## Null Hypothesis Examples

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The null hypothesis —which assumes that there is no meaningful relationship between two variables—may be the most valuable hypothesis for the scientific method because it is the easiest to test using a statistical analysis. This means you can support your hypothesis with a high level of confidence. Testing the null hypothesis can tell you whether your results are due to the effect of manipulating the dependent variable or due to chance.

## What Is the Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis states there is no relationship between the measured phenomenon (the dependent variable) and the independent variable . You do not need to believe that the null hypothesis is true to test it. On the contrary, you will likely suspect that there is a relationship between a set of variables. One way to prove that this is the case is to reject the null hypothesis. Rejecting a hypothesis does not mean an experiment was "bad" or that it didn't produce results. In fact, it is often one of the first steps toward further inquiry.

To distinguish it from other hypotheses, the null hypothesis is written as H 0 (which is read as “H-nought,” "H-null," or "H-zero"). A significance test is used to determine the likelihood that the results supporting the null hypothesis are not due to chance. A confidence level of 95 percent or 99 percent is common. Keep in mind, even if the confidence level is high, there is still a small chance the null hypothesis is not true, perhaps because the experimenter did not account for a critical factor or because of chance. This is one reason why it's important to repeat experiments.

## Examples of the Null Hypothesis

To write a null hypothesis, first start by asking a question. Rephrase that question in a form that assumes no relationship between the variables. In other words, assume a treatment has no effect. Write your hypothesis in a way that reflects this.

- Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples
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Once you have developed a clear and focused research question or set of research questions, you’ll be ready to conduct further research, a literature review, on the topic to help you make an educated guess about the answer to your question(s). This educated guess is called a hypothesis.

In research, there are two types of hypotheses: null and alternative. They work as a complementary pair, each stating that the other is wrong.

- Null Hypothesis (H 0 ) – This can be thought of as the implied hypothesis. “Null” meaning “nothing.” This hypothesis states that there is no difference between groups or no relationship between variables. The null hypothesis is a presumption of status quo or no change.
- Alternative Hypothesis (H a ) – This is also known as the claim. This hypothesis should state what you expect the data to show, based on your research on the topic. This is your answer to your research question.

Null Hypothesis: H 0 : There is no difference in the salary of factory workers based on gender. Alternative Hypothesis : H a : Male factory workers have a higher salary than female factory workers.

Null Hypothesis : H 0 : There is no relationship between height and shoe size. Alternative Hypothesis : H a : There is a positive relationship between height and shoe size.

Null Hypothesis : H 0 : Experience on the job has no impact on the quality of a brick mason’s work. Alternative Hypothesis : H a : The quality of a brick mason’s work is influenced by on-the-job experience.

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Methodology

- How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

## How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection .

## Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

## Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

## Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

- An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
- A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

If there are any control variables , extraneous variables , or confounding variables , be sure to jot those down as you go to minimize the chances that research bias will affect your results.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

## Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Step 1. ask a question.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

## Step 2. Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to ensure that you’re embarking on a relevant topic . This can also help you identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalize more complex constructs.

## Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

## 4. Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

- The relevant variables
- The specific group being studied
- The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

## 5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if…then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

## 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

- H 0 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has no effect on their final exam scores.
- H 1 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

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A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

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Statistics Made Easy

## How to Write a Null Hypothesis (5 Examples)

A hypothesis test uses sample data to determine whether or not some claim about a population parameter is true.

Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms:

H 0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter =, ≤, ≥ some value

H A (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value

Note that the null hypothesis always contains the equal sign .

We interpret the hypotheses as follows:

Null hypothesis: The sample data provides no evidence to support some claim being made by an individual.

Alternative hypothesis: The sample data does provide sufficient evidence to support the claim being made by an individual.

For example, suppose it’s assumed that the average height of a certain species of plant is 20 inches tall. However, one botanist claims the true average height is greater than 20 inches.

To test this claim, she may go out and collect a random sample of plants. She can then use this sample data to perform a hypothesis test using the following two hypotheses:

H 0 : μ ≤ 20 (the true mean height of plants is equal to or even less than 20 inches)

H A : μ > 20 (the true mean height of plants is greater than 20 inches)

If the sample data gathered by the botanist shows that the mean height of this species of plants is significantly greater than 20 inches, she can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the mean height is greater than 20 inches.

Read through the following examples to gain a better understanding of how to write a null hypothesis in different situations.

## Example 1: Weight of Turtles

A biologist wants to test whether or not the true mean weight of a certain species of turtles is 300 pounds. To test this, he goes out and measures the weight of a random sample of 40 turtles.

Here is how to write the null and alternative hypotheses for this scenario:

H 0 : μ = 300 (the true mean weight is equal to 300 pounds)

H A : μ ≠ 300 (the true mean weight is not equal to 300 pounds)

## Example 2: Height of Males

It’s assumed that the mean height of males in a certain city is 68 inches. However, an independent researcher believes the true mean height is greater than 68 inches. To test this, he goes out and collects the height of 50 males in the city.

H 0 : μ ≤ 68 (the true mean height is equal to or even less than 68 inches)

H A : μ > 68 (the true mean height is greater than 68 inches)

## Example 3: Graduation Rates

A university states that 80% of all students graduate on time. However, an independent researcher believes that less than 80% of all students graduate on time. To test this, she collects data on the proportion of students who graduated on time last year at the university.

H 0 : p ≥ 0.80 (the true proportion of students who graduate on time is 80% or higher)

H A : μ < 0.80 (the true proportion of students who graduate on time is less than 80%)

## Example 4: Burger Weights

A food researcher wants to test whether or not the true mean weight of a burger at a certain restaurant is 7 ounces. To test this, he goes out and measures the weight of a random sample of 20 burgers from this restaurant.

H 0 : μ = 7 (the true mean weight is equal to 7 ounces)

H A : μ ≠ 7 (the true mean weight is not equal to 7 ounces)

## Example 5: Citizen Support

A politician claims that less than 30% of citizens in a certain town support a certain law. To test this, he goes out and surveys 200 citizens on whether or not they support the law.

H 0 : p ≥ .30 (the true proportion of citizens who support the law is greater than or equal to 30%)

H A : μ < 0.30 (the true proportion of citizens who support the law is less than 30%)

## Additional Resources

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Introduction to Confidence Intervals An Explanation of P-Values and Statistical Significance

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## Module 9: Hypothesis Testing With One Sample

Null and alternative hypotheses, learning outcomes.

- Describe hypothesis testing in general and in practice

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 : The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.

H a : The alternative hypothesis : It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make adecision. There are two options for a decision . They are “reject H 0 ” if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or “do not reject H 0 ” or “decline to reject H 0 ” if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

H 0 : No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30

H a : More than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : The drug reduces cholesterol by 25%. p = 0.25

H a : The drug does not reduce cholesterol by 25%. p ≠ 0.25

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ = 2.0

H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : μ __ 66 H a : μ __ 66

- H 0 : μ = 66
- H a : μ ≠ 66

We want to test if college students take less than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ ≥ 5

H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : μ __ 45 H a : μ __ 45

- H 0 : μ ≥ 45
- H a : μ < 45

In an issue of U.S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : p ≤ 0.066

H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p __ 0.40 H a : p __ 0.40

- H 0 : p = 0.40
- H a : p > 0.40

## Concept Review

In a hypothesis test , sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we: Evaluate the null hypothesis , typically denoted with H 0 . The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise. The null statement must always contain some form of equality (=, ≤ or ≥) Always write the alternative hypothesis , typically denoted with H a or H 1 , using less than, greater than, or not equals symbols, i.e., (≠, >, or <). If we reject the null hypothesis, then we can assume there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. Never state that a claim is proven true or false. Keep in mind the underlying fact that hypothesis testing is based on probability laws; therefore, we can talk only in terms of non-absolute certainties.

## Formula Review

H 0 and H a are contradictory.

- OpenStax, Statistics, Null and Alternative Hypotheses. Provided by : OpenStax. Located at : http://cnx.org/contents/30189442-6998-4686-ac05-ed152b91b9de@17.41:58/Introductory_Statistics . License : CC BY: Attribution
- Introductory Statistics . Authored by : Barbara Illowski, Susan Dean. Provided by : Open Stax. Located at : http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected] . License : CC BY: Attribution . License Terms : Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]
- Simple hypothesis testing | Probability and Statistics | Khan Academy. Authored by : Khan Academy. Located at : https://youtu.be/5D1gV37bKXY . License : All Rights Reserved . License Terms : Standard YouTube License

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## Writing Null Hypotheses in Research and Statistics

Last Updated: July 24, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Joseph Quinones and by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Joseph Quinones is a High School Physics Teacher working at South Bronx Community Charter High School. Joseph specializes in astronomy and astrophysics and is interested in science education and science outreach, currently practicing ways to make physics accessible to more students with the goal of bringing more students of color into the STEM fields. He has experience working on Astrophysics research projects at the Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Joseph recieved his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Lehman College and his Masters in Physics Education from City College of New York (CCNY). He is also a member of a network called New York City Men Teach. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 17,388 times.

Are you working on a research project and struggling with how to write a null hypothesis? Well, you've come to the right place! Start by recognizing that the basic definition of "null" is "none" or "zero"—that's your biggest clue as to what a null hypothesis should say. Keep reading to learn everything you need to know about the null hypothesis, including how it relates to your research question and your alternative hypothesis as well as how to use it in different types of studies.

## Things You Should Know

- Write a research null hypothesis as a statement that the studied variables have no relationship to each other, or that there's no difference between 2 groups.

- Adjust the format of your null hypothesis to match the statistical method you used to test it, such as using "mean" if you're comparing the mean between 2 groups.

## What is a null hypothesis?

- Research hypothesis: States in plain language that there's no relationship between the 2 variables or there's no difference between the 2 groups being studied.
- Statistical hypothesis: States the predicted outcome of statistical analysis through a mathematical equation related to the statistical method you're using.

## Examples of Null Hypotheses

## Null Hypothesis vs. Alternative Hypothesis

- For example, your alternative hypothesis could state a positive correlation between 2 variables while your null hypothesis states there's no relationship. If there's a negative correlation, then both hypotheses are false.

- You need additional data or evidence to show that your alternative hypothesis is correct—proving the null hypothesis false is just the first step.
- In smaller studies, sometimes it's enough to show that there's some relationship and your hypothesis could be correct—you can leave the additional proof as an open question for other researchers to tackle.

## How do I test a null hypothesis?

- Group means: Compare the mean of the variable in your sample with the mean of the variable in the general population. [9] X Research source
- Group proportions: Compare the proportion of the variable in your sample with the proportion of the variable in the general population. [10] X Research source
- Correlation: Correlation analysis looks at the relationship between 2 variables—specifically, whether they tend to happen together. [11] X Research source
- Regression: Regression analysis reveals the correlation between 2 variables while also controlling for the effect of other, interrelated variables. [12] X Research source

## Templates for Null Hypotheses

- Research null hypothesis: There is no difference in the mean [dependent variable] between [group 1] and [group 2].

- Research null hypothesis: The proportion of [dependent variable] in [group 1] and [group 2] is the same.

- Research null hypothesis: There is no correlation between [independent variable] and [dependent variable] in the population.

- Research null hypothesis: There is no relationship between [independent variable] and [dependent variable] in the population.

## Expert Q&A

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## Expert Interview

Thanks for reading our article! If you’d like to learn more about physics, check out our in-depth interview with Joseph Quinones .

- ↑ https://www.collin.edu/studentresources/tutoring/What%20is%20a%20hypothesis.pdf
- ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/stat100/lesson/10/10.1
- ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/stat501/lesson/2/2.12
- ↑ https://support.minitab.com/en-us/minitab/21/help-and-how-to/statistics/basic-statistics/supporting-topics/basics/null-and-alternative-hypotheses/
- ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635437/
- ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/statprogram/reviews/statistical-concepts/hypothesis-testing
- ↑ https://education.arcus.chop.edu/null-hypothesis-testing/
- ↑ https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/bs/bs704_hypothesistest-means-proportions/bs704_hypothesistest-means-proportions_print.html

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## Keyboard Shortcuts

10.1 - setting the hypotheses: examples.

A significance test examines whether the null hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of the data. The null hypothesis itself does not involve the data. It is a statement about a parameter (a numerical characteristic of the population). These population values might be proportions or means or differences between means or proportions or correlations or odds ratios or any other numerical summary of the population. The alternative hypothesis is typically the research hypothesis of interest. Here are some examples.

## Example 10.2: Hypotheses with One Sample of One Categorical Variable Section

About 10% of the human population is left-handed. Suppose a researcher at Penn State speculates that students in the College of Arts and Architecture are more likely to be left-handed than people found in the general population. We only have one sample since we will be comparing a population proportion based on a sample value to a known population value.

- Research Question : Are artists more likely to be left-handed than people found in the general population?
- Response Variable : Classification of the student as either right-handed or left-handed

## State Null and Alternative Hypotheses

- Null Hypothesis : Students in the College of Arts and Architecture are no more likely to be left-handed than people in the general population (population percent of left-handed students in the College of Art and Architecture = 10% or p = .10).
- Alternative Hypothesis : Students in the College of Arts and Architecture are more likely to be left-handed than people in the general population (population percent of left-handed students in the College of Arts and Architecture > 10% or p > .10). This is a one-sided alternative hypothesis.

## Example 10.3: Hypotheses with One Sample of One Measurement Variable Section

A generic brand of the anti-histamine Diphenhydramine markets a capsule with a 50 milligram dose. The manufacturer is worried that the machine that fills the capsules has come out of calibration and is no longer creating capsules with the appropriate dosage.

- Research Question : Does the data suggest that the population mean dosage of this brand is different than 50 mg?
- Response Variable : dosage of the active ingredient found by a chemical assay.
- Null Hypothesis : On the average, the dosage sold under this brand is 50 mg (population mean dosage = 50 mg).
- Alternative Hypothesis : On the average, the dosage sold under this brand is not 50 mg (population mean dosage ≠ 50 mg). This is a two-sided alternative hypothesis.

## Example 10.4: Hypotheses with Two Samples of One Categorical Variable Section

Many people are starting to prefer vegetarian meals on a regular basis. Specifically, a researcher believes that females are more likely than males to eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis.

- Research Question : Does the data suggest that females are more likely than males to eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis?
- Response Variable : Classification of whether or not a person eats vegetarian meals on a regular basis
- Explanatory (Grouping) Variable: Sex
- Null Hypothesis : There is no sex effect regarding those who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis (population percent of females who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis = population percent of males who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis or p females = p males ).
- Alternative Hypothesis : Females are more likely than males to eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis (population percent of females who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis > population percent of males who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis or p females > p males ). This is a one-sided alternative hypothesis.

## Example 10.5: Hypotheses with Two Samples of One Measurement Variable Section

Obesity is a major health problem today. Research is starting to show that people may be able to lose more weight on a low carbohydrate diet than on a low fat diet.

- Research Question : Does the data suggest that, on the average, people are able to lose more weight on a low carbohydrate diet than on a low fat diet?
- Response Variable : Weight loss (pounds)
- Explanatory (Grouping) Variable : Type of diet
- Null Hypothesis : There is no difference in the mean amount of weight loss when comparing a low carbohydrate diet with a low fat diet (population mean weight loss on a low carbohydrate diet = population mean weight loss on a low fat diet).
- Alternative Hypothesis : The mean weight loss should be greater for those on a low carbohydrate diet when compared with those on a low fat diet (population mean weight loss on a low carbohydrate diet > population mean weight loss on a low fat diet). This is a one-sided alternative hypothesis.

## Example 10.6: Hypotheses about the relationship between Two Categorical Variables Section

- Research Question : Do the odds of having a stroke increase if you inhale second hand smoke ? A case-control study of non-smoking stroke patients and controls of the same age and occupation are asked if someone in their household smokes.
- Variables : There are two different categorical variables (Stroke patient vs control and whether the subject lives in the same household as a smoker). Living with a smoker (or not) is the natural explanatory variable and having a stroke (or not) is the natural response variable in this situation.
- Null Hypothesis : There is no relationship between whether or not a person has a stroke and whether or not a person lives with a smoker (odds ratio between stroke and second-hand smoke situation is = 1).
- Alternative Hypothesis : There is a relationship between whether or not a person has a stroke and whether or not a person lives with a smoker (odds ratio between stroke and second-hand smoke situation is > 1). This is a one-tailed alternative.

This research question might also be addressed like example 11.4 by making the hypotheses about comparing the proportion of stroke patients that live with smokers to the proportion of controls that live with smokers.

## Example 10.7: Hypotheses about the relationship between Two Measurement Variables Section

- Research Question : A financial analyst believes there might be a positive association between the change in a stock's price and the amount of the stock purchased by non-management employees the previous day (stock trading by management being under "insider-trading" regulatory restrictions).
- Variables : Daily price change information (the response variable) and previous day stock purchases by non-management employees (explanatory variable). These are two different measurement variables.
- Null Hypothesis : The correlation between the daily stock price change (\$) and the daily stock purchases by non-management employees (\$) = 0.
- Alternative Hypothesis : The correlation between the daily stock price change (\$) and the daily stock purchases by non-management employees (\$) > 0. This is a one-sided alternative hypothesis.

## Example 10.8: Hypotheses about comparing the relationship between Two Measurement Variables in Two Samples Section

- Research Question : Is there a linear relationship between the amount of the bill (\$) at a restaurant and the tip (\$) that was left. Is the strength of this association different for family restaurants than for fine dining restaurants?
- Variables : There are two different measurement variables. The size of the tip would depend on the size of the bill so the amount of the bill would be the explanatory variable and the size of the tip would be the response variable.
- Null Hypothesis : The correlation between the amount of the bill (\$) at a restaurant and the tip (\$) that was left is the same at family restaurants as it is at fine dining restaurants.
- Alternative Hypothesis : The correlation between the amount of the bill (\$) at a restaurant and the tip (\$) that was left is the difference at family restaurants then it is at fine dining restaurants. This is a two-sided alternative hypothesis.

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## What Is a Null Hypothesis?

How a null hypothesis works, the alternative hypothesis, examples of a null hypothesis.

- Null Hypothesis and Investments
- Null Hypothesis FAQs
- Corporate Finance
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## Null Hypothesis: What Is It and How Is It Used in Investing?

Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master's in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

A null hypothesis is a type of statistical hypothesis that proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given observations. Hypothesis testing is used to assess the credibility of a hypothesis by using sample data. Sometimes referred to simply as the "null," it is represented as H 0 .

The null hypothesis, also known as the conjecture, is used in quantitative analysis to test theories about markets, investing strategies, or economies to decide if an idea is true or false.

## Key Takeaways

- A null hypothesis is a type of conjecture in statistics that proposes that there is no difference between certain characteristics of a population or data-generating process.
- The alternative hypothesis proposes that there is a difference.
- Hypothesis testing provides a method to reject a null hypothesis within a certain confidence level.
- If you can reject the null hypothesis, it provides support for the alternative hypothesis.
- Null hypothesis testing is the basis of the principle of falsification in science.

Investopedia / Alex Dos Diaz

A null hypothesis is a type of conjecture in statistics that proposes that there is no difference between certain characteristics of a population or data-generating process. For example, a gambler may be interested in whether a game of chance is fair. If it is fair, then the expected earnings per play come to zero for both players. If the game is not fair, then the expected earnings are positive for one player and negative for the other. To test whether the game is fair, the gambler collects earnings data from many repetitions of the game, calculates the average earnings from these data, then tests the null hypothesis that the expected earnings are not different from zero.

If the average earnings from the sample data are sufficiently far from zero, then the gambler will reject the null hypothesis and conclude the alternative hypothesis—namely, that the expected earnings per play are different from zero. If the average earnings from the sample data are near zero, then the gambler will not reject the null hypothesis, concluding instead that the difference between the average from the data and zero is explainable by chance alone.

The null hypothesis assumes that any kind of difference between the chosen characteristics that you see in a set of data is due to chance. For example, if the expected earnings for the gambling game are truly equal to zero, then any difference between the average earnings in the data and zero is due to chance.

Analysts look to reject the null hypothesis because doing so is a strong conclusion. This requires strong evidence in the form of an observed difference that is too large to be explained solely by chance. Failing to reject the null hypothesis—that the results are explainable by chance alone—is a weak conclusion because it allows that factors other than chance may be at work but may not be strong enough for the statistical test to detect them.

A null hypothesis can only be rejected, not proven.

An important point to note is that we are testing the null hypothesis because there is an element of doubt about its validity. Whatever information that is against the stated null hypothesis is captured in the alternative (alternate) hypothesis (H1).

For the above examples, the alternative hypothesis would be:

- Students score an average that is not equal to seven.
- The mean annual return of the mutual fund is not equal to 8% per year.

In other words, the alternative hypothesis is a direct contradiction of the null hypothesis.

Here is a simple example: A school principal claims that students in her school score an average of seven out of 10 in exams. The null hypothesis is that the population mean is 7.0. To test this null hypothesis, we record marks of, say, 30 students (sample) from the entire student population of the school (say 300) and calculate the mean of that sample.

We can then compare the (calculated) sample mean to the (hypothesized) population mean of 7.0 and attempt to reject the null hypothesis. (The null hypothesis here—that the population mean is 7.0—cannot be proved using the sample data. It can only be rejected.)

Take another example: The annual return of a particular mutual fund is claimed to be 8%. Assume that a mutual fund has been in existence for 20 years. The null hypothesis is that the mean return is 8% for the mutual fund. We take a random sample of annual returns of the mutual fund for, say, five years (sample) and calculate the sample mean. We then compare the (calculated) sample mean to the (claimed) population mean (8%) to test the null hypothesis.

For the above examples, null hypotheses are:

- Example A : Students in the school score an average of seven out of 10 in exams.
- Example B: Mean annual return of the mutual fund is 8% per year.

For the purposes of determining whether to reject the null hypothesis, the null hypothesis (abbreviated H 0 ) is assumed, for the sake of argument, to be true. Then the likely range of possible values of the calculated statistic (e.g., the average score on 30 students’ tests) is determined under this presumption (e.g., the range of plausible averages might range from 6.2 to 7.8 if the population mean is 7.0). Then, if the sample average is outside of this range, the null hypothesis is rejected. Otherwise, the difference is said to be “explainable by chance alone,” being within the range that is determined by chance alone.

## How Null Hypothesis Testing Is Used in Investments

As an example related to financial markets, assume Alice sees that her investment strategy produces higher average returns than simply buying and holding a stock . The null hypothesis states that there is no difference between the two average returns, and Alice is inclined to believe this until she can conclude contradictory results.

Refuting the null hypothesis would require showing statistical significance, which can be found by a variety of tests. The alternative hypothesis would state that the investment strategy has a higher average return than a traditional buy-and-hold strategy.

One tool that can determine the statistical significance of the results is the p-value. A p-value represents the probability that a difference as large or larger than the observed difference between the two average returns could occur solely by chance.

A p-value that is less than or equal to 0.05 often indicates whether there is evidence against the null hypothesis. If Alice conducts one of these tests, such as a test using the normal model, resulting in a significant difference between her returns and the buy-and-hold returns (the p-value is less than or equal to 0.05), she can then reject the null hypothesis and conclude the alternative hypothesis.

## How Is the Null Hypothesis Identified?

The analyst or researcher establishes a null hypothesis based on the research question or problem that they are trying to answer. Depending on the question, the null may be identified differently. For example, if the question is simply whether an effect exists (e.g., does X influence Y?) the null hypothesis could be H 0 : X = 0. If the question is instead, is X the same as Y, the H0 would be X = Y. If it is that the effect of X on Y is positive, H0 would be X > 0. If the resulting analysis shows an effect that is statistically significantly different from zero, the null can be rejected.

## How Is Null Hypothesis Used in Finance?

In finance, a null hypothesis is used in quantitative analysis. A null hypothesis tests the premise of an investing strategy, the markets, or an economy to determine if it is true or false. For instance, an analyst may want to see if two stocks, ABC and XYZ, are closely correlated. The null hypothesis would be ABC ≠ XYZ.

## How Are Statistical Hypotheses Tested?

Statistical hypotheses are tested by a four-step process . The first step is for the analyst to state the two hypotheses so that only one can be right. The next step is to formulate an analysis plan, which outlines how the data will be evaluated. The third step is to carry out the plan and physically analyze the sample data. The fourth and final step is to analyze the results and either reject the null hypothesis or claim that the observed differences are explainable by chance alone.

## What Is an Alternative Hypothesis?

An alternative hypothesis is a direct contradiction of a null hypothesis. This means that if one of the two hypotheses is true, the other is false.

Sage Publishing. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ," Pages 4–7.

Sage Publishing. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ," Page 4.

Sage Publishing. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ," Page 7.

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## AP®︎/College Statistics

Course: ap®︎/college statistics > unit 10.

- Idea behind hypothesis testing

## Examples of null and alternative hypotheses

- Writing null and alternative hypotheses
- P-values and significance tests
- Comparing P-values to different significance levels
- Estimating a P-value from a simulation
- Estimating P-values from simulations
- Using P-values to make conclusions

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## IMAGES

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A hypothesis can be classified into six types: simple, complex, associative and causal, directional, non-directional and null. In research, a hypothesis is characterized by three essential elements: variables, population and the correlation...

A t-test is designed to test a null hypothesis by determining if two sets of data are significantly different from one another, while a chi-squared test tests the null hypothesis by finding out if there is a relationship between the two set...

A contract is null and void when it can no longer be legally enforced. If one party to the contract gives an indication that it is unable to hold up its end, the other party may claim an anticipatory breach of contract.

Examples of the null hypothesis assume that there is no meaningful relationship between two variables.

A null hypothesis claims that there is no effect in the population, while an alternative hypothesis claims that there is an effect.

Alternative Hypothesis: Ha: The quality of a brick mason's work is influenced by on-the-job experience. Was this resource helpful?

The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H0, while the

The first step in conducting a hypothesis test is to write the hypothesis statements that are going to be tested. For each test you will have a null

If the sample data gathered by the botanist shows that the mean height of this species of plants is significantly greater than 20 inches, she

The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise. The null statement must always contain some form of equality (=, ≤ or ≥) Always write the

Things You Should Know · Write a research null hypothesis as a statement that the studied variables have no relationship to each other, or that there's no

Null Hypothesis: There is no relationship between whether or not a person has a stroke and whether or not a person lives with a smoker (odds ratio between

The null hypothesis assumes that any kind of difference between the chosen characteristics that you see in a set of data is due to chance. For example, if the

The null hypothesis is often stated as the assumption that there is no change, no difference between two groups, or no relationship between two