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Genre, Knowledge and Pedagogy in the Sydney School
David rose [ + – ], university of sydney, view website, j.r. martin [ + – ].
This book presents the research of the ‘Sydney School’ in language and literacy pedagogy. Widely known as genre-based pedagogy, the research is cutting-edge, but is built on 30 years of developments in the field, in a unique collaboration between functional linguists and literacy educators. This collaboration has transformed linguistic and pedagogic theory into a powerful, comprehensive methodology for embedding literacy teaching in educational practice. The book is written to be useful for practitioners, researchers and students, building up pedagogic, linguistic and social theory in steps, contextualized within teaching practice. Topics covered include the genre-based writing pedagogy, genres across the school curriculum, pedagogy for learning through reading, and the pedagogic metalanguage developed in the research. On one hand this volume offers educators an unparalleled set of strategies for transforming educational outcomes; on the other it offers researchers powerful tools for investigating and redesigning educational practice.
Series : Equinox Textbooks and Surveys in Linguistics
Table of Contents
2 Language and social power
3 Write it Right/the Right to Write
4 Reading to Learn
5 Knowledge about language (KAL)
6 Knowledge about pedagogy
Readers will not only learn a new approach to pedagogy but may feel it resonates with some of the reasons they joined the teaching profession in the first place. JALT Journal , 36.2 (2014)
All in all , Learning to Write, Reading to Learn, is an excellent and exciting book. It demonstrates the authors’ academic interest and extensive knowledge in genre-based pedagogy and is a success in combining synchronic and diacrhonic, qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. Asia Pacific Journal of Education , 34.3 (2014)
The book is a useful framework for researchers to investigate the relation between language and education, and a powerful tool for education practitioners to reflect on current education practice and improve educational outcomes. It offers students with insights into the essence of knowledge and a short-cut way to improve their learning efficiency. It also offers social workers a penetrating revelation of the source of social injustice and a toolkit for them to promote social justice and scaffold democracy. Applied Linguistics , Vol 35, No 1, February 2014
A useful platform for further dialogue about and development of SFL-based pedagogy in the worldwide processes of recontextualisation of the pedagogy based on the pioneering work of Halliday, Hasan and Bernstein… and the subsequent development over more than five decades in dialogue with adjacent theories including Bruner, Vygotsky, Bakhtin, and many, many others. Functions of Language 20:2, 2013
A substantive contribution to the study of genre (based) pedagogy. Their book represents the thirty years’ development of their approach towards ‘genre pedagogy’ and Rose and Martin should be applauded for presenting such cutting-edge research which has clear and immediate relevance for the modern day multi-ethnic classroom. Linguist List 23.4751, 2012
Provides a rich and profound overview of the groundbreaking work concerning the teaching of writing and reading in Australia often named The Australian Genre Pedagogy. The book is a gold mine for newcomers of this pedagogy as well as those already engaged and informed. Linguistics and the Human Sciences
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D. Rose and J. Martin: Learning to Write, Reading to Learn: Genre, Knowledge and Pedagogy of the Sydney School.
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Liangtao Lai, D. Rose and J. Martin: Learning to Write, Reading to Learn: Genre, Knowledge and Pedagogy of the Sydney School., Applied Linguistics , Volume 35, Issue 1, February 2014, Pages 109–112, https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt044
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In the discipline of literacy education, the theory and practice of Sydney School headed by J. R. Martin hold a prominent position and have exerted far-reaching influence around the world. Considering its wide influence, it is quite unthinkable that during the past three decades there has been no publication summarizing the development of the school’s theories and practices that have been implemented. This book presents a comprehensive theorization of the school’s research work in literacy education.
The structure of the book is straightforward. It includes six chapters, divided into three parts. Part One includes the first chapter that focuses on the general context of the genre-based literacy pedagogy of Sydney School. Part Two includes four chapters that introduce the theories and practices in the three phases of the school’s existence. Part Three consists of a single chapter that presents a summary of the school’s pedagogy for literacy education.
Chapter 1 is an introduction to the general context of Sydney School’s genre-based literacy pedagogy. The term genre was originally used to theorize the types of student writings and is now defined as a staged, goal-oriented social process. The basic principle of Sydney School’s literacy teaching philosophy consists in providing learners and teachers with explicit knowledge about the sort of language used in curriculum writing/reading and in teaching–learning interactions. The aim of the genre-based pedagogy is to facilitate a more equitable distribution of knowledge to students, while knowledge here refers to the knowledge of the school curriculum to which reading and writing provide access. Learning in school is explored on the basis of Bernstein’s theory of pedagogic device ( Bernstein 2000). Learning activities are presented as a cycle consisting of five general elements (preparation, focus, task, evaluation, and elaboration), while teaching sequences are explained in the form of a spiral curriculum of learning cycles. As a result, teaching–learning cycles are created on the basis of guided teacher–student interactions.
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- ACADEMIC ADVICE
Read and Write Learners: Techniques & Tips
- January 25, 2022
Table of Contents
Reading to understand, note-taking for memory retention and learning, characteristics of read and write learners, cornell’s notes, mind-mapping, highlighting and annotating, using symbols and abbreviations, tips for read and write learners.
Different people have different learning styles that refer to how they prefer to have information presented to them. If you understand things better once you’ve written them down, find diagrams and graphs hard to follow, and enjoy listing items — you are probably a read and write learner. Read this article to learn more about this type of learner, its characteristics, as well as strategies and tips they find helpful.
What Is Reading And Writing Learning Style?
Reading and writing is one of the four learning styles of the VARK model of learning, which consists of visual, auditory, reading and writing, and kinesthetic learning. Sometimes referred to as the second visual style, reading and writing is a type of learning during which people prefer to read and write in order to learn more effectively. These learners are known as read and write learners and usually learn best by reading and writing the information down. They are the people who always add notes to pictures, choose a hardcover book over an audiobook, and prefer using closed captions while watching videos. Their learning process consists of a combination between reading and writing, by reading to understand and note-taking to learn.
The read and write learners rely on reading to understand and learn. They may have problems grasping the information presented to them by other means such as lectures or pictures, as they are more comfortable with written words. Read and write learners typically choose textbooks, articles, handouts, and notes as their primary source of learning information. They also enjoy learning from reference materials like dictionaries and encyclopedias.
After reading a text, read and write learners prefer to reduce and rephrase it to retain information further. They use note-taking as a powerful tool for learning. These learners are usually successful in a traditional classroom environment, where they tend to take notes in most classes and benefit from reading and re-reading them. Writing the information down, rewriting, and reading it is what helps them better understand it.
Did you know that although reading and writing learners are usually the ‘good students’ in a class, they can find participating in discussions challenging? Since they can articulate themselves better when writing, they prefer to write their thoughts down before sharing them with the class. This way, they can process their thoughts and become more prepared and less stressed to share out loud. You can find more read and write learner characteristics in the list below.
- Learn best by reading and taking notes
- Like reading out-loud
- Use dictionaries and other source materials as reference
- Learn by re-reading their notes
- Tend to remember information that they read or write down
- Can become great writers
- Prefer making organized Powerpoint Presentations for presenting different projects
- Prefer reading by themselves rather than have someone read to them to retain information
- Excel at multiple-choice and essay tests
- Tend to be good at grammar since they read habitually and frequently
- Prefer writing essays to oral presentations
- Like researching
- Express themselves better when writing rather than when talking
- Tend to write detailed notes
- Like words that have interesting/unique meanings and backgrounds
- Prefer written feedback for their work or performance
- Enjoy using lists and ordering things into categories
- Enjoy reading in their free time
Different Reading And Writing Techniques of Learning
It goes without saying that the notes you take need to be concise, clear, and accurate. Since read and write learners mainly rely on notes for the process of learning, in this part, we have compiled different strategies that can be useful for such learners. Read on to find out more about each one of them.
While there are many ways to take notes, Cornell’s notes is an efficient note-taking technique suggested for the reading and writing learning style. This method helps read and write learners better understand information and facilitates reviewing notes.
To organize your notes, you need to divide the page into four sections:
- One small area at the top of the page where you can put your title and date.
- Two main column areas at the center, one to write your notes on, and the other for keywords, comments, or questions.
- The fourth (last) part is the area at the bottom that you shall use to write a short summary of that page after reviewing your notes.
This method encourages you to reflect on your notes by summarizing them, thus helping you understand and remember information better.
Mind mapping is another effective way to organize information in order to understand it better. You can use it to take notes while listening to a lecture, organize your ideas and information, review learning when preparing for an exam, and more. You start by putting the main idea in the center of the page ( the page should be in landscape orientation), adding arrows, speech bubbles, branches, and colors to further elaborate on the topic.
It would be best if you tried to draw quickly and clearly, with the intention to revisit your drawing to revise and better understand that information. Use different colors to classify and symbolize different things. Always try to leave some space on your page so that you can add to your mind mapping diagram.
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Many students tend to highlight or underline the main parts of a text and take notes in the page margins. This method of learning and note-taking enhances the understanding of a text. After reading it, you need to go back to the text and revise the main points of each paragraph, highlighting them and adding comments, summaries, or questions as annotations in the page margins on the side.
The highlighting and annotating technique helps you engage with the text by noting observations, words to look up, questions, or adding further clarifications and context to certain parts. You can highlight different parts in different colors but be careful not to overdo it as it can distract you when revising information.
In order to avoid writing down everything word for word when you take notes, it is recommended that you use abbreviations and symbols. You can abbreviate by leaving out most articles and conjunctions, shorten words by leaving out vowels or other letters, and use abbreviations and symbols for commonly used words and phrases. You may even come up with a few of your own and personalize them. Through abbreviation and symbol use, shortening words and sentences allow you to write down as much as possible as quickly as possible.
As we already established, people who use the read and write learning style primarily use reading and note-taking in order to learn. In addition to the strategies mentioned above for taking notes more effectively, below we present some general tips to help read and write learners retain information more easily.
- Rewrite information into your own words
- Translate charts, diagrams, graphs into words (or compose short explanations for them)
- Write down main or key concepts and ideas
- Write down instructions for every step of any process or procedure
- Study alone in quiet areas to avoid distractions
- Keeps lots of notes
- Keep your notes organized with subheadings, bullet points, and lists
- Use different colored pens and highlighters
- Highlight keywords as you write
- Make sure you include many details
- Re-read your notes
- Write notes to yourself in the margins
- Rewrite your notes after class
- Print out your notes for later review
- Compare your notes with someone else’s
- Post notes cards in visible places
- Write exam answers
- Practice with multiple-choice questions
- Combine your handouts with your notes
Finding your learning style is crucial to making learning easier, more accessible, and more effective. If you could relate to what you read so far and are a read and write learner, we hope you use the strategies and tips we provided for a better learning experience. If you think your learning style may be a combination of more than one method, you can check our articles on the three other types of learning and find out what suits you best.
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Learning to Read, Reading to Learn
The middle years (Years 5-9 in Victoria) are a crucial stage of schooling where the range in student achievement widens, and progress for some students slows significantly . Despite recent moves towards middle school reform and improved literacy standards, there has remained a gap in literacy provision for adolescent learners, particularly those defined as 'educationally disadvantaged' or 'at risk' . Many literacy intervention programs offered to underachieving adolescents fail to articulate to mainstream curriculum and assessment practices, or to scaffold students adequately in meeting the literacy demands of an increasingly abstract and specialised curriculum. Often attributing literacy failure to individual deficit, many intervention programs, albeit well-intentioned, lead to a differentiated curriculum which potentially compounds educational disadvantage and maintains stratified outcomes.
This edited volume brings together diverse perspectives on Australian literacy education for Indigenous peoples, highlighting numerous educational approaches, ideologies and aspirations. The Australian Indigenous context presents unique challenges for educators working across the continent in settings ranging from urban to remote, and with various social and language groups. Accordingly, one of the book’s main goals is to foster dialogue between researchers and practitioners working in these contexts, and who have vastly different theoretical and ideological perspectives. It offers a valuable resource for academics and teachers of Indigenous students who are interested in literacy-focused research, and complements scholarship on literacy education in comparable Indigenous settings internationally.
For Verhoeven, L., & Pugh, K., & Perfetti, C (forthcoming), Cross-linguistic perspectives on literacy education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Nick Reid , Anne-Marie Morgan
Educators in Australian schools encounter opportunities and challenges comparable in kind to those encountered by many of their colleagues in other settings. They work in the midst of growing diversity among students, communities, and workplaces, uncertain support from governments in changeable times, the uneven quality of teacher education and professional learning, and ongoing debates over pedagogy and assessment, and over the role of research in improving their students’ learning. But Australian educators also encounter opportunities and challenges that are distinct, or at least inflected in particularly demanding or consequential ways. We aim here to outline some of these, focusing in large part on the less frequently discussed challenges and opportunities presented by Aboriginal and migrant education. In a piece of this scale we can hope to provide only a sampler of issues, of researchers and scholars who have productively addressed focal ideas, and of developments from other countries that have influenced the course of that work. We first sketch some prominent features of the demographic and administrative characteristics of Australian education. We then describe the challenges and opportunities presented to research, practice, and policy by educational engagements with Aboriginal and migrant communities, and the often noteworthy but generally patchy track-record of achievements arising from those engagements. Along the way we outline some recommendations arising from lessons this track-record may provide about literacy’s relationship to languages, to pedagogical practices, to policy formation and maintenance, and to the educational research environment. We then summarize international views of Australian literacy education, largely based on research from the Organization for Economic and Cultural Development (henceforth OECD), and the particular nature and history of the diverse research traditions that have substantially informed Australian literacy education. We conclude with some brief observations and lessons about the research, policy and media environments that literacy inhabits, as an object of, respectively, inquiry, regulation, and anxiety.
The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy
Joseph Lo Bianco
This book, which is intended to inform Australia's education community about various aspects of the national literacy debate and the policy development process, reviews the literature on literacy teaching in secondary and postsecondary education and the workplace and describes the sociocultural and educational context for development of literacy policy and programs in the 1990s. Among the topics discussed in the book's six parts are the following: part 1, broad context of literacy education (the powers of literacy; literacy levels among Australians; and citizenship, social equity, and competence); part 2, necessary content of a national policy on literacy (policy context; purpose and scope; definitions; considerations in defining literacy; teaching cycles); part 3, Australia's learners (Australian English speakers, language diversity and English literacy, indigenous Australians, special needs, socioeconomic disadvantage); part 4, school literacy education (the early year...
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Phonics and Decoding
A New Model for Teaching High-Frequency Words
Integrating high-frequency words into phonics lessons allows students to make sense of spelling patterns for these words. To do this, high-frequency words need to be categorized according to whether they are spelled entirely regularly or not. This article describes how to “rethink” teaching of high-frequency words.
On this page:
Current practices, overview of suggested restructuring, teach 10–15 “sight words” before phonics instruction begins, flash words and heart words defined, flash words, flash words with advanced vowels to teach with early phonics instruction, flash words with two and three syllables, heart words, teaching heart words, implementing the new model, about the authors.
We have visited many schools to observe intervention lessons and core reading instruction. For years we have been struck that even schools embracing research-based reading instruction teach high-frequency words through rote memorization. It is as if the high-frequency words are a special set of words that need to be memorized and can’t be learned using sound–symbol relationships.
A number of years ago, a teacher we respect enormously asked for help because many of her Tier 2 students and all of her Tier 3 students in first and second grades were failing to learn high-frequency words, even though they were progressing in their phonics lessons. We observed her teaching the digraph th to a group of four Tier 3 first grade students. This lesson was in April. Her students had learned to read CVC words and this was their first lesson with digraphs . The high-frequency words the students were responsible for knowing in this lesson were the color words: blue , red , yellow , orange , purple , and green . None of the four students could spell more than two of the words accurately. All four students had difficulty reading those words when they were mixed into lists with other high-frequency words. (Indeed, they were having difficulty reading all the high-frequency words in the lists.)
These students could read words that followed spelling patterns they had learned and practiced, but they struggled learning words that made no sense to them from a sound–spelling viewpoint. We suggested that the students learn high-frequency words according to spelling patterns, and not according to frequency number or theme.
Together with the teacher, we organized the high-frequency words to fit into the phonics lessons so that the words were tied to spelling patterns students were learning. First, we focused on identifying decodable high-frequency words such as but, him, and yes and integrating them into phonics lessons instead of teaching them as words that had to be memorized. Next, we identified irregularly spelled high-frequency words such as said, you, and from . These words have two or three letter sounds students knew and only one or two letters that had to be memorized. We integrated 2 or 3 of these words into a phonics lessons, and students learned to identify the letters spelled as expected and to learn “by heart” the letters not spelled as expected.
With this approach, students had an easier time learning to read the word said because they knew that only the letters ai are an unexpected spelling. Students also soon stopped confusing was and saw because they learned to think about the first sound before reading or spelling those words. The teacher told us that she, her students, and their parents were thrilled that they were no longer “banging their heads against the wall” going over and over the words as students tried to memorize how to read or spell high-frequency words with little success.
High-frequency words are often referred to as “ sight words ”, a term that usually reflects the practice of learning the words through memorization. These words might be on the Dolch List, Fry Instant Words, or selected from stories in the reading program. Common practice often includes sending these “sight words” home for students to study and memorize, or drilling with flash cards in school. Students may start with word #1 and progress through the words in the order of frequency. Some teachers, like our friend above, group the words in categories, such as numbers or colors, whenever possible. In essence, high-frequency word instruction is often fully divorced from phonics instruction. While this method works for many students, it is an abysmal failure with others.
Integrating high-frequency words into phonics lessons allows students to make sense of spelling patterns for these words. To do this, high-frequency words need to be categorized according to whether they are spelled entirely regularly or not. Restructuring the way high-frequency words are taught makes reading and spelling the words more accessible to all students. The rest of this article describes how to “rethink” teaching of high-frequency words and fit them into phonics lessons.
Many kindergarten students are expected to learn 20 to 50, or even more, high-frequency words during the year. The words are introduced and practiced in class and students are asked to study them at home. Learning these “ sight words ” often starts before formal phonics instruction begins.
Children do need to know about 10–15 very-high-frequency words when they start phonics instruction. However, these words can be carefully selected so that they are the “essential words” that are not decodable when the short vowel patterns VC and CVC are taught. Words such as at , can , and had are easier for students to learn using phonics than by simply memorizing them.
We recommend teaching 10–15 pre‐reading high-frequency words only after students know all the letter names, but before they start phonics instruction. (Students who have not learned their letter names inevitable struggle to learn words that have letters they cannot identify.) Teaching students to read the ten words in Table 1 as “sight words” even before they begin phonics instruction is unlikely to overburden even “at risk” students. These ten words can be used to write decodable sentences when phonics instruction begins. The words in Table 1 are suggestions only, and teachers may revise or add words based on their reading materials and their students. For example, the words are and said are often added.
To teach these ten pre-reading sight words, we recommend introducing one word at a time. Teaching these words in the order listed can minimize confusion for students. For example, the and a are unlikely to be confused, as are I and to . However, to and of are widely separated on the table because both are two-letter words with the letter o , and t and f have similar formations.
As we recommended above, the words in Table 1 should not be taught or practiced until a student knows all the letter names.
Students can demonstrate they know these words in a number of ways, including (1) finding the word in a list or row of other words, (2) finding the word in a text, (3) reading the word from a card, and (4) spelling the word.
If students know letter sounds and can identify the first sound in a word, the following words can be tied to beginning letter sounds because the initial sound is spelled as expected: to , and , was , you , for , is . The word I is easily recognized by students who know their letter names. On the other hand, the words the , a , and of cannot be tied to known letter sounds.
Teaching a “ditty” to help students learn the, a, and of works for many students. Teachers have had success teaching students to sing the ditties below. It is important that students have the word in front of them when they say the ditty. They should point to the word when they say it in the ditty, and point to the letters when they say them in the ditty.
- The : I can say ‘thee’ or I can say ‘thuh’, but I always spell it ‘t’ ‘h’ ‘e’
- A: I can say ‘ā’ or I can say ‘uh’, but I always spell it with the letter ‘a’
- Of is hard to spell, but not for me. I love to spell of. ‘o’ ‘f’ of, ‘o’ ‘f’ of, ‘o’ ‘f’ of
Table 1: 10 Sight Words for Pre-Readers to Learn
Dolch words are from: Dolch, E. W. (1936). A basic sight vocabulary . The Elementary School Journal , 36(6), 456-460.
Dolch Rankings were found on lists at K12 Reader (opens in a new window) and Mrs. Perkins Dolch Words (opens in a new window) .
Fry words and rankings are from: Fry, E., & Kress, J.K. (2006). The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists . Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
For instructional purposes, high-frequency words can be divided into two categories: those that are phonetically decodable and those with irregular spellings. We call high-frequency words that are regularly spelled and thus decodable “Flash Words”.
Although their spelling patterns are easily decoded, Flash Words are used so frequently in reading and writing that students need to be able to read and spell them “in a flash”. Examples of Flash Words at the CVC level are can , not , and did . Irregularly spelled words are called “ Heart Words ” because some part of the word will have to be “learned by heart.” Heart Words are also used so frequently that they need to be read and spelled automatically. Examples of Heart Words are: said , are , and where .
Words on any high-frequency word list can easily be categorized into Flash Words and Heart Words. However, be cautioned that a word may change categories. For example, early in a phonics scope and sequence , see may be a Heart Word because the long e spelling patterns haven’t been taught. When students learn that ee spells long /e/, see becomes a Flash Word. Further, many of the Heart Words can be categorized into words with similar spellings. This article categorizes words on the Dolch List of 220 High-Frequency Words (Dolch 220 List) 1 . The method we use to categorize words on the Dolch 220 List works with any high-frequency word list.
One hundred and thirty-eight words (63%) on the Dolch 220 List are decodable when all regular spelling patterns are considered. Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C show the 138 decodable words categorized by spelling patterns. These tables can help teachers determine when to introduce the words during phonics lessons. Table 2A may be most useful for teachers of beginning reading because it lists the 60 one- syllable decodable words with the short vowel spelling pattern.
Table 2A: Flash Words (Decodable Words)
60 One-Syllable Words with Short Vowel Spelling Patterns
(Numbers in parentheses are the Dolch frequency ranking)
*Students easily understand that two consonants at the end of a word spell one sound.
1 The source for words on the Dolch 220 List is: Dolch, E. W. (1936). A basic sight vocabulary . The Elementary School Journal , 36(6), 456-460. Tables in this article show frequency rankings for words on the Dolch 220 list. Rankings for words on the Dolch 220 List can be found in many places, but we did not find a primary source that can be attributable to Dr. Dolch.
Rankings were retrieved on March 15, 2013, from K12 Reader (opens in a new window) and Mrs. Perkins Dolch Words (opens in a new window) .
Flash Words that can be taught with spellings students know will vary at any given time, depending on which phonics patterns students have been taught. For example, the words had, am, and can will be decodable when students have learned short /a/ and VC and CVC spelling patterns. That, when, pick, and much will be decodable after students learn digraphs and can read words with digraphs. The words just, went, black, and ask will be decodable when students learn to read words with blends.
Flash Words should be introduced when they fit into the phonics pattern being taught, which is different from teaching them based on their frequency of use. Flash Words are different from other decodable words only because of their frequency. They are called Flash Words because students will need lots of practice to read and spell these words “in a Flash”. These are called “Flash Words” instead of “ sight words ” because students do not have to memorize any part of Flash Words. They can use their knowledge of phonics patterns to read and spell the words.
Table 2B shows 60 one- syllable words with more advanced vowel spelling patterns . A few of these are so frequent that they will need to be taught when students are still learning the short vowel spelling patterns (VC and CVC) during phonics lessons.
Table 2B: Flash Words ( Decodable Words )
60 One-Syllable Words With R‐Controlled, Long, and Other Vowel Spellings
(Numbers in parentheses are the Dolch Frequency Ranking)
* Many programs teach these words as Heart Words when students are still learning to read words with short vowels.
Traditionally, many words in Table 2B would be taught as “ sight words ” and not included as part of phonics lessons. These words might be introduced as they are encountered in a story, or they might be taught in order. For example, he would be taught as high-frequency word #4, then she taught as high-frequency word #12, with we (#26), be (#33), and me (#58), following later.
Under the new model, words with asterisks in Table 2B are still introduced when short vowels are being taught. The difference in the new model is that these words are grouped together by vowel spelling pattern to make it easier for students to remember the words. Instead of teaching he in isolation as a word to be memorized, we teach he, be, we, me, and she together (as shown in the CV column in Table 2b) and point out that the letter e spells the long e sound. Go, no, and so can be taught together, as can my, by, and why .
Students will learn words more easily when grouped together by similar spelling than by memorizing words one at a time as whole units. If the curriculum requires a Flash Word to be taught before the vowel pattern has been introduced, teachers can refer to Table 2B to find words that can be grouped together.
Table 2C shows 16 Flash Words with two syllables and one Flash Word with three syllables. We recommend teaching these words after students have learned to read two‐ syllable words in phonics instruction. If these words must be introduced earlier, students will learn them more easily if the teacher breaks the words into syllables and shows any known letter sounds in each syllable. This way students learn to read each syllable and blend the syllables into a word, instead of having to memorize the whole word.
Table 2C: Flash Words ( Decodable Words )
17 Two-Syllable Words and 1 Three-Syllable Word
* These words have a schwa sound in the first or second syllable.
** This word is often pronounced with two syllables, especially in conversation.
The Dolch 220 List has 82 Heart Words (37%) that are shown on Tables 3A and 3B. Heart Words have Heart Letters, which are the irregularly spelled part of the word. For example, o is the Heart Letter in the words to and do.
Some of the Dolch Heart Words with similar spelling patterns can be grouped together, even though the spelling patterns are not regular. Table 3A (on the next page) shows 45 Heart Words grouped according to similar spelling patterns. The table also lists twelve words not on the Dolch List. These twelve words have similar spelling patterns to the Dolch words listed, and the words are likely to be words already in young students’ vocabularies. For example, could and would are Dolch words. We recommend adding should when could and would are taught, even though it is not on the Dolch 220 List.
The groups of words in Table 3A can be added to any phonics or spelling lesson, with the Heart Letters pointed out. For example, the words his, is, as, and has can all be taught as VC and CVC words in which the letter s is the Heart Letter because it spells the sound /z/.
Table 3A: Heart Words
59 Words Grouped by Similar Spelling Patterns 45 Words from the Dolch List and 14 Not on the Dolch List
(Numbers in Parentheses Are the Dolch Frequency Ranking) (Diamond [♦] indicates word is not on the Dolch List, but it fits the spelling pattern)
Table 3B shows 37 Heart Words not easily grouped by spelling patterns . Most of the words are more difficult for spelling than for reading.
As with all Heart Words, these words can also be incorporated into phonics instruction when students learn to read the regularly spelled letters a word. For example, when students know the digraph th , they and their can be introduced. The digraph th in both these Heart Words is a regular spelling for the sound /th/. The Heart Letters are ey in they and eir in their . Similarly, the Heart Letter in the word what is a , and the Heart Letter in the word from is o .
Table 3B: Heart Words
37 Words that Do Not Fit into Spelling Patterns
Students enjoy drawing a heart above Heart Letters, and the hearts help them remember the irregular spellings.
For example, in the word said , the hearts would go above ai because those letters are an unexpected spelling for short e (/ĕ/). A student’s practice card for the word said is shown at the right.
In order to implement the new phonics -based model for teaching high-frequency words , teachers will need to fit high-frequency words into phonics instruction. To do this, generally a committee of three or four kindergarten and first grade teachers organizes their lists of high-frequency words according to Heart Words and Flash Words by spelling patterns . Next they determine when and how high-frequency words fit into the phonics scope and sequence . These same teachers provide professional development to show other teachers how to implement the new model.
Sometimes a coordinated effort to change the way high-frequency words are taught is not an option, and teachers are able to only partially implement the suggestions in this article. These teachers continue to introduce the words as determined by their curriculum. However, they tell students whether the “sight word” is a Flash Word or a Heart Word, and they introduce the words by teaching letter–sound relationships as outlined in this article. Further, teachers introduce words with similar spelling patterns whenever possible. For example, if only the word would is scheduled to be introduced, they also teach could and should , which fit the spelling pattern. Finally, these teachers do not hold students accountable for high-frequency words that are beyond the spelling patterns that have been taught in phonics lessons.
The new model allows a different approach for working with students who have difficulty learning high-frequency words. For example, students working on short vowel patterns may confuse her and here, which are often introduced early as part of the “sight word” list. A teacher who recognizes the source of this confusion would not expect students to continue trying to memorize the two words. Instead, the teacher would include her as part of instruction on r-controlled vowels and include here when silent e is taught. Students will be less likely to misread or misspell these words when they understand the relation of the spelling er to the sound /er/ and the spelling ere to the sound /ēr/.
Traditionally, students would have continued struggling with and failing to memorize these easily confused words. With the new model, those students are not held accountable for accurately reading and spelling the words until they can understand and use the sound–spelling correspondences. All teachers using this approach say that students learn to spell and read the words much more easily than with the traditional approach.
Linda Farrell and Michael Hunter are founding partners of Readsters, LLC (opens in a new window) . They provide professional development and write curriculum to support excellent reading instruction to students of all ages. Their favorite work is in the classroom where they can model effective reading instruction and coach teachers. Their most unusual work so far has been helping develop early reading instruction for children in Africa who are learning to read in 12 different mother tongue languages that Linda and Michael don’t even speak.
Tina Osenga was a founding partner at Readsters, and she is now retired.
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Turnitin's AI writing detection available now
Turnitin launches AI detection to help educators identify when AI writing tools such as ChatGPT have been used in students’ submissions.
Academic integrity in the age of AI writing
Over the years, academic integrity has been both supported and tested by technology. Today, educators are facing a new frontier with AI writing and ChatGPT.
Here at Turnitin, we believe that AI can be a positive force that, when used responsibly, has the potential to support and enhance the learning process. We also believe that equitable access to AI tools is vital, which is why we’re working with students and educators to develop technology that can support and enhance the learning process. However, it is important to acknowledge new challenges alongside the opportunities.
We recognize that for educators, there is a pressing and immediate need to know when and where AI and AI writing tools have been used by students. This is why we are now offering AI detection capabilities for educators in our products.
Gain insights on how much of a student’s submission is authentic, human writing versus AI-generated from ChatGPT or other tools.
Robust reporting identifies AI-written text and provides information educators need to determine their next course of action. We’ve designed our solution with educators, for educators.
AI writing detection complements Turnitin’s similarity checking workflow and is integrated with your LMS, providing a seamless, familiar experience.
Turnitin’s AI writing detection capability available with Originality, helps educators identify AI-generated content in student work while safeguarding the interests of students.
Turnitin AI Innovation Lab
Welcome to the Turnitin AI Innovation Lab, a hub for new and upcoming product developments in the area of AI writing. You can follow our progress on detection initiatives for AI writing, ChatGPT, and AI-paraphrasing.
Understanding the false positive rate for sentences of our AI writing detection capability
We’d like to share more insight on our sentence level false positive rate and tips on how to use our AI writing detection metrics.
Understanding false positives within our AI writing detection capabilities
We’d like to share some insight on how our AI detection model deals with false positives and what constitutes a false positive.
Have questions? Read these FAQs on Turnitin’s AI writing detection capabilities
Helping solve the AI writing puzzle one piece at a time
AI-generated writing has transformed every aspect of our lives, including the classroom. However, identifying AI writing in students’ submissions is just one piece in the broader, complex, ever-evolving AI writing puzzle.
Teaching in the age of AI writing
As AI text generators like ChatGPT quickly evolve, our educator resources will, too. Curated and created by our team of veteran educators, our resources help educators meet these new challenges. They are built for professional learning and outline steps educators can take immediately to guide students in maintaining academic integrity when faced with AI writing tools.
A guide to help educators determine which resource is more applicable to their instructional situation: the AI misuse checklist or the AI misuse rubric.
A guide sharing strategies educators can consider to help when confronted with a false positive.
A guide sharing strategies students can consider to help when confronted with a false positive.
The Turnitin Educator Network is a space to meet, discuss and share best practices on academic integrity in the age of AI.
Learn more about AI writing in our blog
Written by experts in the field, educators, and Turnitin professionals, our blog offers resources and thought leadership in support of students, instructors, and administrators. Dive into articles on a variety of important topics, including academic integrity, assessment, and instruction in a world with artificial intelligence.
Discover the secrets of mastering AI for simple tasks with the best writing AI practices. Unlock new levels of efficiency and creativity.
Students come to our classrooms with an awareness of AI writing tools. While many students comprehend that AI writing can be misused, it’s important to define the difference between proper and improper use of tools like ChatGPT. Having a discussion about learning and the ways in which ChatGPT can help or inhibit the ways in which students absorb information can highlight the intersection of AI writing tools and academic integrity.
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Cheat GPT? Turnitin CEO Chris Caren weighs in on combating A.I. plagiarism | CNBC Squawk Box
Since the inception of AI-generated writing, educators and institutions are learning how to navigate it in the classroom. Turnitin’s CEO Chris Caren joins ‘Squawk Box’ to discuss how it is being used in the classroom and how educators can identify AI writing in student submissions.
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Schools Ban ChatGPT amid Fears of Artificial-Intelligence-Assisted Cheating
U.S. educators are debating the merits and risks of a new, free artificial intelligence tool called ChatGPT, which students are using to write passable high school essays. So far, there isn’t a reliable way to catch cheating. Matt Dibble has the story.
Some U.S. schools banning AI technology while others embrace it | NBC Nightly News
ChatGPT, an artificial intelligence program, can write college-level essays in seconds. While some school districts are banning it due to cheating concerns, NBC News’ Jacob Ward has details on why some teachers are embracing the technology.
Artificial intelligence, it seems, is taking over the world. At least that's what alarmists would have you believe . The line between fact and fiction continues to blur, and recognizing what is real versus what some bot concocted grows increasingly difficult with each passing week.
In this episode of THE Journal Insider podcast, host and THEJournal.com editor Kristal Kuykendall welcomes two former teachers who have been working on AI writing tools at Turnitin, a plagiarism-detection software used by thousands of K–12 schools and institutions of higher education.
ChatGPT, an AI-powered “large language” model, is poised to change the way high school English teachers do their jobs. With the ability to understand and respond to natural language, ChatGPT is a valuable tool for educators looking to provide personalized instruction and feedback to their students.
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Meet us in person to discuss ai writing detection.
We are attending larger and smaller events to ensure we’ll have the opportunity to discuss academic integrity in the age of AI writing with you in person. Here’s a list of events that Turnitin has already participated in, or will be participating in this year. Looking forward to seeing you there!
MBO Digitaal Conferentie, September 21-22, Ulft, Netherlands World Academic Summit, 26-28 September 2023, Sydney, Australia Campus Innovation, September 27-29, Hamburg, Germany tawiab 2023: Tagung wissenschaftliche Abschlussarbeiten und Hochschulschriften-Repositorien, September 28, Vienna, Austria ACO-TEC 2023, September 28-29, Vienna, Austria Digital Universities: MENA, 9-11 October, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia EDUCAUSE Annual Conference, 9-12 October 2023, Chicago, USA
EDUtech Europe, October 10-12, Amsterdam, Netherlands Digital Universities: Europe, 23-25 October 2023, Barcelona, Spain THE Campus Live US, 8-9 November 2023, Los Angeles, USA SURF Onderwijsdagen, November 14-15, Den Bosch, Netherlands NCTE, 16-19 November 2023, Columbus, OH, USA THE Campus Live UK, 22-23 November 2023, UK Online Educa Berlin 2023 (OEB), November 22-24, Berlin, Germany