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Compendium, November/December 2023
Compendium, October 2023
What Should You Consider When Writing for a Dental Publication?
Steven R. Jefferies, MS, DDS, PhD | Norman Tinanoff, DDS, MS | Theodore P. Croll, DDS
"There is no form of prose more difficult to understand and more tedious to read than the average scientific paper."
Francis Crick, BSc, PhD, The Astonishing Hypothesis (1994)
Effective writing in dentistry is difficult, yet highly rewarding. Successful writing of scientific information, whether in dentistry or other clinical/scientific disciplines, requires the execution of various talents and skills. "Good scientific research begins with an original idea that is put into practice by means of a robust methodology." 1
Yet equally important in written communications in dentistry is having a thorough command of the English language. Proper use of grammar, punctuation, syntax, and vocabulary is necessary for effective writing.
My experience as an investigator and author has been in the area of the laboratory and clinical investigation of biomaterials and devices. Publications in this realm, like that of science in general, are often complex and involve considerable detail, making this material often hard to read. While this fact challenges the reader's understanding and comprehension, poor writing can present an additional barrier to effective communication.
Good writing in dentistry involves both a depth of technical knowledge and experience and a command of more "classical" disciplines of knowledge and education, such as language, grammar, rhetoric, and logic. All of these factors influence the psychology and rhetorical interpretive mechanisms by which readers process and derive meaning from written text and are especially relevant to effective technical and medical writing. 2
While many basic concepts of good scientific writing have been articulated in the literature, dental authors can utilize the following four principles to greatly improve their writing and communicating in dentistry:
Collaboration is critical. Given the breath and complexity of knowledge and research in dentistry, collaboration between researchers and investigators has become a necessity. Having mentors early in one's career and serving as a mentor later in one's career promotes good research and writing.
Be an exhaustive reader of the literature. Extensive reading within an investigator's chosen area of the dental literature provides not only the intellect to understand, process, and analyze the state of the art, but also enhances and continually improves one's writing quality.
"Scientific writing requires practice." 3 In truth, good scientific writing in dentistry can only be achieved with considerable and continuous practice and constructive criticism.
Tell a story. In addition to communicating a good idea or hypothesis, a robust methodology, clear and interesting findings, a sound interpretation of those findings, and solid, well-founded conclusions, research and scientific writing must "tell a story." 4
In scientific writing, writers often fail to appreciate readers' mechanisms of information processing and underestimate the difficulties and ambiguities inherent in the reading process. Good scientific writing should match and support the psychology and logic of how readers process written information in order to derive meaning and value from the text. Good writing in dentistry is a highly valuable and vitally important practice.
When embarking on a dental writing project, there are a number of questions and suggestions one may consider that can help advance the scholarly effort, from formulation to journal submission. Before starting, considerations might include: Will the topic be worthy of interest, make a difference, and advance science? Is the topic appropriate to the intended journal and audience? Does the content apply to most situations and most populations? Most importantly, writers must ask themselves if they have the time and persistance to do the research, writing, and revisions.
Another set of questions can be asked when actually writing the scientifc report: Does the article title stimulate interest, and does the title include "keywords"? Is the abstract a concise summary of the main purpose, results, and conclusions? Does the introduction establish the background for the hypothesis with what is already known, and does it state the purpose or research question? Are the methods designed to answer the research question? Do they explain what was done and are they in enough detail so that the reader has sufficient information to evaluate the results? Do the results follow the methods and do they present factual unbiased findings in the text, tables, or figures? Does the discussion then follow from the results? Does it support/not support the hypothesis? Does it compare the findings to what others have done? Does the discussion consider the limitations of findings/opinions or potential bias of this scholarly effort? Are the conclusions derived from the results and written so that the findings matter to the reader? Finally, are the citations accurate and current, and do they follow the journal's format?
In general, writers shouldrefrain from slang, hackneyed, overused words/phrases; write short sentences; and use concise words, such as "clarify" instead of "elucidate." Writers should know the intended audience and write to them. It is often said that easy-to-read writing depends on revising, rewriting, revising, and rewriting. Also, it is a good practice to have an experienced writer study the near-finished work for organization, clarity, and syntax. Lastly, before submitting a document for possible publication, make sure it conforms to the journal's instructions to authors.
"The dental assistant took an x-ray that showed the patient needed a root canal." "There were interproximal cavities on the bitewings." "All the caries were (or was) removed." "Silver diamine fluoride arrested all the carious lesions." "There was buccal cervical caries on both laterals." "After a prophy, the tooth was prepped for a crown."
Poorly written sentences such as these can cause bruxism in former English majors who ventured on to dental schools. Just where did the dental assistant who "took" that x-ray go with it? And besides, we know that the patient already had a root canal-many of them, in fact! In reality, the assistant recorded a periapical radiograph of a premolar that showed alterations suggesting endodontic therapy might be indicated.
"Interproximal" is a space between teeth, so how can dental caries develop in space? Approximal tooth surfaces can develop decalcification and caries lesions, which appear as radiolucent changes on radiographs, but the bitewing radiographs themselves do not have caries lesions on them. Moreover, caries is not a physical material that can be removed. Carious tooth substance is eliminated in an infected tooth in the debridement stage of wound healing during the restoration process. Caries lesions infect teeth and are commonly called tooth decay. There is no such thing as a carious lesion. The lesion is not carious; the tooth is carious.
Contrary to common usage, there are two "m's" in "diammine," and microbiological studies from TRAC Research in Utah have shown that caries infections are actually "intercepted," "abated," or "attenuated," not "arrested." 5 And while it has become acceptable in lectures and print to assign "buccal" surfaces to anterior teeth, this is technically inaccurate because no incisor or canine tooth actually apposes musculus buccinator . Also, it is better to write "lateral incisors" rather than "laterals." Terms such as "prophy," "prepped," and "laterals" may be reasonable lunch time verbal banter among dental colleagues or as unedited comments in patient record progress notes, but such jargon degrades scientific writing.
Unfortunately, the history of dentistry and writing in dentistry are two largely neglected topics in professional dentistry education. Without the luck of serious mentoring by concerned teachers, how is a student of dentistry to learn how to effectively write a case report, clinical technique article, research paper, editorial, or any other written communication in the dental profession?
A teacher of mine advised me that you do not need to be a researcher to write for publication in dentistry. "When you find something that you think you can make better, make it better and document each step along the way." Communicate in writing what you have achieved in that quest, and augment the writing with high-quality photographs, tables, charts, etc.
Here are some considerations when writing for dentistry:
With apologies to Lewis Carroll, have something meaningful to say and say it meaningfully.
Write it simply, as if you are talking. Keep it precise and concise. Speak your sentences out loud after they are written, and let your ear hear your writing voice. Theodor Seuss Geisel (aka "Dr. Ted from the West") wrote it perfectly: "So the writer who breeds more words than he needs, is making a chore for the reader who reads."
Writing isn't difficult. Rewriting is profoundly difficult, always necessary, and most rewarding. Rarely are first sentences the best that one can do.
One of dentistry's great scientists, Dr. Ralph Phillips, advised me to consider having a co-author to aid in a work. He said if the piece is good and well received, there is joy in sharing the glory. If not, there is someone to blame.
Publications have "author guidelines." Follow them!
About the Authors
Steven R. Jefferies, MS, DDS, PhD Guest Researcher, Department of Applied Materials Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Norman Tinanoff, DDS, MS Professor, Division of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland
Theodore P. Croll, DDS Clinic Director, Cavity Busters Doylestown, Doylestown, Pennsylvania; Adjunct Professor, Pediatric Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (Dental School); Clinical Professor, Pediatric Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio
1. Kueffer C, Larson BM. Responsible use of language in scientific writing and science communication. BioScience . 2014;64(8):719-724.
2. Gopen GD, Swan JA. The science of scientific writing. American Scientist . November-December 1990;78:550-558.
3. Normando D. Writing a scientific paper: where to start from? Dental Press J Orthod . 2014;19(1):1. doi: 10.1590/2176-9451.19.1.001-001.edt.
4. Buenz EJ. Essential elements for high-impact scientific writing. Nature website. February 11, 2019. https://nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00546-7. Accessed July 14, 2021.
5. Clinicians Report Foundation. 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF): does it arrest dental caries lesion progression? Clinicians Report . 2018;11(1):1-3.
Dr. Croll's Recommended Writing Resources
Kienzle GJ. Writing - the intellectual microscope. J Prosthet Dent . 1960;10(6):1160-1169.
Boucher CO. Writing as a means for learning. J Prosthet Dent . 1972;27(2):229-234.
Croll TP. Preparation of a dental case history report for publication . J Am Dent Assoc . 1981;102(1):59-61.
Warren JA Jr. Coming to terms with terminology. Operative Dentistry . 1998;23:105-107.
Kilpatrick JJ. Fine Print: Reflections on the Writing Art . Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing; 1993.
Lederer R, Dowis R. The Write Way: The S.P.E.L.L. Guide to Real-Life Writing . New York, NY: Pocket Books; 1995.
Gastel B, Day RA. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper . 8th ed. Santa Barbara, CA: GREENWOOD ™ ; 2016.
Strunk WS Jr. The Elements of Style , edited by Richard De A'Morelli Classic Edition 2018 Update. San Luis Obispo, CA: Spectrum Ink USA; 2018.
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What To Consider When Writing A Dental Article?
by Nancy P. Howard
Dental work can often be costly for patients and dental clinic owners know it can be a fight to get new patients to attend their practice. An essential part of a dental marketing strategy is writing articles, either for the blog itself or for online platforms like social media.
A huge percentage of people find dental clinics online, which is why one way to get readers interested is to write and publish engaging articles . Let’s figure out why this is so important and try to find out what information these articles should contain to pique the interest of potential clients.
Why are articles a significant part of dental marketing?
The value of articles in dental marketing lies in their ability to serve multiple purposes. Firstly, they can help build the reputation of a dental clinic by presenting it as a contemporary and accessible brand.
Additionally, articles can demonstrate the clinic’s expertise in dentistry, establishing it as a knowledgeable and trustworthy facility.
Moreover, by providing informative and engaging content, articles can help potential customers feel more comfortable and confident in purchasing dental services. Dental articles can also boost the visibility of a dental clinic, increasing its reach and exposure to a wider audience online.
How to write a patient-attracting article
- Consider the publication channel. Will it be a website blog or industry-related forum, or maybe an article in a print magazine? Will it also be doubled on social media? This is very important because it identifies the next step – the audience.
- Once you understand where the article will be published, you need to determine the portrait of the ideal profile, the tastes, needs, and interests. What does your ideal client want most of all, what they are afraid of, and what do they secretly dream about? All this will help to see the text through their eyes, to determine the key points of belief, language, and style of writing.
For example, if this is a magazine for moms, it is unlikely the themes about dentures will touch them to the core, in contrast – for example – to a review of children’s records. But the young audience, for example, on a university forum, will be interested in the topic of braces and teeth whitening. And so on.
- Make a plan like writers from the best writing services do:
- think about the topic
- write down the headings and the main points
- make 3-5 key thoughts for each point
- make edits and proofread
What topic to choose?
The topic of your article should attract attention and enable the response. What should you write so that after reading it, users will get the impression that you are a professional in dentistry? Let’s explore the possibilities:
- Innovation and style trends in dentistry . Describe briefly and tell how you feel about them, and which ones you apply in your practice.
- Readers like bullet points. You can make a list of foods that have a positive effect on tooth enamel, and a list of the best hygiene products to make the content helpful and easy to read.
- Humorous situations from life. Try to relate them to your profession.
- Tell in detail what services dentists provide a guarantee for and how long you can use it.
- Share real cases from your medical practice.
- Answer the most popular questions from subscribers and visitors. Recall what they usually ask and record detailed answers to post in a video later.
- Product reviews. Make a review of new oral care products, the most popular methods of dentures, bite correction, etc.
- Information for new clients. For example, this can be a post about how to prepare for a visit to the clinic, how to overcome the fear of visiting the dentist, and how to detect malocclusion.
- Talk about useful devices and applications you use in your life and work.
- Write a reminder, for instance, for how to quickly relieve severe pain when you can’t get to an appointment, what medications to take with you on a trip, and how to teach your child to brush their teeth properly.
- Demonstrate the results of your work: patient testimonials, pictures with patients, and before/after photos. Keep in mind that such pictures can be posted online only with the patient’s approval.
- If a satisfied client writes you a thank-you post on own page, repost it to your profile so that you will make a positive impression on potential patients.
- Post a collaboration post. Talk about the doctors you refer patients to and when.
As you can see, there are a lot of topics for writing articles. Choose the appropriate ones that correspond to your values and principles in work. You can post about informal topics on your blog and clinic website page. Video broadcasts get much more views than ordinary articles; they will help to significantly expand the user audience.
Writing high-quality texts in dentistry requires a combination of specialized, technical knowledge and mastery of the traditional pillars of education: language, grammar, rhetoric, and logic. These skills affect the psychological and rhetorical processes that readers use to understand and extract meaning from written material, especially in technical and medical contexts. But it is also important not to forget who the article is aimed at and the ultimate purpose of writing it.
About the Author
Nancy P. Howard has been working as a journalist at the online magazine in London for a year. She is also a professional writer in such topics as blogging, SEO and marketing.
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Literature reviews, literature reviews and evidence-based practice, research assistance.
- Reference Sources
- Books & Media
- Databases & Journals
- Web Resources
- Practice for Licensing Exams
- APA 7th Edition Guide (Purdue Owl) APA style and formatting from Purdue's Online Writing Lab.
- APA 7th Edition Citation Tutorial Tutorial on creating citations and references using APA 7th edition.
- APA 7th edition Sample Paper Annotated paper using APA 7th edition from Purdue Owl.
- GTC Writing Center The center is staffed by tutors who are eager to help any student or member of the faculty or staff at any stage of the writing process.
- 5 Main Types of Writing Characteristics and focus of informative, persuasive, process, and literary writing.
What is a Literature Review?
The literature review provides your audience with relevant information about your topic, as well as your synthesis and evaluation of the article. It is not just a summary of the article. It is not possible to provide all of the information on a topic with three or five articles. As you locate articles, determine those that are the most relevant and that give you the most information.
Choose a minimum of three articles . Before you begin, locate other literature reviews in your discipline.
There are several steps in writing a literature review:
- Choose a research area. For this assignment, you may choose any current topic in dental hygiene.
- Identify sources of information. This literature review will be limited to peer-reviewed research articles from journals only. Articles must have been published during the last five years . A list of search tools are provided under the Find Research tab.
- Record citation information for your report and bibliography as you research. See citation help tab for more information.
- Locate, read and evaluate potential articles. Take notes on your articles, and identify patterns as well as agreements or disagreements among the authors. The guides listed below contain excellent questions to consider as you read and evaluate each article.
- Write your review, including your own synthesis and evaluation of the articles you selected. Provide a citation and a summary for each article.
- Literature Reviews Explains what literature reviews are and offers insight into the form and construction of literature reviews in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences, by the Writing Center at UNC-Chapel Hill
- The Literature Review: A Few Tips Compiled by the Writing Center at the University of Toronto
- Writing a Literature Review By the Center for Writing and Speaking at Agnes Scott College
Content above reused from https://kwlibguides.lonestar.edu/dh-ebp/dh-lit-review , with permission of creator Hope LeJeune.
Image credit: Claude Moore Health Sciences Library. (2003). Evidence Based Resource Models. Retrieved February 13, 2019 from https://www.slideshare.net/anandmscn/evidence-based-practice-strategies-to-nursing-practiv [Slide 26].
Literature reviews are important sources of information in evidence-based practice. The example article provided is also an example of a specific type of literature review - the systematic review . Systematic reviews are valuable in evidence-based practice because they:
- are designed with a clear set of stated objectives
- are comprehensive for a well-defined area of study
- evaluate and synthesize the quality and findings of the studies included.
Most search tools provide a search filter to make it easy to locate systematic reviews on your topic. This is a useful filter that can provide you with high quality information very quickly. To learn more about how systematic reviews are developed, see " How to conduct a systematic or evidence-based literature review ."
You are not required to conduct a systematic review for this assignment; however, you might want to consider including a systematic review as part of your literature review, if you can find one that fits the criteria and search requirements of your assignment.
Locating literature reviews, in general, and systematic reviews, in particular, is both a time-saver and a method of finding critical evaluations of research.
- Writing & Research Guide
- KnightCite Format citations from many information sources in MLA, APA or Chicago style
- Database Tutorials
Have more questions or suggestions for this research guide? Please contact Jan Daniel , your resource librarian.
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- Last Updated: Oct 5, 2023 12:29 PM
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Research Methods in Dentistry pp 1–38 Cite as
Introduction to Dental Research
- Fahimeh Tabatabaei 3 &
- Lobat Tayebi 3
- First Online: 10 April 2022
Research in dentistry includes a wide range of laboratory or clinical studies, animal studies, clinical trials, materials manufacturing, prevention, and more. To select a research topic, you should be aware of the meaning of key concepts in the research literature, be familiar with the different types of research , determine the field of interest, and review the literature. Following the special rules of scientific research would allow you to achieve the research objectives, which are not just optimizing/developing treatments, materials, tools, and techniques but also improving the living conditions.
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Tabatabaei, F., Tayebi, L. (2022). Introduction to Dental Research. In: Research Methods in Dentistry. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-98028-3_1
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-98028-3_1
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What is a literature review, clearly stated research question, search terms, searching worksheets, boolean and / or.
The content in the Literature Review section defines the literature review purpose and process, explains using the PICO format to ask a clear research question, and demonstrates how to evaluate and modify search results to improve the accuracy of the retrieval.
A literature review seeks to identify, analyze and summarize the published research literature about a specific topic. Literature reviews are assigned as course projects; included as the introductory part of master's and PhD theses; and are conducted before undertaking any new scientific research project.
The purpose of a literature review is to establish what is currently known about a specific topic and to evaluate the strength of the evidence upon which that knowledge is based. A review of a clinical topic may identify implications for clinical practice. Literature reviews also identify areas of a topic that need further research.
A systematic review is a literature review that follows a rigorous process to find all of the research conducted on a topic and then critically appraises the research methods of the highest quality reports. These reviews track and report their search and appraisal methods in addition to providing a summary of the knowledge established by the appraised research.
The UNC Writing Center provides a nice summary of what to consider when writing a literature review for a class assignment. The online book, Doing a literature review in health and social care : a practical guide (2010), is a good resource for more information on this topic.
Obviously, the quality of the search process will determine the quality of all literature reviews. Anyone undertaking a literature review on a new topic would benefit from meeting with a librarian to discuss search strategies. A consultaiton with a librarian is strongly recommended for anyone undertaking a systematic review.
Use the email form on our Ask a Librarian page to arrange a meeting with a librarian.
The first step to a successful literature review search is to state your research question as clearly as possible.
It is important to:
- be as specific as possible
- include all aspects of your question
Clinical and social science questions often have these aspects:
- P eople/population/problem
- I ntervention
- C omparisons (not always included)
If the PICO model does not fit your question, try to use other ways to help be sure to articulate all parts of your question. Perhaps asking yourself Who, What, Why, How will help.
Example Question: Do electric toothbrushes work as well as or better than manual toothbrushes to remove plaque when used by children?
Note that this question fits the PICO model.
- Population: Children
- Intervention: Electric toothbrush
- Comparison: Manual toothbrush
- Outcome: Plaque removal
A literature review search is an iterative process. Your goal is to find all of the articles that are pertinent to your subject. Successful searching requires you to think about the complexity of language. You need to match the words you use in your search to the words used by article authors and database indexers. A thorough PubMed search must identify the author words likely to be in the title and abstract or the indexer's selected MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) Terms.
Start by doing a preliminary search using the words from the key parts of your research question.
Step #1: Initial Search
Enter the key concepts from your research question combined with the Boolean operator AND. PubMed does automatically combine your terms with AND. However, it can be easier to modify your search if you start by including the Boolean operators.
children AND electric toothbrush AND manual toothbrush AND plaque removal
The search retrieves a number of relevant article records, but probably not everything on the topic.
Step #2: Evaluate Results
Use the Summary drop down in the upper left hand corner of the results page to change the display to show all the Abstracts.
Review the results and move articles that are directly related to your topic to the Clipboard .
Go to the Clipboard to examine the language in the articles that are directly related to your topic.
- look for words in the titles and abstracts of these pertinent articles that differ from the words you used
- look for relevant MeSH terms in the list linked at the bottom of each article
The following two articles were selected from the search results and placed on the Clipboard.
Here are word differences to consider:
- Initial search used Children. MeSH Terms use Child.
- Initial search used Electric Toothbrush. Article titles use Battery-Powered, Powered. Related word from MeSH Terms is Electricity.
- Initial search used Manual Toothbrush. Article title uses Manual Toothbrushes. Related word from MeSH is Toothbrushing.
- Initial search used Plaque Removal. Article titles use this exact phrase. MeSH Terms use Dental Plaque combined with Therapy, Prevention, Control.
With this knowledge you can reformulate your search to expand your retrieval, adding synonyms for all concepts except for manual and plaque.
#3 Revise Search
Use the Boolean OR operator to group synonyms together and use parentheses around the OR groups so they will be searched properly. See the image below to review the difference between Boolean OR / Boolean AND.
Here is what the new search looks like:
(child OR children) AND (electric OR electricity OR battery OR power OR powered) AND manual AND (toothbrush OR toothbrushes OR toothbrushing) AND plaque AND (removal OR remove OR therapy OR prevention OR control)
- Search Worksheet Example: Manual vs. Electric Toothbrush
- Search Worksheet
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- Last Updated: Sep 29, 2022 3:41 PM
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What Should You Consider When Writing for a Dental Publication?
- 1 Guest Researcher, Department of Applied Materials Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
- 2 Professor, Division of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Maryland.
- 3 Clinic Director, Cavity Busters Doylestown, Doylestown, Pennsylvania; Adjunct Professor, Pediatric Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (Dental School); Clinical Professor, Pediatric Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.
- PMID: 34449240
Good writing in dentistry involves both a depth of technical knowledge and experience and a command of more "classical" disciplines of knowledge and education, such as language, grammar, rhetoric, and logic. All of these factors influence the psychology and rhetorical interpretive mechanisms by which readers process and derive meaning from written text and are especially relevant to effective technical and medical writing.
Evidence-based dental practice: searching the literature and writing a report
- Identify main concepts
- Choose the right databases
- Plan a search
- Create email alerts
- How to Write an Evidence-based Practice Report
Downloadable files, how to navigate this section of the guide.
- How to Structure an Evidence-based Report
- Language as a Tool for Building an Argument
- Writing the Introduction
- Stating the Aim
- Writing the Discussion
- Final Step: Writing the Abstract
- A Final Note about Verbs
- How to find articles
- Poster Presentation
An Evidence-based Practice Report identifies and critically evaluates all the literature on a practice-based question in order to determine the best available research evidence on which to base practice, and to make a recommendation on best-practice based on the evidence OR to identify if no recommendation is possible based on the current research.
An Evidence-based Report is a Form of Literature Review: A “literature review,” or “critical review,” is a classification and evaluation of the literature, organized according to a guiding topic. This could be a research question, a search for the best evidence-based practice, or an understanding of a problem/issue within health.
Literature review tells us both what has and what has not been accomplished in an area of study. Think of scientific progress and our understanding of the human experience as stretching on a time line from prehistory to the stars. Literature review shows us where we are on the line—what we know (or think we know) and what we still hope to discover.
Literature review develops two crucial skills which help you develop comprehensive knowledge and understanding of your field:
- the ability to find the research on a topic, and
- the ability to read, understand and evaluate it.
A good literature review is not just a summary, but a critical evaluation and synthesis. The best critical appraisals are: 1. organized around and directly related to the topic they explore 2. a summary of what is and is NOT known about the topic 3. able to identify areas of controversy and problem 4. able to identify future directions for research or practice. (Domholdt, 1993)
An Evidence-based Report Makes a Critical Argument: Broadly speaking, there are two types of writing: description and argument. In writing an evidence-based report, you are describing your search for the evidence and making an argument that leads to the recommendation(s) you make in your conclusion.
- An “argument” is a logically connected series of reasons, statements, or facts ( evidence ) used to support or establish an idea or point of view (a claim ). The purpose of argument is to persuade the reader to accept the claim as true, and/or to undertake some action.
- To be “critical” is to evaluate research based on its strengths and weaknesses and come to conclusions about its usefulness for understanding or solving the problem at hand.
- Arguments are frameworks designed to help us approach solutions to difficult problems. Critical argument allows us to judge the strengths and weaknesses of our options in a logical fashion.
- Writing in the health sciences: a comprehensive guide This guide was written by staff at the Health Sciences Writing Centre, University of Toronto.
- Transitional Words And Phrases That Create Logic In Writing
Navigate through the steps for writing a critical appraisal by using the previous/next links below, or clicking on headings that will appear on top or to the left of the page, starting with "How to Structure an Evidence-based Report".
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October 17, 2020
Do you dream of becoming a top-notch dentist someday? Dental students go through some of the most rigorous academic work in any discipline. The coursework is demanding because much is expected from a qualified dentist. Writing excellent essays is part of the coursework just like in other courses. When the coursework is too heavy, you can buy cheap essay and engage the services of professionals to assist you in generating perfect dental essays.
Step 1: The Essay Topic
Dental medicine is a broad subject, which gives you plenty of options in picking an essay topic. You will also find lots of research material if you have to work with a given essay topic. The 3 broad areas of dental care to write about are;
#1 Basic dental hygiene
Some of the topics here would be; • The correct use of a toothbrush • Must-have ingredients of healthy toothpaste • How to pick the correct dental products for different people • Dental hygiene for very young children • Making dental experiences friendlier
#2 Dental health and dieting
You can write on; • Different foods and their impacts on dental health • Food supplements for healthy dental • Children diets for healthy dental development • Proper nutrition to avoid dental loss in old age
#3 Dental ailments
Some of the topics here would include; • Identifying early symptoms of common dental ailments and their causes • Explaining common dental ailments such as cavities and gingivitis • Highlighting uncommon dental conditions such as bruxism • Explaining different dental procedures to treat dental ailments There is a variety of topics to write from these three broad areas. However, you are not confined to these three areas. You can write on what you see fit, or work with a given essay topic.
Step 2: Research
Writing an essay is easy when you have taken the time to research and gather supporting material for your essay. While the internet is full of information, you should also extend your research to special research databases e.g. Web of Science. You can also reach out to professionals who write essay for money to supplement your research. This would take much of the research load off your shoulders while enriching what you already have.
Step 3: Writing a Rough Draft
This is the basic structure for any essay;
• Introduction – This is where you introduce the topic and the one or two hypotheses your essay is proving or disproving • Body – This is where you make your arguments. You can do a paragraph for each argument. Support your argument with statistics, field data, and past arguments that support your points. An essay typically has 2-3 body paragraphs. Keep the required essay length in mind. • Conclusion – This is a summary of your whole essay. Ensure to tie your arguments to prove or disprove your hypothesis.
Step 4: Citations
All work that you use that is not originally yours should be cited and attributed. This includes internet sources. Ensure to use proper formatting e.g. AMA when doing the citations.
Step 5: Edit and submit
Always go over your first draft carefully. Check for missing information, gaps in evidence, and incoherent statements. Have a friend look at the essay before submitting it. Writing essays is part of every student’s life. It is inescapable. What you can do is take time to understand the basics of good essay writing. Your academic life becomes considerably easier when you internalize good essay writing skills.
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- 1. How to write and publish papers in Dentistry – A personal perspective Peter Svensson Professor, DDS, PhD, Dr Odont
- 2. Essentials in dental research • Understand the scientific process – Think – Plan – Do – Report • Communicate the scientific result – Talk – Write
- 3. Important obligation ! “All research, to be generally useful, must ultimately be presented as a written document”
- 4. What is science ? • From Latin “Scientia” – To know, to discern, to distinguish – Systematised knowledge from observation, study, and experimentation carried out in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied (social, natural, biomedical, etc.)
- 5. What is scientific ? • Scientific – Designating the method of research in which a hypothesis, formulated after systematic, objective collection of data, is tested empirically
- 6. What science should be ! • Universal – Unrelated to individual researcher (personal, social, ethnical, religious, political factors) – Same principles within different disciplines (engineering, medical, social etc. – also dentistry)
- 7. What science should be ! • Sceptical – Raises questions to be answered through stringent research methods (logical, critical, consistent)
- 8. What science should not be • Simple gathering of information – Distinguish from learning • Transportation of facts – Needs interpretation of the facts and data – “Listing facts, statements and knowledge is not enough”
- 9. What science should not be • Rummaging for information – More than checking information for self- enlightenment – “Finding out prizes on crowns in Aarhus” • Catchword to get attention – Often misused in advertisements – “Years of research have produced a new dentifrice”
- 10. Characteristics of good science 1. Starts with a question or problem 2. Requires a clear articulation of a goal 3. Follows a specific plan or procedure 4. Divides the problem into more manageable sub- problems 5. Guided by specific problems, questions or hypothesis 6. Accepts critical assumptions 7. Requires collection and interpretation of data 8. Is cyclical or helical
- 11. 1. Identify the question or problem • Many unanswered questions and unresolved problems – Look around - observe - wonder – Be curious – Ask questions • Why? • What is the cause of that? • What does it mean?
- 12. 1. Identify the question or problem • Nobel prize winner in medicine - Eric Kandel – Observed changed function of memory in psychiatric patients – Asked why is the brain working differently? – How is memory stored in the brain cells? (synaptic transmission - signal transduction)
- 13. Review the literature • You need to have background knowledge to approach your own research problem • Maybe it is only a problem to you !
- 14. Review the literature • Purpose of the review 1 – Reveal investigations similar to your own – Show how other researchers have handled methodological and design issues – Describe methods to deal with problem situations that you are facing – Reveal sources of data that you may not have known existed – Introduce you to key persons whose work you may not have known
- 15. Review the literature • Purpose of the review 2 – Help to see your own study in historical perspective – Give you new ideas and approaches – Help to evaluate your own research efforts by comparison to similar efforts of others – Indicate the time and effort previously put into your research topic
- 16. Practical advice to search • Use e.g. Pubmed and search the literature - haste slowly - and read • Identify 2-3 central, high-quality review papers - and read • Read papers most closely related to your research topic and then gradually expand http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov./entrez/query.fcgi
- 17. Practical advice to search • Pick others brains ! – Friends – Supervisors – Experts – Senior faculty members • Contact authors to key-papers • Important verbal information can be obtained from meetings, conferences and personal interactions
- 18. 2. Clear articulation of a goal • Important to state the problem in a clear, unambiguous way • “What do you intend to do?” • “The aim of this project is to ...” The mother test !
- 19. 3. Specific plan or procedure • Hoping to find something, or that data will be “popping up” is not a good start – “let us see what we will find or just go ahead and do it” • Planning the research effort is important – “define the strategy to get data and what to do to them”
- 20. 3. Specific plan or procedure • Choosing the design and method with care and logic – “different questions need different methods” – “engineering questions may not be answered by sociological research designs” – “sociological questions may not be answered by engineering methods”
- 21. Reminder “Researchers should remember that the task before us is to answer the research question, not to revalidate our methodology.” Besag 1986
- 22. Reminder “The question should determine the methodology. The methodology should not determine the question.” Besag 1986
- 23. 4. Manageable sub-problems • The research problem or question may be too big or complex to solve without breaking down into logical subproblems - structuralization • Main problem, e.g. – “How do I come from Aarhus to Xi’an?” • Sub-problems – “Where is Xi’an?” – “What is the most direct/fast route?” – “How do I proceed from airport?” – “What train number?” – Etc…..
- 24. 5. Hypothesis • Greek “Groundwork, foundation” • An unproved theory, proposition, supposition tentatively accepted to explain certain facts or provide a basis for further investigations • Hypotheses are not new or purely academic constructs, but reasonable guess - logical supposition
- 25. 6. Accepts critical assumptions • Research has assumptions • Geometry has axioms • Self-evident truths - conditions that need to be taken for granted
- 26. 6. Accepts critical assumptions • Define and state the assumptions necessary for your hypothesis, e.g. – “Women have lower pain thresholds than men” • Both groups have same interest / motivation to faithfully report their experience • The examiner is capable of performance an accurate test • The test method is sensitive enough to discriminate between the groups
- 27. 7. Collection and interpretation of data • Collection of data is the first step – Data are objective • Interpretation of the data is the next - and necessary - step – Data need to go through the human brain to get a meaning ! – Interpretation is subjective
- 28. Two important aspects of data • Validity – Soundness, effectiveness of the measuring instrument – What does the test measure? – Does it measure what it is supposed to be measured? – How well, how accurately does it measure? • Reliability – Consistency of the measurement – How well can you measure something again and again?
- 29. Validity and reliability Perfect reliability Perfect reliability Bad reliability + + + Perfect validity Bad validity Bad validity
- 30. Statistics • Helps to describe and interpret the data set – Descriptive statistics • Points of central tendency (mode, mean, median etc) • Measures of variation (quartile range, SD, SEM, variance) • Measures of relationship (Pearson product moment, Spearman rank-order etc) – Inferential statistics • Predictions - estimations • Hypothesis testing (t-test, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, ANOVA, regression analysis etc)
- 31. 8. Cyclic or helical nature 6. Interpretation Rejection or acceptance 1. Research begins with a question 5. Collect and organise data 2. Clear statement 4. Hypotheses of the goal to be tested 3. Division into subproblems
- 32. Summary • The science needs to be good in order to write a good scientific paper
- 33. Scientific writing • Writing as thinking – Writing is a great way to discover what we are thinking – Start writing as soon as possible – The only version that counts is the last one – Paper is patience, but uncritical !
- 34. Different means to present science • Scientific writing – Original / full research reports – Short communications – Case stories – Topical reviews – Systematic reviews / meta-analysis – Books or book chapters – Academic thesis – Conference abstracts
- 35. Different means to present science • Oral presentations – Short communication – Plenary lecture – Seminars – Courses
- 36. Different means to present science • Public relations – Media - press release – Internet
- 37. Scientific papers • Consider where to publish – Impact factors - impact – Relevance - scope of journal – Audience - readers – Time – review - publication
- 38. Impact factors • Measure of the frequency of which the ”average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year – Cites to recent articles / number of recent articles All citations in a journal in a particular year during the last 2 years IF = All citable articles in the journal during the last 2 years http://isi3.isiknowledge.com
- 39. Impact factor • Suggested as a simple, descriptive quantitative measure of a journal’s performance • Founded by Eugene Garfield – Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) • Science Citation Index (SCI) now includes more than 3700 journals and even more are tracked (not yet included)
- 40. Impact factor • General belief – ”The higher IF, the better journal” – Researchers keen to submit to high-impact journals – Editors of high-impact journals are ”swamped” with manuscripts – Funding agencies expect researchers to publish in ”the best” journals
- 41. Problems with impact factor • Coverage and language preference of the SCI database • Procedures to collect citations at the ISI • Algorithm to calculate the IF • Citation distribution of journals • Online availability of publications
- 42. Problems with impact factor • Citations to invalid articles • Negative citations • Preference of journal publishers for articles of a certain type • Publication lag • Citing behavior across subjects • Influence from journal editors
- 43. Alternatives to impact factors • Journal to Field Impact Factor • Adjusted Impact Factor • Cited half-life Impact Factor • Median Impact Factor • Disciplinary Impact Factor • Prestige Factor
- 44. What does the IF measure? • Measure the average citation rate of all ”citable” articles • Helps authors to decide which journals to submit to • Helps editors and publishers to assess the journals • ”Simply reflects the ability of journals and editors to attract the best papers available”
- 45. What does IF not measure? • Does not measure the quality of individual articles • Only measures the ”interests” of other researchers but not the ”importance” and ”usefulness”
- 46. In addition to IF also consider • Scope of the journal • Actual circulation numbers / distribution and potential readership • Time from submission to publication
- 47. Time • Short communications of most recent research • Normally immediately prior to publication of data in full research paper – Feedback – Faster distribution of news • Fast track publications (“hot topics”) • Online Early – publication ahead of printed version
- 48. Scientific papers • Note on style (IMRAD) – Introduction – Materials and Methods – Results – and – Discussion
- 49. Author guidelines • Check very carefully the instruction to authors • Print out a recent paper from the journal • Remember copyright forms etc. – www.blackwellmunksgaard.com/jor
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What and How to Write, or Change, in the Dental Record
Guidelines for Practice Success | Managing Professional Risks | Patient Records, Charting, and Documentation Protocols
The recording of accurate patient information and treatment in the dental record, sometimes referred to as the patient chart, is essential for good risk management. As a result, the value of maintaining thorough and accurate dental records cannot be overstated.
Some dental practice acts and/or regulations issued by state boards of dentistry have specific requirements for dental records. In many states, patient record keeping requirements may be detailed in laws or regulations that apply to dentists and healthcare professionals and businesses in general or in state legislation and regulations that apply to businesses generally, such as state data security laws. Check with your state dental society for information on record keeping requirements in your state. The dental record is your official document that details all diagnostic information, health history, clinical notes, treatment performed, and patient-related communications that took place in the practice. That’s a key reason why dentistry, and the broader healthcare community, subscribes to the maxim that “if it’s not written down, it didn’t happen.”
The dental record is also a legal document that can be the single most important source of supporting evidence in a liability claim or board of dentistry complaint. In fact, various professional liability companies have reported cases when they could not successfully defend a dentist against unfounded allegations of malpractice because of errors or inadequacies in the patient record. Among those topics representatives of professional liability companies have reported seeing with the greatest frequency include inadequate documentation of dental findings, diagnoses, procedures, treatment plans, medical histories, and the informed consent/refusal process.
While that information is critical to ensuring that the proper patient care has been provided, it can also be used to determine whether the diagnosis and treatment conformed to the standards of care in the community. Refer to the article, The Standard of Care in Dentistry , that’s included in this module for more information. In the event that you’re ever named in a complaint to the state dental board or accused of malpractice, the information in the patient record can influence the outcome.
It’s a good idea to contact your professional liability insurance company and legal counsel to get their recommendations regarding what should be included in the dental record. Most liability carriers offer this information free of charge to policy holders; others may offer limited online access to information and resources to dentists who are not policy holders.
One primary reason for keeping the information in the patient record objective and limited to necessary information about treatment is that the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) gives patients the right to review or amend their records and/or have request that dental practices covered by the regulation send copies of their records to another person designated by the patient. The provided records would also include any “personal notes” that may be recorded in a separate location, file or chart. It’s possible that personal notes labeled “attorney-client privilege” that are stored separate from the patient record may be protected from discovery.
Dental practices are considered covered entities if they transmit electronic “covered transactions,” such as electronic claims, to dental plans. It’s also possible to become a covered entity by contracting with an outside service, such as a clearinghouse, to submit electronic covered transactions on behalf of the dental practice.
The dental record also provides a way for you, as the patient’s treating dentist, to communicate with dentists and other healthcare providers who may be involved in managing the patient’s care. Complete and accurate records allow providers who do not know the patient to become familiar with the individual’s dental history and experience while under your care.
Consider these tips before making entries in the dental record:
- Consider using the SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan) method for chart entries. See the article titled Templates, Smart Phrases and SOAP in the ADA Guidelines for Practice Success™ (GPS™) module on Managing Professional Risks for more information.
- Remember, it’s possible that your notes could be read aloud in a court of law. Make certain that they present an accurate picture of what took place. With that in mind, it’s a good rule of thumb to first outline what you plan to communicate in the record and then enter the information into the patient record in an organized manner.
- It is best to document while the patient is still in the office, or as soon as possible after the patient leaves.
- This should be done even if there is only one dentist entering information in the treatment record
- Most practice management software programs automatically assign the initials of the person making the notation based on the user’s log-in credential. Entries in paper records should be initialed and/or signed by the team member writing the entry. The dentist should sign off on all entries in patient records regardless of the format.
- These attachments provide a resource for the dentist to evaluate the short-term and long-term results of treatment performed and the effects of any complicating factors.
- They may also provide a reminder of the patient’s response and cooperation.
- Strive to complete treatment notes within 24 hours, since doing so in that timeframe could allow you to respond if you were asked under oath about the timing of any changes that changes to a patient’s record were done “that day” or “on the same day.”
- Make sure you know when the software closes the “Notes” section of patient records versus when records are closed, typically at the end of the month.
- The timing of changes, and the types of changes made, can prompt questions regarding whether the record was changed after treatment was performed and if the change was made in an attempt to protect the practice or the treating dentist.
- Belated chart entries, including any corrections of prior entries, should include the date and time when the belated entry was added.
- Never alter the record when faced with a dental malpractice claim, board inquiry, and/or patient complaint about the efficacy of treatment you provided.
Just like you protect the practice by having professional liability coverage and access to qualified legal help, you may want to consider hiring an information technology expert to help prevent – or trouble shoot and fix – any technology problems.
- The Standard of Care in Dentistry
- Templates, Smart Phrases and SOAP
- ADA Tip Sheet on What and How to Write, or Change, in the Dental Record [PDF]
- The Consent Process: Types of Consent
- Consent for Minors/Emancipated Minors
- ADA Tip Sheet on Certain Provisions of the HIPAA Privacy Rule [PDF]
- Documentation/Patient Records
- New Dentist News
- Member Login
by Olivia Anderson
November 30, 2023
Influencing the future of dentistry
Twin sisters offer tips and tricks to expand online presence.
Alisha and Natasha Nanji have a long list of titles to their name. They’re twins, dental students, entrepreneurs, and more recently, social media influencers.
Because the sisters grew up with a father who is a dentist, the family had countless dinner-table conversations about the dental field. As they got older, it gradually became clear to both Alisha and Natasha that a career in dentistry would become their path, too.
After earning their undergraduate degree from Cornell University, the twins took a gap year while attending the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, where they’re currently in their last year. During the gap year, they created a startup called AppBuddy. The app, a mentorship platform that aimed to combat educational inequity, was selected as one of 120 companies out of 7,900 applicants to receive $125,000 in funding.
“The reason we started that is because we see technology as making a scalable impact,” Natasha said, noting that there is also a personal component at play – the Nanjis’ father immigrated to the United States from Uganda and their mother from Tanzania. “Throughout our entire life, the one thing that kept coming up was how an education from our parents was their passports out of poverty, so for us education has been ingrained from such a young age, and we’re very interested in the technology impact to make that scalable impact and tackle those inequities.”
They’ve also partnered with the ADA to highlight the Association’s Member App, which assists users in finding dental mentors, career pathways and tracking CE progress. The twins posted two reels on their joint Instagram account featuring the app, in hopes of helping their followers – many of whom are dental students – find community and resources.
Through their venture into technology, the twins became very social media savvy. They initially began a joint Instagram account in August 2019 to document their journey in dental school and offer tips they’ve picked up along the way. Gradually, the account grew; it currently boasts about 96,000 followers as of press time, and has led them to speak at more than 50 high school and college clubs to date. Alisha and Natasha often receive messages from followers either requesting networking recommendations, asking questions about their dentistry journey, or simply thanking them for their tips and openness in sharing their own experiences.
“It makes us so happy, because you’re putting content out there and you don’t really know how it will resonate with people. Just to get that positive feedback and positive response – it’s super cool to be able to actually see the impact it’s having,” Alisha said, smiling.
For anyone in the dental space interested in expanding an online presence, the Nanji sisters have compiled six tips and tricks to help jumpstart the endeavor.
1. Understand your goals. There are a variety of reasons to use social media as a dental professional, from wanting to mentor the younger generation to increasing your patient base. The twins suggested cementing one to two main purposes for joining social media, and then holding to them.
2. Choose the right platform. Oftentimes, different social media platforms best cater to different demographics. TikTok, for instance, is a video-sharing social media app that allows users to create short-form content about any subject and is particularly popular among young generations. LinkedIn, on the other hand, is a platform geared toward business, employment and networking opportunities. According to the Nanji sisters, it’s important to learn about the unique offerings of each platform in order to choose which channel is the best fit.
3. Be consistent. The dental field can be overwhelming and busy, the sisters acknowledged, as patient care is always the first priority. But understanding that “consistency is key” when it comes to posting online will help grow an internet presence, they said. There are apps to help schedule posts, as well as to curate social media feeds.
4. Engage with your audience. The twins stressed the significance of interacting with your audience, whether by liking comments or responding to direct messages. Creating a sense of real community will likely make people feel valued, and as a result, want to stick around.
“At the end of the day, remember that even though it shows a number, every person following you is a person in real life, so it’s so important to engage with them,” Natasha said.
5. Keep pushing. Although low follower counts at the beginning might prove to be discouraging, it’s helpful to remember that growth usually happens gradually. Try not to compare your online presence to other content creators, focus on your own platform, and celebrate the little wins – because they might not be so little after all.
6. Be authentic. Social media doesn’t always accurately reflect reality, with glamorized and heavily edited photos often taking centerstage. But the Nanji twins have found that showing the more raw, messy and real aspects of their life have actually created a stronger connection with their followers.
“It just reassures people. If you’ve failed, if you’ve gotten rejected, if your room is messy, that is okay,” Alisha said. “To be relatable, be authentic, just be yourself and don’t worry about acting like someone you’re not on social media.”
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100 Blog Topics for Dentists
Don’t make coming up with blog topics harder than it has to be. If you write dental blogs , take a look at this idea list and brainstorm your own sub-list for each topic. There really is a never-ending well of opportunity, you just have to get creative. Subscribe to health and beauty e-newsletters, as well as magazines. Keep a small notepad on hand in the office, and jot down sparks as they come to mind. Then, when it’s time to type up your next blog post, you’ll have a wealth of inspiration at your fingertips!
100 Blog Topics for Dental Posts
- Why Checkups Are Essential
- A Checklist for Your Next Dental Visit
- Why Dental Cleanings Are Essential
- What Happens at Dental Checkups
- What You Don’t Know About Dental Insurance
- What a Dental Cleaning Involves
- How Children’s Teeth Erupt and Fall Out
- Common Dental Emergencies and First Aid
- Animals Have Amazing Teeth
- Do You Have Sinus Pressure or a Toothache
- How Oral Health Impacts Overall Health
- The Diabetes – Dental Health Connection
- The Alzheimer’s – Oral Health Connection
- The Cardiac – Oral Health Connection
- What Is an Amalgam Filling
- What Is a Composite Filling
- What Is a Zirconia Crown
- What Is a Porcelain Crown
- What Is a Metal Crown
- What Is a Root Canal
- What Is a Denture
- What Is a Partial
- What Is a Dental Bridge
- What Is a Dental Implant
- What Is an Onlay
- What Is an Inlay
- What Is a One-Visit Crown
- What Is an Overdenture
- What Is an All-On-Four Denture
- What Are Mini Implant Dentures
- Why Do I Need a Sinus Lift
- Why Do I Need a Bone Graft
- Why Do I Need an Oral Surgeon
- What Is Sedation Dentistry
- What Is Oral Sedation
- How Does Nitrous Oxide Work
- Is Sedation Dentistry Safe
- Overcoming Dental Phobia
- Is Dental Fear Real
- What Is IV Dental Sedation
- Dental Sedation for Special Needs
- Dental Sedation for Children
- 5 Reasons to Consider Sedation Dentistry
- When to Visit a Pediatric Dentist
- Why We Refer to Dental Specialists
- What Endodontists Do for Patients
- What Periodontists Do for Patients
- Procedures Prosthodontists Perform
- What Is a Maxillofacial Surgeon
- Removable or Fixed Implant Dentures
- What Is a Porcelain Veneer
- Porcelain Veneers or Braces
- Porcelain Veneers or Crowns
- What Is Dental Bonding
- Is Bonding as Good as Veneers
- What Is a Wisdom Tooth
- Why Do We Have Wisdom Teeth
- When Should Wisdom Teeth Be Removed
- Can I Keep My Wisdom Teeth
- Am I Too Old To Have My Wisdom Teeth Extracted
- What Is an Extraction
- Why Is Extraction Necessary
- Do I Have To Replace My Extracted Tooth
- What Does Impaction Mean
- What Is Gum Disease
- What Is Gingivitis
- What Is Periodontitis
- What Is an Abscess
- What Is Oral Cancer
- What Is a Head and Neck Exam
- What Are Dental X-Rays
- Why Do You Need Dental X-Rays
- Are Dental X-Rays Safe
- Are Dental X-Rays Safe for Kids
- Are Dental X-Rays Safe During Pregnancy
- What Are Panoramic Dental X-Rays
- What Are Digital Dental X-Rays
- What Are Dental Impressions
- What Is A Cone Beam Image
- What Is a Digital Impression
- Cosmetic Dentistry Can Help Your Career
- Do You Need a Smile Makeover
- 3 Procedures That Whiten Teeth
- 3 Procedures That Straighten Teeth
- 5 Popular Cosmetic Dentistry Treatments
- Contouring and Reshaping Teeth
- Gum Line Contouring for a Shapelier Smile
- Statistics About Smiling and Happiness
- How Smiling Affects Health
- Why Replacing Lost Teeth Is Important
- Taking Care of Your Teeth at Home
- 5 Tips for Teaching Kids to Brush
- 3 Secrets to Make Flossing Simpler
- Pamper Yourself on the Dental Aisle
- Foods That Brighten Tooth Enamel
- The Anatomy of Your Teeth
- Your Amazing Tongue
- Do You Really Know What Your Hygienist Does
- What Are Those Things In the Dentist’s Office
- 10 Things You Didn’t Know Your Dentist Was Doing at Your Checkup
If you’re simply not a writer, blog topics elude you, or you don’t have time for blogging, call Identiwrite Creative today at 940-395-5115 . Our team of copywriters and strategic SEO marketing experts will whip your website into shape and get new patients in your doors!
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- Published: 25 January 2021
Prescription writing for dentists in primary care
- Yassir Habeeb 1
BDJ Student volume 28 , pages 11–13 ( 2021 ) Cite this article
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General Dental Council. 2020. Scope Of Practice. Available at: www.gdc-uk.org/information-standards-guidance/standards-and-guidance/scope-of-practice (Accessed 4 April 2020).
PSNC Main site. 2020. Who Can Prescribe What? Available at: https://psnc.org.uk/dispensing-supply/receiving-a-prescription/who-can-prescribe-what/ (Accessed 4 April 2020).
NHS Digital. 2020. Prescribing By Dentists - England, 2014. Available at: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/prescribing-by-dentists/prescribing-by-dentists-england-2014 (Accessed 4 April 2020).
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Habeeb, Y. Prescription writing for dentists in primary care. BDJ Student 28 , 11–13 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41406-020-0175-1
Published : 25 January 2021
Issue Date : January 2021
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1038/s41406-020-0175-1
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- How do you write a dental article?
Authors are encouraged to write with as few words as feasible. The Journal of Dentistry's house style demands that articles be organized in the following order: Title, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figures.
An article can have only one title, but it can include multiple sections. Authors should not use titles as chapter headings. They can be used as keywords for searching articles on JODoCT, which may help readers find relevant articles.
Abstracts are brief descriptions of an article's content designed to attract readers' attention. They should be concise and accurate. They should also be written in a manner that will make them appealing to those who are not familiar with research papers . For example, if the study examined the relationship between teeth color and blood types, then the abstract might simply state "Tooth color is related to blood type." In contrast, a more detailed abstract might read: "Dental implants had no effect on blood type because there was no difference in success rates based on blood type." Again, the goal is to provide enough information for others to want to read the full paper .
Introduction/Purpose/Rationale. This section is meant to give readers insight into why they should care about what is being studied.
Table of Contents
Do you write papers in dental school, how do you write a journal paper, what is the format for writing an article, how do you write an article to describe a place, how do you write a letter to the editor of a journal, what is the body of an article.
Your personal statement is a one-page essay (no more than 4,500 characters, including spaces, carriage returns, digits, letters, and so on) that provides dental schools with a clear image of who you are and, more importantly, why you want to pursue a career in dentistry. Remember that dental schools are interested in the real you. They want to know what makes you laugh, cry, and scream at the television; what hobbies you have; and most important, whether or not you have faced adversity in your life and how you overcame it.
In addition to your personal statement, you will need to include a writing sample in your application file. This can be an article you have written for publication or a speech you have given. The sample should be no longer than 5 pages, including footnotes and citations. If you do not have any samples you can simply say so in your application. Then, if invited, you can send them later.
Finally, you will need to submit a transcript of all grades earned at all colleges attended. This includes community colleges as well as universities. You cannot apply without submitting all required documents. Even if you think you have nothing to worry about, it is best to be safe than sorry. If you don't submit your documents, you won't be considered for admission.
When mailing applications, make sure to follow all instructions carefully. Failure to do so could result in your application being returned by the admissions office.
How to Organize Your Manuscript
- Prepare the figures and tables.
- Write the Methods.
- Write up the Results.
- Write the Discussion. Finalize the Results and Discussion before writing the introduction.
- Write a clear Conclusion.
- Write a compelling introduction.
- Write the Abstract.
- Compose a concise and descriptive Title.
A. To structure an article, begin with a header and then the author's name. After that, compose the material and conclude the piece.
B. To structure an article, begin with a title and then the author's name.
C. To structure an article, begin with a headline and then the author's name.
D. To structure an article, begin with a subtitle and then the author's name.
E. To structure an article, begin with a subheading and then the author's name.
F. To structure an article, begin with a sentence and then the author's name.
G. To structure an article, begin with a paragraph and then the author's name.
H. To structure an article, begin with a heading and then the author's name.
When we write an article on a trip to a certain location, we normally write four paragraphs.
- Introduction. In the first paragraph we write the name and location of the place as well as our reason(s) for choosing it.
- Other information.
Letters to the editor or author should include impartial and constructive interpretations or debates on medical, scientific, or general topics of interest. They should have a goal and communicate in a clear and straightforward manner. Letters that do not meet these criteria will not be published.
To send your letter online simply click on the link below and follow our easy instructions . Alternatively you can email it to [email protected] with "Letter to the Editor" as the subject line.
Thank you for your time and attention.
The majority of the research and substance are found in the article's body. It should be organized into sections depending on the main points made by the author. These sections should be labeled accordingly using subheadings to provide more detail about each section.
The title should also act as a guide for the reader as to what they can expect from reading the article. In other words , the title should catch the reader's attention and make them want to know more about the topic.
Generally, an article is expected to have from one to four paragraphs in length. Any longer or shorter than this would be considered too long or short, respectively. However, there are no specific numbers that define "too much" or "too little" content within an article.
Lastly, it is important that an editor adds their own personal style to an article. This will help create a unique writing experience that matches the voice of the journal. For example, if the journal uses a sports terminology bias, then an editor should include these terms in their article to match this tone being set by the journal.
About Article Author
Robert Williams is a writer and editor. He has an innate talent for finding the perfect words to describe even the most complicated ideas. Robert's passion is writing about topics like psychology, business, and technology. He loves to share his knowledge of the world by writing about what he knows best!
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How to Use Obsidian for Writing and Productivity
I'm pretty bad at being an employee. I openly despise meetings, I say exactly what's on my mind, and I sincerely believe that many managers exist only to waste the time of otherwise productive people. I also could not be less interested in how my work impacts quarterly projections—I want to write things that people find helpful and entertaining.
So, yeah, I'm a freelancer.
I write for five publications, including the one you're reading now (obviously my favorite). The upside: I'm never in meetings. The downside: There's a lot to keep track of. I have to manage relationships with five editors. It's a challenge, and I've tried a full array of systems over the years, from spreadsheets to index cards, apps like Trello , and way too many to-do list apps.
None of them quite did the trick, until I discovered Obsidian a couple of years ago. This application has slowly gone from being a weird app I didn't understand to one I can't imagine functioning without. It's where I do all of my writing, yes, but also how I keep track of my ongoing articles as they move from brainstorming to pitching to publication.
This isn't a review of Obsidian ( I already wrote one ). This is an outline of how I use this tool to get things done. Hopefully reading it gives you some ideas for how you could use it.
First of all, what is Obsidian? The application bills itself as a "second brain," but you could it put in the same category as note-taking apps like OneNote or Evernote. Unlike those applications, though, Obsidian stores everything—notes, attachments, and even plugins—as simple text documents in a folder on your computer. This means you can use the application fully offline or sync the documents using the cloud storage service of your choice.
This has a few advantages. For one, your files are fully in your control: If Obsidian stopped existing tomorrow, I would still have access to my notes. For another, everything works offline. My favorite thing about Obsidian, though, is the extensive plugin ecosystem. There are over a thousand Obsidian plugins , and I depend on several of them. There's Kanban , which allows you to create a board of cards you can move between tiles. There's Extract URL , which can grab all text from any website and turn it into a note. I could list plugins for a long time. But the point is that you can customize Obsidian to work basically any way you want it to. I've done this to create a perfect setup for my workflow—one that allows me to do my planning and my actual writing in the same application.
My writing process has a progression: brainstorming ideas, pitching those ideas to editors, researching, writing, editing, and invoicing. Here's how I move through these steps in Obsidian.
Every article starts with an idea. I get these from all kinds of places. Sometimes I'm just using my computer, notice something that annoys me, endlessly research a solution to that issue, and then decide to write about it. Sometimes I notice a cool-looking app while reading the news or browsing Reddit. And sometimes I just spend a few hours brainstorming ideas. Whatever the case, I compile my ideas in a dedicated Kanban board on Obsidian. Every card on the board links to a dedicated document where I include any relevant links, expand on the idea, and note a bit about possible angles for the article.
When it comes time to take these ideas into the world, I decide which ones I'm going to pitch to which editors and drag them to a column for that publication. If the pitch is approved, I drag the card over to my "article queue" board, if not, I consider pitching it to another publication or put it in my "idea jail" to potentially revisit later.
I like this system because it allows me to slowly collect ideas throughout the month. That way, when it comes time to pitch, I'm not starting from scratch.
The core of my workflow is the "article queue" Kanban board, which basically contains every article I'm working on in the current month. I have a column for every step of the editorial process—writing, waiting on edits, editing, edited but not invoiced, invoiced but not paid, and paid. I drag articles from left to right.
I live by this board. Every work day I log in, look at how far along I am with every article, and decide what to work on. The board also means I never forget to follow up with editors who might have forgotten to email me feedback, or to follow up on unpaid invoices. I sincerely don't know how I functioned before I had this.
Even better, this isn't just a project management system: It's also the app where I do my writing. I can click any of these cards and start writing, right away. I can't overstate how helpful it is to not have to use one application for project management and another for the writing itself.
Obsidian is a great place for writing. Formatting is handled by Markdown , a simple way to apply formatting—for example, to bold text you surround it with two asterisks, **like this**. I've done all of my writing in Markdown for a long time, so this is perfect for me.
Some Markdown editors use two panels—one where you write, with the formatting “code” visible, and another where you preview how the text will look. Obsidian doesn't do this, opting to render the Markdown in real time as you type. This is a perfect compromise—it gives me the benefit of writing in Markdown without the downside of my text editor looking ugly as sin. This is a feature I first saw in an app called Typora , and I'm glad it works here too.
I write a lot of tech tutorials, and I generally start by collecting screenshots for every step. I put all of the screenshots, in order, in a document in Obsidian, along with all of the relevant links. If I'm doing a reported piece, I gather my research and interviews in separate documents, then compile the best quotes and tidbits into the document where I'll do my writing. Obsidian offers an internal linking feature—it can basically function as a private wiki—and I use this to connect all of my interviews and other research to my article for tracking purposes. It's possible to view multiple documents in the same window, a feature I use all the time.
The Canvas feature, which is relatively new, offers a way to arrange and edit multiple documents in the same place—I personally don't use this, but I can see the appeal of dragging documents wherever you like and editing them all in one interface.
Obsidian doesn't really have any collaboration features, and even if it did my editors don't use it. That's why I use a plugin called Copy as HTML to copy a rich text version of my article. I paste this into a Google Doc, which renders it as formatted text, complete with images. I share this with my editors, all of whom use comments and track changes to give me feedback.
That, in a nutshell, is how I manage to pitch, write, and track 15 to 20 articles between five different editors every month. It's a lot of work, granted, but I enjoy it. And this workflow makes it all feel manageable.
I can't imagine that this exact process would work for most of you, and that's not the point. Obsidian is useful because you can adapt it to almost any workflow, no matter how specific your needs are. I spent a lot of time customizing everything so it works just so; you can do the same thing. Other apps try to get you to adapt to a particular way of working. Obsidian, if you put the time in, will adapt to you.
WIRED has teamed up with Jobbio to create WIRED Hired , a dedicated career marketplace for WIRED readers. Companies who want to advertise their jobs can visit WIRED Hired to post open roles, while anyone can search and apply for thousands of career opportunities. Jobbio is not involved with this story or any editorial content.
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Want to Make Money As a Writer? Here's How to Write Things People Really Want to Read These were the strategies I used to build a healthy newsletter business.
By Nathan Baschez • Dec 4, 2023
Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.
Want to earn a living as a writer? Don't worry, you don't need professional training.
I'm proof of that. The newsletter I co-founded, Every , has nearly 70,000 subscribers, and we publish essays that help people understand technology, productivity, and AI. It drives a healthy business — even though my cofounder, Dan, and I were never professional writers. (My career has been in product.)
I won't lie: I've made a lot of mistakes since launching Every. I am a deeply flawed writer. But I do feel confident that I've learned some useful things about writing essays that spread on the internet.
Here are the frameworks, metaphors, aphorisms, and various other forms of advice that I find myself returning to when I struggle with writing.
Why essays spread
Every article has thrust and drag . The thrust of a piece is what motivates readers to invest the energy necessary to extract its meaning. It is the reason they click. Drag is everything that makes the reader's task harder, such as meandering intros, convoluted sentences, abstruse locution and even little things like a missing Oxford comma.
When your writing has more thrust than drag for a group of readers, it will spread and your audience will grow. Achieving this takes practice and experimentation.
The idea of thrust and drag may seem obvious, but it helps to decompose the problem of growing an audience into its component parts. Do you know what people want to read about? Can you channel that knowledge into compelling writing? These are independent variables, so work on one at a time.
Sources of obsession
How can you know what people want to read about? This is the hardest part about writing, at least for me.
My theory is that most people read deep non-fiction writing in order to cultivate an obsession . Some obsessions last weeks, others last decades. People are willing to skim and graze random articles, but that's not the kind of readership you want to attract. You want people to care.
The best advice I have for finding these people is to not try too hard. We've all seen the writers who are pandering to a recent trend or copying a "proven" format. It usually doesn't work, because in order to feed someone's obsession you need to be able to go unusually deep. This takes a lot of energy, and the benefits from writing are sufficiently uncertain to make it a bad bet to do so if you're only doing it to grow an audience.
A better (and more fun) strategy is to work unusually hard to cultivate your own obsessions. Run experiments! Do research! Try things! And, of course, write about it. When you're pursuing your own curiosity, it matters less if others immediately care. The work becomes its own reward.
Angles, not topics
I asked GPT-3 for a list of article ideas for me with the prompt: "My name is Nathan Baschez. Use what you know about me to suggest topics of articles I should write." This is what it came up with:
- Strategies for successful startup growth and scaling
- Analysis of emerging trends in the technology industry
- The importance of brand storytelling in marketing
- The role of effective leadership in building high-performing teams
- The future of work and remote collaboration
- Lessons learned from your experience building companies such as Substack
- Innovation and disruption in media and journalism industries
- The impact of social media on modern society and the changing nature of communication
- Personal development and career growth strategies
- The role of empathy and emotional intelligence in business success.
These are great topics, but none work as a starting point for an article. To start writing, I need a sharp angle.
For example, last week I was thinking about why ChatGPT broke out now when the underlying AI model is a couple of years old. I realized that the success of DALL-E 2 and Stable Diffusion helped spread a narrative that AI is exciting right now, which helped prime people to be excited about a new product like ChatGPT. This, to me, is a good angle. It's a specific question with a specific answer—not a general topic area like "the rise of AI."
But what makes a compelling angle?
Made to STIRC
Angles that spread usually check the following boxes:
- Surprising — presents unexpected new information or theories
- True — we actually believe it
- Important — has an impact on our behavior
- Relevant — related to domains we care about
- Cool — we think we'll look impressive for sharing it
It's hard to come up with angles that fit all of these criteria. You're not going to be able to do it every week. But at least you know what you're looking for.
Find the central question
To sharpen your angles, ask yourself early in the writing process what the central question is. Once you can frame this, the rest of the piece becomes much easier to write.
"If I had an hour to solve a problem I'd spend 55 minutes thinking about the problem and five minutes thinking about solutions." — Not Albert Einstein
For this piece, the central question is, "How can I write essays that spread online?" It seems obvious, but it was only something I figured out about halfway through the first draft. When I started writing, all I had was a fuzzy idea that I would write about the frameworks and theories about writing I've developed over the past three years. The original placeholder title was "writing advice." Most essays start this way.
Once you've found the central question, you can go back and re-orient everything you've written to provide answers as logically as possible.
Plot a logical through-line
Readers are more logical than most writers think. They'll bail on a piece if it meanders aimlessly, and they'll stick with it if it seems like most ideas follow logically from what came before, even if those ideas aren't terribly compelling.
I learned this lesson when I worked at Gimlet Media. When I sat in on meetings where editors would give the podcast producers and hosts feedback on rough cuts of episodes, I couldn't believe how logical their advice was. I thought the creative process was about hand-wavy, inexplicable, personal, and perhaps even emotional decisions. False! Logic also matters. You can't move people if they're confused.
The most common mistake when I'm editing is when a writer jumps from one idea to another without explanation or transition. You can reduce 50% of the drag in your writing if you edit yourself so that each line follows logically from what came before.
Use an organizing principle
So how do you ensure a logical flow of ideas? You could take it one sentence at a time, but that's hard. Especially when you're writing the first draft, if you don't have a foundational structure you can return to, you'll often have no idea what to say next.
My best-performing essays often have an organizing principle that makes the structure easy to follow. For example, this essay starts at the beginning of the creative process and follows in more or less chronological order. My most popular essay, " Why Content is King ," goes over each of Hamilton Helmer's 7 Powers in order, and shows how they apply to media. If you look at each of my most popular posts , you'll probably be able to identify a clear organizing principle.
Ask for feedback
Good feedback from the right kind of reader can transform an essay. Without the help of my colleagues at Every my writing wouldn't have spread nearly as far.
There are two types of people from whom you can get good feedback:
- Professional editors
- Readers in your target audience
Each has unique value to offer.
Professional editors who aren't familiar with your world won't have a nose for what your audience cares about, so they won't be able to add much thrust, but they can reduce drag and help you articulate your thoughts more clearly.
Readers in your target audience probably won't have the editorial prowess to improve sentences or help you structure a piece, but they can help you identify what works and doesn't about a draft. Because readers aren't used to giving feedback, I ask them to look out for anything that triggers the following reactions:
- Disagree/don't believe
The acronym is ABCD, which is nice and memorable.
Set and meet sacred deadlines
I didn't set deadlines until last year, and it was by far my best and most prolific year as a writer. Once I committed to publishing weekly, everything improved. The numbers went up, sure, but more importantly I learned to control my creativity. I no longer need to wait for inspiration to strike, I just sit down and start working and I know eventually something good will come out.
When you're starting out, especially if you're writing on your own outside the context of an editorial organization, it will be hard to make a deadline feel sacred. The best way to do it is to start a newsletter where you promise you'll publish on a certain day of the week, every week, rain or shine. This is painful, but necessary. The best way to improve your writing is to publish a lot of writing. Hoarding drafts teaches you little.
Writing on the internet is like playing Battleship . You don't know how a piece will land until you put it out there. Over time, the more shots you take, the more you can form a map in your mind of what works and what doesn't.
Regard public recognition with bemused detachment
Never let the scoreboard (likes, views, subscribers, etc.) affect your motivation. This is impossible, of course, but it's worth striving toward. If publishing essays starts to feel like pulling the lever of a slot machine, you're in trouble. Writers do awful things when they become addicted to public recognition. It becomes a sort of game where they try to make the numbers go up, and they lose touch with the reason to write in the first place. This eventually has the perverse effect of making the numbers go down, because readers don't want to be pandered to.
I learned this the hard way. In the first year of Divinations, the growth metrics were all up and to the right. Gradually I began to feel as if I was on a high wire—one mediocre essay away from alienating my audience. The stress consumed me, and I stopped having fun writing. The numbers suffered, and I started writing less often so I could "focus on building the business." In retrospect, almost everything I did besides write or edit was a waste of time that cost the company significant momentum.
At some point early in 2022, I pulled myself out of this funk. I committed to a weekly publishing schedule. This structure did not make my anxiety disappear, but it did force me to confront it. I read a book called Big Magic by Elizabeth Gilbert that taught me an important lesson: writing can and should be fun. You should do it because you get a thrill out of it. Sure, it can also be hard, but so can everything. Focus on the parts you like. When you sit down to write, remind yourself that you're doing so in order to experience those fun, joyful moments. This taps into—and even expands—a much more durable form of motivation than public recognition: intrinsic satisfaction.
When you publish, of course you'll be happy if you get a good response. But the balanced reaction is more along the lines of "Huh, you liked that? Interesting…," rather than, "OMG they like me!!! I am not worthless after all!"
If I'm being honest, the hopes and dreams of that guy sitting under the bookshelf in the San Francisco apartment were closer to garnering the latter reaction than the former. I wanted to write so I could learn about business strategy, partly because I found the subject valuable and interesting, but also so I could become a Smart Guy™ in the eyes of tech Twitter. Now I'm not so sure how much that matters to me. I'm more attuned to the work that gives me joy and brings genuine value into the world. I still have an ego and perform my little routines to try and fortify it. But the ego has less of a death grip on me now. I can set it aside, and allow feelings like curiosity and joy take over when I write. It is and always will be a work in progress—a bit of a mess at times. But it's me. I'm learning to feel okay with that.
This essay was originally published on Every .
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