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APA Style Citation Guide 7th Edition

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apa owl direct quote

APA 7th Direct Quotes

APA Direct Quote

If a source has multiple authors, follow these guidelines.

Two  authors in a parenthetical citation:  Use an ampersand (&) between the two last names. ​ 

Two authors in the narrative:   Use  and  between the two last names. ​ 

Three or more authors:  Only cite the first author, followed by  et al.

If directly quoting, include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference. Introduce the quote with a phrase like  according to  or state the author's last name.

  • According to Smith (2017), "First-year college students struggle with the lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (p. 23).
  • According to Jones and Brown (2017), "Citing in correct APA style can be challenging" (p. 25).
  • Smith (2017) discovered "first-year college students struggle with lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (p. 23); what does that mean for college health officers, librarians, and teachers?

If you do not name the author in the sentence, list it with the date and page numbers after the quotation.

  • She said, "First-year college students struggle with lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (Roberts, 2017, p. 199), and listed several solutions.

No page numbers . If the work does not have a page number, then provide an "address" to find the quoted text using one of the following methods:

  • Supply a heading or section name (this can be abbreviated).                                                                    "Librarians are the keepers of information" (Johnson & Minchew, 2022, Reference Section)
  • Supply a paragraph number (for unnumbered paragraphs count them accordingly).                                  "Reference is not a mute topic" (Johnson & Minchew, 2022, para. 1).
  • Supply a heading or section name and a paragraph number.                                                                      "Research is a complex undertaking. Proper technique wields the best possible results" (Johnson & Minchew, 2022, Research section, para. 3).

Audiovisual work . When providing a quote directly from an audiovisual work ( audioBooks, films, podcast, TV programs, YouTube video ), place a time stamp for the beginning of the quote in lieu of a page number.

     "Books open the path to understanding and expanding our minds" (Johnson, 2022, 7:11). 

View APA Style guidance for Quotations . 

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Generate accurate APA citations for free

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  • APA Style 7th edition
  • Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation

APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.) | Multiple Authors & Missing Info

Published on November 4, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on September 30, 2022.

In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper.

APA in-text citations consist of the author’s last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p. 67) or (Johnson, 2017, pp. 39–41) .

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Table of contents

Apa in-text citations explained in 4 minutes, parenthetical vs. narrative citations, apa in-text citations with multiple authors, no author, date or page number, multiple sources in one parenthesis, avoiding ambiguity in apa in-text citations, citing indirect sources (“as cited in”), citing personal communication, general mentions of websites and software, example paragraph with in-text citations, frequently asked questions.

The in-text citation can be placed in parentheses or naturally integrated into a sentence.

  • Parenthetical : There is a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers (Parker, 2019) .
  • Narrative: Parker (2019) found a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers.

The publication year appears directly after the author’s name when using the narrative format. The parenthetical citation can be placed within or at the end of a sentence, just before the period. Check out a full example paragraph with in-text citations .

If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.

Group authors known by their abbreviations (e.g., CDC) are written in full the first time and are abbreviated in subsequent citations.

If the author of a source is unknown, try to determine if there is an organization or government responsible for creating the content. If so, include its name in the in-text citation (and reference entry).

Alternatively, use the source title in place of the author. Italicize the title if it’s italicized in the reference entry (except for court cases , which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry). Otherwise, enclose it in double quotation marks.

Apply title case capitalization, and shorten long titles. The first word of the title should always be included so readers can easily locate the corresponding reference entry.

  • (“U.S. Flood Risk,” 2015)
  • ( Thinking, Fast and Slow , 2017)

No publication date

If the publication date is unknown, write “n.d.” (no date) in the in-text citation.

No page number (alternative locators)

Page numbers are only required with direct quotes in APA . If you are quoting from a work that does not have page numbers (e.g., webpages or YouTube videos ), you can use an alternative locator, such as:

  • (Liu, 2020, 03:26 )
  • (Johnson, 2019, Chapter 3 )
  • (McCombes, 2016, para. 4 )
  • (Davis, 2016, Slide 15 )
  • (Flores, 2020, Table 5 )
  • (Streefkerk, 2020, “No page number” section )

Note that Bible citations always use chapter and verse numbers, even when page numbers are available:

If a statement is supported by multiple sources, the in-text citations can be combined in one parenthesis. Order the sources alphabetically, and separate them with a semicolon.

When citing multiple works from the same author, list the years of publication separated by a comma.

When in-text citations are ambiguous because they correspond to multiple reference entries, apply the solutions outlined in the table below.

If you want to refer to a source that you have found in another source, you should always try to access the original or primary source .

However, if you cannot find the original source , you should cite it through the secondary source that led you to it, using the phrase “as cited in”.

If the publication date of the primary source is unknown, include only the year of publication of the secondary source.

Only include a reference entry for the secondary source, not the primary source.

Personal communications , such as phone calls, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list because readers can’t access them. The in-text citation is also formatted slightly differently.

Include the initials and last name of the person you communicated with, the words “personal communication,” and the exact date in parentheses.

General mentions of a website or software don’t have to be cited with an in-text citation or entry in the reference list. Instead, incorporate relevant information into the running text.

  • The website of Scribbr (www.scribbr.com) contains various useful resources.
  • Statistical software SPSS (version 25) was used to analyze the data.

When citing a webpage or online article , the APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

If you’re quoting you should also include a locator. Since web pages don’t have page numbers, you can use one of the following options:

  • Paragraph number: (Smith, 2018, para. 15).
  • Heading or section name: ( CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
  • Abbreviated heading:  ( CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)

Instead of the author’s name, include the first few words of the work’s title in the in-text citation. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.

If the publication date is unknown , use “n.d.” (no date) instead. For example: (Johnson, n.d.).

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:

Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

Always include page numbers in the APA in-text citation when quoting a source . Don’t include page numbers when referring to a work as a whole – for example, an entire book or journal article.

If your source does not have page numbers, you can use an alternative locator such as a timestamp, chapter heading or paragraph number.

If you cite several sources by the same author or group of authors, you’ll distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations using the year of publication.

If you cite multiple sources by the same author(s) at the same point , you can just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, e.g., (Smith, 2020, 2021).

To distinguish between sources with the same author(s) and  the same publication year, add a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e.g., (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b). Add the same letters to the corresponding reference entries .

In an APA in-text citation , you use the phrase “ as cited in ” if you want to cite a source indirectly (i.e., if you cannot find the original source).

Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 1829, as cited in Mahone, 2018) Narrative citation: Brown (1829, as cited in Mahone, 2018) states that…

On the reference page , you only include the secondary source (Mahone, 2018).

An APA in-text citation is placed before the final punctuation mark in a sentence.

  • The company invested over 40,000 hours in optimizing its algorithm (Davis, 2011) .
  • A recent poll suggests that EU membership “would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” in a referendum (Levring, 2018) .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Streefkerk, R. (2022, September 30). APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.) | Multiple Authors & Missing Info. Scribbr. Retrieved February 26, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/in-text-citation/

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APA 7: In-Text Citations

  • Introduction to APA Format (7th ed.)
  • Formatting a Paper
  • In-Text Citations
  • References List
  • Getting Research Help

Guidance from APA Style, Purdue OWL, & Excelsior OWL

In-text citation is covered in Chapter 8 of the  APA Publication Manual

  • In-Text Citations From APA Style.
  • In-Text Citations: The Basics From Purdue OWL.
  • APA In-Text Citations From Excelsior OWL.

Basic In-Text Citation Guidelines

In-text citation refers to the brief citations included within the text of your paper. They point your reader to the full citation at the end of your paper.

Parenthetical vs. narrative in-text citation

In APA, the in-text citation is generally placed in parenthesis at the end of your sentence with the author's last name and year.

The page number is also required if you are directly quoting from a source.

  • Precede a single page number with p.
  • Precede a range of pages with pp.
  • If page numbers are unavailable, you will need to use the paragraph number preceded by para. or paras.  

The period goes after/outside the parenthesis.

  • (Alvarez, 2019, paras. 3-4).
  • (Davis, 2020, p. 52). 

You can also include the author's name in the text itself and simply place the year in parenthesis after the author's last name.

  • According to Davis (2020), "....." (pp. 52-53).

Direct Quotations

Page/paragraph numbers are required for direct quotations . , shorter than 40 words.

  • "...." (Davis, 2020, p. 23). 
  • Davis (2020) explains "..." (p. 23).

Longer that 40 Words

  • Form quote into a block quotation.
  • Don't use quotation marks.
  • Period goes before the in-text citation.

Narrative Example

Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color:

Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)

Parenthetical Example

Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:

Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)

Number of Authors

Number of authors to include in in-text citations.

2 Authors from Same Source

  • (Bullock & Merritt, 2020, para. 5).

3 Authors or More from the Same Source

  • (Merritt et al., 2013, p. 32). 

Authors from More Than One Source

  • (Garcia, 2020, pp. 18-20; Ryan, 2019, p. 302).

Group Author

  • (Merced College, 2021, paras. 4-5).
  •  (“Medical Science Today,” 2019).
  • If the title is long, it should be shortened for the in-text citation.
  • The main words of titles should be capitalized. 
  • If the title is italicized in the reference, then it should also be italicized within the in-text citation.
  • If the title is not italicized within the reference, use quotation marks around the title.
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APA 7th referencing style

  • About APA 7th
  • Printing this guide
  • In-text references

What is a direct quotation?

Format of a direct quotation in-text reference, placement of a direct quotation in-text reference, quoting audiovisual works, works without a page number.

  • Reference list
  • Author information
  • Additional referencing information
  • Using headings
  • Book chapter
  • Brochure and pamphlets
  • ChatGPT and other generative AI tools
  • Conferences
  • Dictionary or encyclopaedia
  • Government legislation
  • Journal article
  • Lecture notes and slides
  • Legal sources
  • Newspaper or magazine article
  • Other web sources
  • Patents and standards
  • Personal communication
  • Press (media) release
  • Secondary source (indirect citation)
  • Social media
  • Software and mobile apps
  • Specialised health information
  • Television program
  • Works in non-English languages
  • Works in non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese

A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material taken directly from another author’s work, or from your own previously published work.

If the quotation is fewer than 40 words , incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose it in double quotation marks. 

David Copperfield starts with "Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show" (Dickens, 1869, p. 1).

If the quotation comprises 40 or more words , include it in an indented, freestanding block of text, without quotation marks. Make it double spaced .

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To beginmy life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (Dickens, 1896, p. 1)

  • Include the author, year, and specific page number for that quotation.
  • For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number or a time stamp.
  • Include a complete reference in the reference list.

(Smith, 2003, p. 105)

(Brown, 1999, pp. 49-50)

Smith (2003) has argued that "......" (p. 105)

As Brown (1999) found "......" (pp. 49-50) 

(Anderson, 2019, 2:17)

Anderson (2019) noted that "...." (2:17)

Direct quotes that are less than 40 words

Parenthetical reference.

  • Can be added either directly after the quote or at the end of the sentence.
  • Ensure it is the same sentence as the quote.

Mindfulness has a range of meanings as it "has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (Crane, 2017, p. 586).

Mindfulness has a range of meanings as it "has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (Crane, 2017, p. 586) and can encompass...

Narrative reference

  • Add the author in the sentence, followed by the year in brackets. Include the page number in brackets after the quote.

As Crane (2017) said, "Mindfulness has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (p. 586).

As Crane (2017) said, "Mindfulness has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (p. 586) and can encompass....

Quotes with more than 40 words (block quotes)

  • Include at the end of the quote.

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (Dickens, 1896, p. 1)

  • Include the author last name in the sentence, followed by the year in brackets before the block quote.
  • Add the page number in brackets at the end of the block quote.

As Dickens (1896) famously began "David Copperfield":

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (p. 1)

  • Add a time stamp in place of a page number when quoting from audiovisual works such as videos, songs, TV shows.

(Yates, 2019, 1:14)

(Henderson, 2017, 2:30:14)

For works without a page number, you can add:-

  • paragraph number (manually count if not listed) eg. (Kennedy, 2019, para.8)
  • heading or section name eg. (Harris, 2018, Behaviour Therapy section)
  • act, scene and line(s) for plays eg. (Wilde, 1895/1997, 1.1.6-8) (means Act 1.Scene 1.Line(s) 6-8)
  • canonically numbered sections for religious or classical works eg. (Genesis 15:6) (include book, chapter, verse, line or canto in place of page number)
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APA Style Guide (7th Edition)

  • APA Resources
  • Formatting Your Essay
  • Building an Article Reference Entry
  • Building Specialized Reference Entries
  • In-text Citations

Quotations: The basics

Short quotations: less than 40 words, long quotations: 40+ words, identifying the part: quotations without page numbers, citing class materials.

  • The Annotated Bibliography in APA

Books for APA questions

We have print books that you can access at all of our campuses and eBooks that you can access anywhere!

Cover: Publication Manual of the APA, 7th edition

This print copy of APA's  official publication  lays out every aspect of APA style formatting.  We have copies at every campus!

Cover: The Concise APA Handbook ebook

We also have eBooks, like this  online guide  that can be accessed anywhere through our library! 

Cover: Estilo APA en Accion

¡Incluso hay una guía APA en español disponible en línea!

A quotation is when you use another person’s word-for-word  narrative in your own writing. Citation rules for quotations are similar to the rules for paraphrased or summarized content from another source, but there are some extra things you need to do to give proper credit to the original author; how you treat the quote depends on whether you are including 40 or more  words from the resource.

With a direct quote, proper citation includes the Author and Date , and MUST include a Page or Part designation that will help your reader locate the information within the original source. The standard parenthetical format is (Author, Date, Page/Part) though portions of the citation can still be placed in the narrative rather than the parentheses.

Page numbers are preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages as shown in examples below; see the Identifying the Part section below for citing resources without page numbers and for citing non-text items that you are duplicating directly from another resource.

SHORT QUOTATIONS (less than 40 words)

Short quotations are placed into the standard sentence structure of your narrative and set apart from your words by quotation marks. In-text citations for direct quotations require the Author, Date (year) of publication, and Page number for the reference. If you introduce the Author’s name in the narrative, place the Date immediately after the Author. The Page number/s go immediately before the closing punctuation of the sentence.

  • According to Smythe (2021), "students often found librarian assistance and library tutorials helpful when learning about citation styles" (p. 48).
  • Smythe (2021) discovered that "students often found librarian assistance and library tutorials helpful when learning about citation styles " (pp. 48-49); what does this mean for course instructors?

If you do not include the Author’s name in the narrative, place the Author, Date (year), and the Page number/s in parentheses after the quotation itself.

  • She stated, "Students often found librarian assistance and library tutorials helpful" (Smythe, 2021, para. 3).
  • She said that "Students often found librarian assistance and library tutorials helpful" (Smythe, 2021, p. 48), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long quotations are set apart from the narrative into what is called a block quote . A block quote is a double-spaced section of text that begins a new on a new line, is indented ½” from your narrative text at the left margin, and is cited by a parenthetical reference AFTER the closing punctuation mark; you do not use quotation marks for a block quote, nor do you add an extra blank line before or after the block quote. Here is an example of a block quote from Purdue’s OWL website (n.d., “Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style”):

apa owl direct quote

Direct quotation or duplication of information from a source that does not contain original pages should not reference a Page number; the purpose of the Page number is to help your reader find the quote within the larger resource, so the source of the Page/Part identifier should be universal to the Referenced format or access method for that resource.

Instead, you may need to use another logical, universal identifying element: a heading, section number or name, paragraph number, a chapter number or name, a table number or name, etc. Religious texts can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers; similarly, you can use verses or act/scene/line designations for literary works that are often reprinted such as plays or poetry.

In short: pick a substitute for Page numbers that makes sense for your source and that is universally the same for anyone else who may access that resource.

Parts of electronic resources

Many of the electronic resources that you will access through the library databases DO have Page numbers; you should use Page numbers when they are available! When you access the full text of a journal article online, the PDF format has the same Page numbers as the print version of the journal!

When there are absolutely no reasonable page numbers available in a resource from which you directly duplicate information, how do you cite:   

  • Use the name of the item, e.g. (Figure 3) or (Slide 7) or (Table 2).
  • In the case of the image of the block quote used above, the title of the graphic on the original page was used as the Part identifier after the Date in the citation; the Author appears in the narrative.
  • Use the section, heading, or chapter name, line or paragraph number, etc.
  • (Smythe, 2021, para.14).
  • (Jonas, lines 18-20)
  • (International Organization of Smythe Families, 2021, About Us section)
  • Use a time stamp from the original resource recording that corresponds with the beginning of your quote.
  • He asks us "Is it possible to have institutions in our country, universities, where people from all backgrounds can come and learn, and learn to work together and learn to become leaders and to support each other in that experience?” (Hrabowski, 2013, 4:45).

Class materials?!

Yes! You can use quotations from a lecture video that your professor provided or from a course discussion board, not to mention the course textbook, handouts, and your class notes! These are often excellent resources to use to tie your work into the assignment objectives, as the material was explicitly designed to directly support those objectives.

So how do you cite class materials?!

Your References are supposed to help others to find and access your sources. Readers who aren’t in your classes won’t have access to the course material that you have access to, and those who are within your class will need only minimal information to find which lecture or discussion you are citing. In these circumstances, best practice is to format the citation after one used for the category of Personal Communication.

Personal Communications, works that cannot be recovered by general readers, include unpublished interviews, emails, texts, some social media posts, live speeches, letters, etc.). Since readers cannot retrieve the information they contain, they are cited in-text but are NOT added to the References list.   Personal communications are to be used sparingly and only when necessary; for example, if you quote your textbook, you should cite the book in your References list and if a lecture referred to an outside resource, it’s better to find and use that resource than to cite the lecture. 

A personal communication citation should minimally include Author, "personal communication", and Date (Author, personal communication, Month day, year) ; elements of the citation can be used in the narrative rather than parenthetically, as with other citations. You may also include the format of the communication in the citation (Author, personal communication [ENG 101 lecture], Month day, year) .

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style  (7th edition). 

Hrabowski, f. (2013, february). four pillars of college success in science. ted. https://www.ted.com/talks/freeman_hrabowski_4_pillars_of_college_success_in_science., purdue owl. (n.d.).  in-text citations: the basics . purdue writing lab. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html..

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Penn State University Libraries

Apa quick citation guide.

  • In-text Citation
  • Citing Generative AI
  • Citing Web Pages and Social Media
  • Citing Articles
  • Citing Books
  • Citing Business Reports
  • Other Formats
  • APA Style Quiz

Using In-text Citation

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1). More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al., 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech.   Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.

Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech.  Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 23 (4), 245-259.

Thomas, H. K. (2004).  Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech  (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Citing Web Pages In Text

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author.

For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). For more information on citations for sources with no date or other missing information see the page on missing reference information on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page. 

Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.

Web page with author:

In-text citation

Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash, 2019).

Reference entry

Asmelash, L. (2019, August 14). Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/health/social-media-mental-health-trnd/index.html

Web page with organizational author:

More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression (World Health Organization, 2018).

World Health Organization. (2018, March 22).  Depression . https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression

Web page with no date:

Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaste r. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx

General Guidelines

In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.

Author's name in parentheses:

One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).

Author's name part of narrative:

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.

Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)

Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)

Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)

One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).

Note:  For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:

This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by Multiple Authors

APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation .

Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.

One author: (Field, 2005)

Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)

Three or more authors:   (Tremblay et al., 2010)

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  • Free Tools for Students
  • APA Citation Generator

Free APA Citation Generator

Generate citations in APA format quickly and automatically, with MyBib!

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🤔 What is an APA Citation Generator?

An APA citation generator is a software tool that will automatically format academic citations in the American Psychological Association (APA) style.

It will usually request vital details about a source -- like the authors, title, and publish date -- and will output these details with the correct punctuation and layout required by the official APA style guide.

Formatted citations created by a generator can be copied into the bibliography of an academic paper as a way to give credit to the sources referenced in the main body of the paper.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an APA Citation Generator?

College-level and post-graduate students are most likely to use an APA citation generator, because APA style is the most favored style at these learning levels. Before college, in middle and high school, MLA style is more likely to be used. In other parts of the world styles such as Harvard (UK and Australia) and DIN 1505 (Europe) are used more often.

🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?

Like almost every other citation style, APA style can be cryptic and hard to understand when formatting citations. Citations can take an unreasonable amount of time to format manually, and it is easy to accidentally include errors. By using a citation generator to do this work you will:

  • Save a considerable amount of time
  • Ensure that your citations are consistent and formatted correctly
  • Be rewarded with a higher grade

In academia, bibliographies are graded on their accuracy against the official APA rulebook, so it is important for students to ensure their citations are formatted correctly. Special attention should also be given to ensure the entire document (including main body) is structured according to the APA guidelines. Our complete APA format guide has everything you need know to make sure you get it right (including examples and diagrams).

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's APA Citation Generator?

Our APA generator was built with a focus on simplicity and speed. To generate a formatted reference list or bibliography just follow these steps:

  • Start by searching for the source you want to cite in the search box at the top of the page.
  • MyBib will automatically locate all the required information. If any is missing you can add it yourself.
  • Your citation will be generated correctly with the information provided and added to your bibliography.
  • Repeat for each citation, then download the formatted list and append it to the end of your paper.

MyBib supports the following for APA style:

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

APA Citation Style 6th Edition: Quotes & Paraphrasing

  • Quotes & Paraphrasing
  • References Guidelines
  • A. One Author or Editor
  • B. Two Authors or Editors
  • C. Three to Five Authors or Editors
  • D. Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • E. Article in a Reference Book
  • F. No Author
  • H. Edition other than the First
  • I. Translation
  • J. Government Publication
  • A. Journal Article with One Author
  • B. Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • C. Journal Article with 3-5 Authors
  • D. Journal Article with 6 or more Authors
  • E. Magazine Article
  • F. Newspaper Article
  • A. Basic Web Page
  • B. Web page from a University site
  • C. No Author
  • D. Blog post
  • E. Entry in a Reference Work
  • F. Government Document
  • A. Motion Picture
  • B. YouTube Video
  • C. Audio Podcast
  • A. Electronic Image
  • A. Interview
  • D. Classical Works
  • E. Secondary Sources
  • F. Twitter Moment

Quotes & Paraphrasing: Citations In Text

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

How to Cite a Direct Quote ( pp.170-171 )

How to Cite Summaries or Paraphrases

Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the original author or researcher and the date of publication. You are also encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number; check with your instructor to see if page numbers are required.

For example, a paraphrase of Gibaldi’s earlier quotation might be identified as follows:

Within the research paper, quotations will have more impact when used judiciously (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).

 You may want to check out  The Owl at Purdue for more tips on paraphrasing.

How to Cite Sources when the Primary Authors have the same Surname ( p.176 )

How to Cite Different Numbers of Authors  

How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source ( p.178 )

How to Cite when you are Altering a Direct Quote

Printable APA Handouts

  • APA 6th Edition Guidelines A handout which provides simple guidelines for using APA style.
  • APA References Page Sample What your APA References Page should look like.
  • APA In-Text Citation Tips for creating in-text citations in APA style.
  • Creating a Hanging Indent How to create hanging indents using MS Word 2010.
  • Inserting a Running Head How to insert a running head using MS Word.
  • APA Electronic Resources Tips for creating a reference list in APA style from electronic resources.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.

Paraphrasing is one way to use a text in your own writing without directly quoting source material. Anytime you are taking information from a source that is not your own, you need to specify where you got that information.

A paraphrase is...

  • Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.
  • One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.
  • A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...

  • It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
  • It helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
  • The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.

6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

  • Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
  • Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
  • Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
  • Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
  • Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
  • Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.

Some examples to compare

Note that the examples in this section use MLA style for in-text citation.

The original passage:

Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers . 2nd ed., 1976, pp. 46-47.

A legitimate paraphrase:

In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).

An acceptable summary:

Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).

A plagiarized version:

Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.

A note about plagiarism: This example has been classed as plagiarism, in part, because of its failure to deploy any citation. Plagiarism is a serious offense in the academic world. However, we acknowledge that plagiarism is a difficult term to define; that its definition may be contextually sensitive; and that not all instances of plagiarism are created equal—that is, there are varying “degrees of egregiousness” for different cases of plagiarism.

IMAGES

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  2. Owl Purdue Apa In Text Citation

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  3. Direct Quote More Than 40 Words Apa Example

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  4. Owl Purdue Apa Citation : Using Citation Generators Responsibly Purdue

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  6. Apa cite a pdf toolkit owl

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COMMENTS

  1. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

  2. Direct quotes in APA Style

    Published on November 12, 2020 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 16, 2022. A direct quote is a piece of text copied word-for-word from a source. You may quote a word, phrase, sentence, or entire passage. There are three main rules for quoting in APA Style: If the quote is under 40 words, place it in double quotation marks.

  3. Quotations

    A direct quotation reproduces words verbatim from another work or from your own previously published work. It is best to paraphrase sources rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style. Use direct quotations rather than paraphrasing:

  4. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Author/Authors How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc. Reference List Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats Cite your source automatically in APA Cite

  5. Direct Quotes

    Direct Quotes - Excelsior OWL Citation & Documentation » APA Style » APA In-Text Citations » Direct Quotes Direct Quotes | 7th Edition While academic writing encourages paraphrasing over quoting, there are instances when it is necessary to cite a direct quotation.

  6. Direct Quotes

    APA Direct Quote If a source has multiple authors, follow these guidelines. Two authors in a parenthetical citation: Use an ampersand (&) between the two last names. Two authors in the narrative: Use and between the two last names. Three or more authors: Only cite the first author, followed by et al.

  7. Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

    Research and Citation Teacher/Tutor Resources Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words Sample Essay for Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting Signal and Lead-in Phrases Purdue OWL Research and Citation Using Research Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

  8. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper. APA in-text citations consist of the author's last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p.

  9. APA Style|APA Format In-Text Citations

    Excelsior's Online Writing Lab tips on how to write in-text citations in the body of your paper to fit the guidelines of APA style format.

  10. In-Text Citations

    In APA, the in-text citation is generally placed in parenthesis at the end of your sentence with the author's last name and year. The page number is also required if you are directly quoting from a source. Precede a single page number with p. Precede a range of pages with pp.

  11. Library Guides: APA 7th referencing style: Direct quotations

    1) Format of a direct quotation in-text reference Include the author, year, and specific page number for that quotation. For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number or a time stamp. Include a complete reference in the reference list. Examples: (Smith, 2003, p. 105) (Brown, 1999, pp. 49-50) Smith (2003) has argued that "......"

  12. In-text citations

    APA Style provides guidelines to help writers determine the appropriate level of citation and how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism. We also provide specific guidance for in-text citation, including formats for interviews, classroom and intranet sources, and personal communications; in-text citations in general; and paraphrases and direct quotations.

  13. Changes to quotations

    Cite This Webpage You can change direct quotations under certain circumstances. Some changes require you to explain the change, and others you can make without indicating the change to readers.

  14. Quotations

    Direct quotation or duplication of information from a source that does not contain original pages should not reference a Page number; the purpose of the Page number is to help your reader find the quote within the larger resource, so the source of the Page/Part identifier should be universal to the Referenced format or access method for that res...

  15. PDF Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) QUOTATIONS

    QUOTATIONS Paraphrasing is preferred, but if a direct quote is less than 40 words, use quotation marks. Svendsen says that "[i]t is important that readers know when you are borrowing someone else's exact words" (2013, p. 1) If a direct quote is 40 words or more, format as a "block quote." Svendsen (2013) says the following:

  16. Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

    APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). ... Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the ...

  17. Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers

    To directly quote from material with canonically numbered sections (e.g., religious or classical works), use the name of the book, chapter, verse, line, and/or canto instead of a page number. The person vowed to "set me as a seal upon thine heart" ( King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6). For plays, cite the act, scene, and line (s).

  18. Free APA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    Repeat for each citation, then download the formatted list and append it to the end of your paper. Done! Generate APA style citations quickly and accurately with our FREE APA citation generator. Enter a website URL, book ISBN, or search with keywords, and we do the rest! Updated with APA 7th Edition!

  19. Using Quotation Marks

    Purdue OWL General Writing Punctuation Quotation Marks How to Use Quotation Marks How to Use Quotation Marks Using Quotation Marks The primary function of quotation marks is to set off and represent exact language (either spoken or written) that has come from somebody else.

  20. APA Citation Style 6th Edition: Quotes & Paraphrasing

    For example, a paraphrase of Gibaldi's earlier quotation might be identified as follows: Within the research paper, quotations will have more impact when used judiciously (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109). You may want to check out The Owl at Purdue for more tips on paraphrasing. How to Cite Sources when the Primary Authors have the same Surname (p.176)

  21. Signal and Lead-in Phrases

    Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by In the examples below, the author being cited is Jane Doe. The examples in the first section are adapted to APA, which recommends past-tense verbs in signal phrases.

  22. Paraphrasing

    6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material.