometimes also physical,resulting from the interaction between a living organism and a drug, characterized by behavioural and other responses that always include a compul - sion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence.
- 43. THE PROBLEM The non medical use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs has become a matter of serious concern in many countries. An estimated 12 – 20 million people smoke marijuana in US. Experience in sweden indicates drug dependence reached a peak in the age group 12 – 20 years and the problem is less among girls. The problem of drug dependence has reached an epidemic proportions in many countries.
- 45. AGENT FACTORS DEPENDENCE PRODUCING DRUGS : 1.Alcohol 2.Opioids 3.Cannabinoids 4.Sedatives or hypnotics 5.Cocaine 6.Other stimulants including caffeine
- 46. Contd. 7.Hallucinogens 8.Tobacco 9.Volatile solvents 10.Other psychoactive substances
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