apa notes under table

APA (7th ed.) Citation Style Guide: Tables and Figures

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Citing Tables and Figures in the Text

If you use a table or figure from another source, then you must acknowledge this original source in a note placed underneath the table or figure within the text of your paper. 

Include the word  Note . before your citation.  

The format for citations placed underneath tables and figures is different to those used for the reference list.

Note . Adapted from “Sampling and recruitment in studies of cultural influences on adjustment: A case study with Mexican Americans,” by M.W.  Roosa , F.F. Liu, M. Torres, N.A. Gonzales, G.P. Knight, and D.  Saenz , 2008,  Journal of Family Psychology , 22, p. 300. 

" In the text, refer to every table and figure by its number - known as a callout. ..When you call out a table or figure, also tell readers what to look for in that table or figure.

As shown in Table 1, the demographic characteristics...

Figure 2 shows that the event-related potentials ...

...of the results of the testing (see Table 3).

...of the comparisons (see Figures 4 and 7).

Do not write "the table above" (or "below") or "the figure on page 32. Page numbers often shift during the writing process, which can lead to errors"  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 197).

APA Style - Table Example

The example below is how to create your own table in an APA format paper or assignment. 

Diagram of the components of a prototypical table (here, a frequency table), including the table number, title, body, and notes.

Tables usually show numerical values or textual information arranged in columns or rows.

Table Components

Number:  The table number goes above the table in bold . (e.g. Table 1)

Title: The table title goes one double-spaced line below the table number in italics in title case. (In title case the first letter of major words are capitalized). 

Headings: All tables should include column headings including a heading for the left most column (aka stub heading).

Body: The table body includes all the rows and columns of a table. The body can be single spaced, one-and-a-half spaced, or double spaced.

Notes: Notes describing the contents of the table appear below the table. Not all table include table notes. Notes are double-spaced and flush left.

For further information on figures please refer to pages 199-224   of the  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed., 2020.

What are Figures

APA considers figures "all types of graphical displays other than tables." This includes photographs, drawings, charts, graphs, or any other illustration or non-textual portrayal of information.

Figure Components

Number: The figure number goes above the figure in bold (e.g. Figure 1)

Title: The figure title appears one double-spaced line below the figure number in italics in title case . In title case the first letter of major words are capitalized.

Image: The image part of the figure is the chart, graph, photograph, drawing or other illustration itself

Legend:   The figure legend (also know as a key), if used, should be positioned within the borders of the figure and explain any symbols used in the figure image.

Note : figure notes can appear below the figure to explain, describe, clarify or supplement information in the image. Not all figures include notes.  Notes are double-spaced and flush left.

For further information on figures please refer to pages 225 - 250 of the  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed., 2020.

APA Style - Figure Example

The example below is how to create your own figure in an APA format paper or assignment. 

Figure Setup

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Table notes are placed at the bottom of a table and include information that will add clarity for the reader; for example, citation information and explanations of abbreviations/symbols will be found in a table note.

Not every table will include a note; for example, if you conducted your own research and are presenting your findings, a note may not be required.

3 Types of Table Notes:

  • General Note
  • Specific Note
  • Probability Note

A general note:

  • qualifies, explains, or provides information relating to the table as a whole and ends with an explanation of any abbreviations, symbols, etc.
  • is preceded by Note. (Always italicized and followed by a period)
  • provide the title, author, year of publication, and source of the material, in that order
  • Each item cited in the table note must have a corresponding entry in the reference list

The following is an example of a table with a general note (in red):

apa notes under table

A specific note:

  • refers to a specific column, row or cell
  • is indicated by superscript lowercase letters
  • is NOT preceded by Note.

The following is an example of a table with a specific note (in red):

apa notes under table

A probability note:  

  • indicates how symbols are used in a table to explain values
  • is indicated by p

The following is an example of a table with a probability note (in red):

apa notes under table

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APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): Figures and Tables

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General Rules

Figures and tables enable authors to present a large amount of information efficiently and to make their data more understandable.

  • There are two options for the placement of figures   and tables in a paper. The first option is to place all figures/tables on separate pages after the reference list. The second option is to embed each figure/table within the text.
  • As shown in Figure 1 ....
  • ... the results of the experiment (see Table 1).
  • Each figure and table needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document, e.g., Table 1, Table 2.
  • Figures and tables may not have a set title . If this is the case, give a description of the figure or table where you would normally put the title.

Figures and Tables are covered in Chapter 7 of the APA Publication Manual , Seventh Edition.

Copyright Issues

Reproducing figures & tables.

Reproducing happens when you copy or recreate a figure or table that is not your original creation. If you reproduce one of these works in your assignment, you must create a note underneath the figure or table to show where you found it. You do not include this information in a Reference list.

How to Determine Usage Rights on Google

If you are searching for images on Google, after your search, click the Images tab > Tools > Usage Rights > Creative Commons Licenses

For more information on copyright, please visit our guide Copyright 101 .

Figures Defined

Any type of illustration or image other than a table is referred to as a figure. A figure may be a chart, a graph, a photograph, a drawing, an infographic, etc.

Figure Components

  • Number:  The figure number (e.g., Figure 1) appears above the figure in bold font.
  • Title:  The figure title appears below the figure number in italic title case. There should be one double-spaced line between the figure number and the figure title.
  • Image:  The image part of the figure is the photograph, chart , graph, drawing, illustration, etc.
  • Legend:  The figure legend, if present, explains any symbols used in the figure image.
  • Note:  There are three types of figure notes: general, specific, and probability. They appear below the figure and explain parts of the figure that cannot be explained from the figure title, image, or legend. For example, figure notes can be definitions of abbreviations, copyright attributions, etc. A figure may not require notes.

Figure Examples

The American Psychological Association created a helpful website called APA Style. On this website, there are several figure samples which illustrate how to set up figures in APA Style.

Tables Defined

Tables are visual displays composed of columns and rows in which numbers, text, or a combination of numbers and text are presented.

Table Components

  • Number : The table number (e.g., Table 1) appears above the table title in bold font. 
  • Title : The table title appears below the table number in italic title case. There should be one double-spaced line between the table number and the table title.
  • Headings : All tables should include column headings, including a stub heading (heading for the leftmost, or stub, column). Center column headings and capitalize them in sentence case.
  • Body : The table body includes the rows and columns of a table. It may be single, 1.5, or double-spaced.
  • Note : There are three types of table notes: general, specific, and probability. Table notes appear below the table as needed to describe table content that can't be understood from the title, table body, or legend. Not all tables include notes.

Table Examples

The American Psychological Association created a helpful website called APA Style. On this website, there are table samples which illustrate how to set up tables in APA Style.

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apa notes under table

Sample Tables

  • APA 7 Sample Tables Illustrations of a variety of different tables from the American Psychological Association.

Parts of a Table, Illustrated

apa notes under table

R eproduced from American Psychological Association publication manual (7th ed.).

Table Components

Number: The table number (e.g., Table 1) appears above the table title and body in bold font. Number tables in the order in which they are mentioned in your paper.

Title: The table title appears one double-spaced line below the table number. Give each table a brief but descriptive title, and capitalize the table title in italic title case.

Headings: All tables should include column headings, including a stub heading (heading for the leftmost, or stub, column). The heading “Variable” is often used for the stub column if no other heading is suitable. Center column headings and capitalize them in sentence case.

Body: The table body includes all the rows and columns of a table (including the headings row). A cell is the point of intersection between a row and a column.

The table body may be single-spaced, one-and-a-half-spaced, or double-spaced.

Left-align the information in the leftmost column or stub column of the table body (but center the heading).

In general, center information in all other cells of the table. However, left-align the information if doing so would improve readability, particularly when cells contain lots of text.

Note: Three types of notes (general, specific, and probability) appear below the table as needed to describe contents of the table that cannot be understood from the table title or body alone (e.g., definitions of abbreviations, copyright attribution, explanations of asterisks used to indicate p values). Include table notes only as needed.

Adapted from American Psychological Association publication manual (7th ed.).

The main part of the table, the table body, contains information organized in cells. Information in a table body may be in the form of numbers, words, or a mixture of both. The body of the table (including table headings) may be single-spaced, one-and-a-half-spaced, or double-spaced, depending on which presentation most effectively conveys information to readers (e.g., single spacing may allow a table to fit on one page). In the stub column of the table, center the stub heading and align the entries flush left beneath it. The entries in all other cells of the table should be centered. Use sentence case for all word entries in the table body.

Decimal Values: Express numerical values to the number of decimal places that the precision of measurement justifies. If possible, carry all comparable values to the same number of decimal places. Numerical values should be centered in the column and aligned on the decimal.

Empty Cells: If a cell cannot be filled because data are not applicable, leave the cell blank. Use a general or specific table note if you need to explain why the cell is blank or the element is inapplicable. If a cell cannot be filled because data were not obtained or are not reported, insert a dash in that cell and explain the use of the dash in the general note to the table.

Table Notes

Tables may have three kinds of notes, which are placed below the body of the table: general notes, specific notes, and probability notes. Some tables do not require table notes at all.

General Note: A general note qualifies, explains, or provides information relating to the table as a whole and explains any abbreviations; symbols; special use of italics, bold, or parentheses; and the like. The general note also includes any acknowledgments that a table is reprinted or adapted from another source. General notes are designated by the word “Note” (italicized) followed by a period. Explanations of abbreviations and copyright attributions for reprinted or adapted tables appear at the end of the general note, in that order.

Note. Factor loadings greater than .45 are shown in bold. M = match process; N = nonmatch process.

Specific Note: A specific note refers to a particular column, row, or cell. Specific notes are indicated by superscript lowercase letters (e.g., a, b, c). Do not add specific notes to a table title; instead, use a general note. Within each table that has specific notes, order the superscripts from left to right and from top to bottom, starting at the top left and beginning with the letter “a.” The corresponding specific note below the table begins with the same superscript letter. Place a superscript space before the superscript letter in the table body (e.g., Group a). Place a superscript space after the superscript letter in the specific note. This space prevents specific notes from getting caught by spell-check and improves readability.

a n = 25. b This participant did not complete the trials.

Probability Note: A probability note describes how asterisks and other symbols are used in a table to indicate p values and thus the significance of the results of statistical hypothesis testing. To report the results of significance testing, it is best to provide the exact probabilities to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .023). When p values are less than .001, it is acceptable to write the value as “<.001.” Do not use any p value smaller than .001.

Formatting of Notes: Begin each kind of note on a new line below the table body. A general note appears first. A specific note begins on a new line under a general note; subsequent specific notes begin on the same line. A probability note begins on a new line under any general or specific notes; subsequent probability notes begin on the same line. Multiple specific or probability notes are separated from each other by a period and a space. Lengthy specific notes may be presented on separate lines if this improves readability. Double-space all table notes, and align all notes flush left (i.e., with no paragraph indentation).

Note . The responses were gathered in the laboratory.

a n = 25. b n = 42.

* p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001.

Table Borders & Shading

Limit the use of borders or lines in a table to those needed for clarity. In general, use a border at the top and bottom of the table, beneath column headings (including decked heads), and above column spanners. You may also use a border to separate a row containing totals or other summary information from other rows in the table. Do not use vertical borders to separate data, and do not use borders around every cell in a table. Use spacing between columns and rows and strict alignment to clarify relations among the elements in a table.

Avoid the use of shading in tables. Do not use shading for mere decoration. To emphasize the content of a particular cell or cells, use a specific or probability note; italics or bold may also be used with explanation in the table’s general note. Instead of using shading, add white space or borders between rows and columns to help readers distinguish them. If shading is necessary, explain its purpose in the table’s general note.

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Table Components

The basic components of a table are as follows:

  • Number: The table number (e.g., Table 1) appears above the table in bold font.
  • Title: The table title appears in one double-spaced line below the table number in italic case.
  • Headings: Tables may include a variety of headings depending on the nature and arrangement of the data. All tables should include column headings, including a stub heading (heading for the leftmost column). Some tables include column spanners, decked heads, and table spanners.
  • Body: The table body includes all the rows and columns of a table. A  cell  is the point of intersection between a row and a column. The body may be single-spaced, one-and-a-half-spaced, or double-spaced.
  • Notes: Three types of notes (general, specific, and probability) appear below the table as needed to describe contents of the table that cannot be understood from the table title or body alone. Not all tables include table notes.

To learn more about tables and see numerous samples, see pp. 199-224 of the manual.

Table Borders & Shading

Limit the use of borders or lines in a table to those needed for clarity. In general, use a border at hte top and bottom of the table, beneath column headings, and above column spanners.

You may also use a border to separate a row containing totals or other summary information.

Do not use borders around every cell in a table.

Avoid shading in tables as well. Use notes to provide emphasis when needed. Italics or bold in cells may be used with explanation in the table's general note.

Table Example

apa notes under table

Table Numbers

Number all tables that are part of the main text (i.e., not part of an appendix or supplemental materials) using Arabic numbers--for example, Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3. Assign the numbers in the order in which each table is first mentioned in the text.

Write the word "Table" and the number in bold and flush left if the table is found in the main text.

If a table is found in an appendix, give each one a number preceded by the letter of the appendix in which it appears (e.g., Table A1 is the first table within Appendix A).

If an appendix consists of only a table, then the appendix label takes the place of the table number, and the appendix title takes the place of the table title (e.g., if Appendix B is a table-only appendix, the table is referred to as Appendix B rather than as Table B1).

Table Titles

Give every table a brief but clear and explanatory title. The basic content of the table should be easily inferred from the title.

Write the table title in italic case below the table number and double-space the table number and title.

Avoid overly general and overly detailed table titles.

Table Headings

Headings organize and identify what is in each column of a table. Table headings should be brief.

A  stub column , or  stub , is the leftmost column of the table; it usually lists the major independent or predictor variables. To show subordination within the stub column, use indentation rather than creating an additional column.

The headings above the columns to the right of the sub column identify what is in each column. A  column heading  applies to just one column; a  column spanner  is a heading that covers two or more columns, each wit hits own heading. Headings stacked in this way are called  decked heads .

More complex tables may require  table spanners , which are headings within the body of the table that cover the entire width of the table.

Use sentence case for all headings in a table. Center all table headings above their column(s). Stub headings, column headings, and column spanners should be singular unless they refer to a group. Table spanners may be singular or plural.

See pp. 201-202 in the manual for more information.

The table body contains information organized into cells. Information in a table body may be in the form of numbers, words, or both.

The body of the table may be single-spaced, one-and-a-half-spaced, or double-spaced.

If entries are longer than one line, use a hanging indent of .15 in. or one em space. In the stub column, center the heading and align entries flush left. It is permissible to center entries in the stub column if they are significantly shorter than the stub heading. Entries in all other cells should be centered.

When using decimal values, if possible, carry all comparable values to the same number of decimal places.

If a cell cannot be filled because data are not applicable, leave the cell blank. Use a general or specific table note if you need to explain why the cell is blank. Use a dash in a cell if data were not obtained or not reported.

Do not include columns of data that can be calculated easily from other columns.

Table Notes

Tables may have three kinds of notes:

  • General notes
  • Specific notes
  • Probability notes

General notes  qualify, explain, or provide information relating to the table as a whole or explains any abbreviations, symbols, etc. The general notes also includes any acknowledgments that a table is reprinted or adapted from another source.

General notes are designated by teh word " Note"  (italicized) followed by a period. Explanations of abbreviations and copyright attributions appear at the end of the general note, in that order.

A specific note  refers to a particular column, row, or cell. Specific notes are indicated by superscript lowercase letters.

Within each table that has specific notes, order the superscripts from left to right and from top to bottom. The corresponding specific note below the table begins with the same superscript letter.

Place a superscript space before the superscript letter in the table body. Place a superscript space after the superscript letter in the specific note.

Probability notes  describe how asterisks and other symbols are used in a table to indicate  p  values. Learn more about probability notes on p. 204 of the manual.

Formatting Notes

Begin each kind of note on a new line below the table body. A general note appears first. A specific note begins on a new line under a general note; subsequent specific notes begin on the same line. A probability note begins on a new line under any general or specific notes; subsequent probability notes begin on the same line.

Multiple specific or probability notes are separated from each other by a period and a space.

Double-space all table notes, and align all notes flush left.

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Referencing tables

Copyright statements, table note (caption) format.

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  • Each table needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document eg. Table 1, Table 2.
  • Always refer to a table by their number. Statements such as “in the table below” or "the table shown on page 78” should not be used.
  • Provide each table with a brief but explanatory title. This should appear below the table number.
  • A table note (caption) should be included the bottom of the table to acknowledge that the table has been reproduced from another source. 
  • If a table is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you  must seek permission from the copyright holder . This permission must also be included in the table note (caption). The word “Note” is included at the start in italics.
  • "Note" is used in place of in-text reference.
  • Include the full reference in the reference list.
  • Check out some table examples . 
  • If the table has been reprinted, include "Reprinted with permission" after copyright statement.
  • If the table has been adapted, include "Adapted with permission" after copyright statement.

Journal Article

Book chapter.

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Citing tables, figures & images: APA (7th ed.) citation guide

On this page, introduction, general guidelines, examples for citing figures & images, examples for citing tables.

apa notes under table

This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information consult directly a  print copy  of the style manual.

Check out APA's Guide to what's new for APA 7 .

Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with Citation management software .

Tables and figures (includes images) follow similar set up and formatting. The guidelines below focus on common examples used by students for academic papers . For details on creating tables or figures for submission to journals or graduate theses, see APA's Tables and figures or consult the guide directly (Section 7, pp. 195–250).

Wondering if you can use that image you found online? Refer to SFU's Copyright and your coursework or the FAQ What is fair dealing? for guidelines on use.

  • All figures and tables must be mentioned in the text (a "callout") by their number. Do not refer to the table/figure using either "the table above" or "the figure below."
  • Assign table/figure # in the order as it appears, numbered consecutively, in your paper - not the figure # assigned to it in its original resource.
  • A note is added when further description, for example, definitions or copyright attribution, is necessary to explain the figure or table. Most student papers will require a general note for copyright attribution and acknowledgement whether it is reprinted or adapted from another source. Consult the guide directly for detailed instructions on formatting notes (Section 7.14, pp. 203–205).
  • For copyright attribution templates , consult Table 12.1 on page 390 of the guide (Section 12.18, pp. 389-390).
  • If permission is required for reprinting or adapting, at the end of the citation place: Reprinted with permission or  Adapted with permission followed by a period.
  • All the sources must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List .
  • Review your figure/table against the appropriate checklist found only in the guide (Sections 7.20, Table, p. 206 and 7.35, Figure, p. 232).

Order of components

Above the figure/table.

  • Write " Figure " or " Table " in bold font, flush left, followed by the number, for example, Figure 1 .
  • Write the figure/table title using italic case below the figure/table number,
  • Double-space the figure/table number and title,
  • Embed image.

Below the figure/table

  • On a new line below the figure/table, flush left, place Note. Provide further details/explanation about the information in the figure/table only if necessary. State if material is reprinted or adapted —use " From " if reprinted or " Adapted from " if adapted. Followed directly by the copyright attribution —this is basically the same information as found in the reference list entry but in a different order.
  • Separate figure/table from the text with one blank double-spaced line.

Placement in paper

  • embed in the text after it is first mentioned or,
  • place on a separate page after the reference list (an appendix).
  • When embedding all figures and tables are aligned with the left margin .
  • All examples in this guide show embedded figures and tables.

Refer directly to the guide for more detailed notes on placement (Section 7.6, p. 198).

Figures include: images found online, maps , graphs , charts, drawings, and photographs, or any other illustration or non-textual depiction in printed or electronic resources.

See APA's Figure set up for detailed information on the basic components of a figure, principles of creation, and placement in papers with formatting requirements, or consult the guide directly (Section 7.22–7.36, pp. 225–250).

Review APA's guide for Accessible use of colour in table/figures for best practices.

Exact copy from a single source (aka reprinted)

The following example is when it is reproduced in your paper exactly as it appears in another source : Same format or state, no reconfiguration or new analysis.

visualization of vision statement of Iskwewuk E-wichiwitochik (Women Walking Together)

Compiled from variety of sources

The following example is for citing a figure that you have created by compiling information from a variety of sources. For example, if you combined data from a database, a website , and a government report to create a new chart. Each source requires a copyright attribution in a general note and full bibliographic entry in the Reference List.

graph comparing meat consumption of Canada, USA, France, and Finland

See APA's Clip art or stock image references ,  Image with no attribution required ,  Image requires an attribution , or consult the guide directly (Section 12.14–12.18, pp. 384–390 ).

Citing but not reproducing the image? See Visual: Artwork in museum, PowerPoint slides, photographs, clipart/stock image, maps retrieved online in this guide for examples or consult the guide directly (Section 10.14, pp. 346–347).

Image with attribution

image of three stars aligned in the sky over observatory buildings in Chile known as syzygy

Reference list examples

Beletsky, Y. (2013).  Three planets dance over La Silla [Photograph]. European Southern Observatory. https://www.eso.org/public/images/potw1322a/

Euromonitor International. (2020). [Statistical data on market sizes of fresh food]. Passport . Retrieved January 21, 2021, from https://go.euromonitor.com/passport.html

FranceAgriMer. (2020, September). Consommation des produits carnes en 2019 . https://www.franceagrimer.fr/content/download/64994/document/STA-VIA-Consommation%20des%20produits%20carn%C3%A9s%20en%202019.pdf

Natural Resources Institute Finland. (2020). Consumption of food commodities per capita by year and commodity [Statistics database]. http://statdb.luke.fi/PXWeb/sq/d1b368d7-9c07-4efd-b727-13e57db90ee6

Okemasim–Sicotte, D. R., Gingell, S., & Bouvier, R. (2018). Iskwewuk E–wichiwitochik. In K. Anderson, M. Campbell, & C. Belcourt (Eds.), Keetsahnak /Our missing and murdered Indigenous sisters (pp. 243–269). University of Alberta Press.

Irish, J. (2019).  Sequoia National Park.  [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/destinations/north-america/united-states/61-national-parks-photos/#/giant-tree-trail-sequoia-national-park.jpg

Drewes, W. (n.d.).  Frog and insects (no.200) . [Painting]. The Smithsonian Institution. https://www.si.edu/object/saam_1968.9.50

  • See the General Notes in this guide for help with creating citations with missing information , e.g. using a description if no title—see Euromonitor International in the reference list above.
  • For figures compiled from multiple sources, identify individual source information using the following format in the "From" statement: Note . The data for Country Name are from [copyright attribution according to source]. End each copyright attribution with a period.
  • Use author-date in-text citation when the data is transformed (reconfigured or reanalyzed) to produce different numbers. (Section 12.15 Data subsection, p. 385).
  • If work is published or read online, use live links—check with your instructor for their preference.

Tables are characterized by a row-column structure. See APA's Table set up for detailed information on the basic components of a table, principles of creation, and placement in papers with formatting requirements, or consult the guide directly (Section 7.8–7.21, pp. 199–224).

Exact copy from a single source (aka reprint)

table showing percentage of males in female professions from 1990, 1980 and 1975

If you have compiled data from a variety of different sources and put it together to form your own table, you still need to cite where you got the information from. Each source requires a copyright attribution in a general note and full bibliographic entry in the Reference List.

table listing popular male and female baby names by province for 2019

British Columbia Ministry of Health. (2019). Baby’s most chosen names in British Columbia, 2019 . https://connect.health.gov.bc.ca/babynames?year=2019

eHealth Saskatchewan. (2019). Most popular baby names for 2019 . https://www.ehealthsask.ca/health-data/babynames/Pages/mostpopular2019.aspx

Government of Alberta. (2019). Alberta’s top baby names . https://www.alberta.ca/top-baby-names.aspx

Manitoba Vital Statistics Agency . (2020). Annual report 2019-2020 . https://vitalstats.gov.mb.ca/pdf/2020_vs_annual_report_en.pdf

Williams, C. L. (1992). The glass escalator: Hidden advantages for men in the "female" professions. Social Problems , 39 (3), 253-267. https://doi.org/10.2307/3096961

  • For tables compiled from multiple sources, in the "From" statement, identify each individual source information. e.g.: Note . The data for Country Name are from [copyright attribution according to source]. End each copyright attribution with a period.
  • ​If you have multiple kinds of data (population figures, consumer information, etc...) in one table you would describe each set of data. e.g.: Note.  Population figures for XYZ are from [ copyright attribution according to source ] and for ABC are from [ copyright attribution according to source ]. Data for pet ownership for XYZ are from [ copyright attribution according to source ] and for ABC are from [ copyright attribution according to source ]. End each copyright attribution with a period.
  • Use an author-date in-text citation when the data is transformed (reconfigured or reanalyzed) to produce different numbers. (Section 12.15 Data subsection, p. 385).
  • All the sources must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List even though the information in the Note  field uses a lot of the same information.
  • If work is published or read online, APA recommends using live links— check with your instructor for their preference.
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From a book, from an article, from a library database, from a website, citing your own table.

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Tables usually show numerical values or text, in columns and rows

  • Anything other than a table is a Figure  

Table  Components:

  • Number:  The table number (e.g. Table 1 ) appears above the table in bold (no italics, no period ending)
  • Title : The table title appears one double-spaced line below the table number, using non-bolded  Italic Title Case   (no period ending)
  • Headings : All tables should include column headings, including  a heading for the leftmost column (stub heading)
  • Body:  The table body includes all the rows and columns of a table.  The body may be single space, one and a half spaced, or double spaced, which ever is clearer. Limit the use of borders or lines in a table to those needed for clarity. Do not use vertical borders to separate data (see APA Manual, s. 7.17, pp. 205-206 for more details)
  • Note:  A note can appear below the table to describe the contents of the table  that cannot be understood from the table title or body alone, (e.g. definitions of abbreviations, copyright attribution). Notes are double-spaced and flush left. Not all tables include table notes

General rules:

  • In the text, refer to every table by its number. For example, "As shown in Table 1, ..." (no italics, capital "T" for "Table")
  • There are two options for the placement of tables in a paper. The first option is to place all tables on separate pages after the reference list. The second option is to embed each table within the text
  • If you reprint or adapt a table from another source in your paper (e.g. a table from a published work), you must include a copyright attribution in the table note indicating the origin of the reprinted or adapted material in addition to a reference list entry for the work
  • Important notes:  When reproducing or adapting copyrighted tables/data sets in your thesis or dissertation or other publications - you must get permission from the copyright holder/s for using the material in your thesis or dissertation or other publications. You may not need permission when a reprinted or adapted figure is obtained from the public domain. Works used  Creative Commons licences  should be cited accordingly. 

Check  the APA Style website for an illustration of the basic table  component and placement of tables in a text

More information & examples from the  APA Style Manual ,   s. 7.8-7.21, pp. 199–224 224) 

Table reproduced in your text

Note format - for notes below the table

apa notes under table

If copyright permission was required (eg. reproduced in a thesis/dissertation/exegeses), the note would instead read:

In-text citation:, table referred to, but not reproduced in text.

If you simply refer to a table, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry as for books

Reference list:

Table reproduced in the text, example: .

The Ratio of the Value of Newly Acquired Loans to Acquisition Target

apa notes under table

Note. Reprinted from “When Salespeople Manage Customer

Relationships: Multidimensional Incentives and Private Information,”

by M. Kim, K. Sudhir, K. Uetake, and  R. Caneles, 2019, Journal of

Marketing, 56 (5), p. 765. Copyright 2019 by the American Marketing Association.

Table referred to but not reproduced or included in the text

If you simply refer to a table, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry as for articles.

Table reproduced in your text

Note format - below the table

Percentage of Men and Women Who Have Bought Fruit and Vegetable Products in the Last Four Weeks

apa notes under table

Note.  wc = weighted count, shown in thousands; v% =vertical percentage,

showing which % of the column group also belongs to the row group;

h% = horizontal percentage.  Roy Morgan  Single Source

New Zealand. Copyright 2015 by Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand. 

Table referred to but not reproduced in the text

Note format - for notes below the table.

Percentage of New Zealand Population Who Have Never Worked by Age Group.

June 2016 quarter

Note . Adapted from http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/income-and-work/employment_

and_unemployment/people-never-worked.aspx. Copyright 2016 by Statistics New Zealand. 

Use the reference style for websites

If you refer to a table but don’t provide a copy of it in your assessment, simply give an in-text citation as for websites.

If your table has been included in a formally published work reference the work. 

If your table is available on a website reference the webpage (see examples in the webpage section ).

For your own tables in an assignment:

  • Include a title
  • Add a note explaining the content
  • You can, if you wish, add a statement that it is your own work.
  • You do not need to add an in-text citation or add it to your reference list.

An example of a table (not real data):

Data from a survey of engineering students and staff

apa notes under table

Note. Data collected by author on the 26th of October 2022.

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Copyright attribution for tables and figures

Here are some examples of a infographic and graph treated as figures and a table.  See our introduction to images, tables and figures for overall guidance and for links to more detailed APA recommendations on the set up requirements of figures and tables.  

If your table or figure has been copied directly from another source or has been adapted from other data sources then you will need to include a copyright attribution in the Notes field and a full end-text reference. 

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APA Tables and Figures — Format, Rules & Examples

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APA-tables-and-figures-Definition

Tables and figures in APA style are instrumental in reinforcing an argument and presenting data in an accessible and impactful way. It’s crucial, however, that they serve an essential role and are not merely incorporated as space fillers. This article will guide you on effectively incorporating and formatting tables and figures according to APA style in your research, thus enabling you to produce a compelling and professionally structured research paper .

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 1 APA Tables and Tigures – In a Nutshell
  • 2 Definition: APA tables and figures
  • 3 Formatting APA tables and figures
  • 4 Labelling APA tables and figures
  • 5 Formatting APA tables and figures notes
  • 6 Where are APA tables and figures placed?
  • 7 How to refer to APA tables and figures

APA Tables and Tigures – In a Nutshell

  • Use APA tables and figures to show data that is otherwise cumbersome to describe or to enhance a valid argument – do not simply include them to disguise bad research.
  • Follow the conventions of formattin g APA tables and figures, including a number , title and note where necessary.
  • Place your APA tables and figures either in the text’s main body or at the end  depending on your preference.

Definition: APA tables and figures

APA-tables-and-figures-examples

A figure is any piece of visual information that’s included in your research, including photos, pie charts, maps and more.

A table , by contrast, is an accumulation of data presented in rows and columns .

In the APA style, tables and figures are treated the same, with guidelines on how to list and present them. APA tables and figures must include reference numbers , titles and explanatory notes if needed.

Formatting APA tables and figures

Formatting is crucial for consistency and to present information clearly and concisely. The APA tables and figures guidelines specify just how your visual displays should appear throughout your paper, as such:

APA table format

While you’re free to pick a table size and style that best suits your data, APA does provide format guidelines for design and labelling . Here are the key points to making an APA-approved table:

  • Include a table numbe r above the table in bold .
  • Include a s hort title in italics below the table.
  • Notes are provided beneath the table .
  • Do not use vertical lines.
  • Horizontal lines should be used for clarity .
  • Ensure that column and row headings are clearly labelled .
  • Numbers should be used consistently throughout.

APA-Tables-and-Figures-labelling

APA figure format

Any supplementary visual materials are known as figures, whether a data graphic like a flowchart or an artwork illustration. You don’t have to separate your figures into categories of type; they are all known as figures. Here are some key points when using figures in the APA style:

  • Number each figure in bold above it, starting at “Figure 1”.
  • Use a brief title in italics under the figure number.
  • With data visualizations, ensure labels and legends are clear within the figure and not separated.
  • Text within a figure should be concise with an equivalent size of between 8 to 14 points .
  • Provide any necessary notes beneath the figure , labelled “Note”.

APA-Tables-and-Figures-format

Labelling APA tables and figures

APA tables and figures follow similar labelling conventions. They should be both numbered and titled . The numbering of APA tables and figures relates to their appearance in the text. Table 1 is the first table referred to in the text, and Figure 7 would be the 7th image to be discussed. When it comes to titling, avoid articles to keep labelling concise and straightforward .

The table or figure number appears in bold with an italicized title below , as such:

Inflation Rates by Country, 1990 – 2010

Formatting APA tables and figures notes

Notes are included where further explanation is required to understand the table or figure. Notes should only concern clarity of data , not analysis – as this is for your paper’s text. There are three note types , as outlined below.

General notes

General notes are the first to appear . They include explanations that apply to the figure or table or a citation if is sourced/adapted from elsewhere. You should also include definitions and abbreviations here. For example:

Note . Inflation rates are taken from the Office for National Statistics. Adapted from Example Text, by T. Howard. Copyright 2010 by Routledge. CPI = Consumer Price Index.

Specific notes

Specific notes refer explicitly to expressions within the table or figure. Labelled alphabetically in superscript lowercase , they are used to provide need-to-know information about specific terms or data points . For example:

a n = 12. b One participant was missing from this portion of the survey.

Probability notes

Probability notes contain relevant probability data for statistical significance . They are indicated by a p and asterisks corresponding with the table or figure. They are not preceded by a Note title. For example:

* p .05. ** p .01.

Where are APA tables and figures placed?

You have two options of where to place APA tables and figures: throughout the text or at the end of the text .

Let’s have a look at the two options in detail:

  • If you place APA tables and figures throughout the text, each should appear just once , simply place it as close to the paragraph in which it is first referenced .
  • Placing APA tables and figures at the end prevents them from breaking up text.  Allow one page per table or figure. Begin your end section with tables in numerical order before listing figures in numerical order.

How to refer to APA tables and figures

When it comes to discussing APA tables and figures, it is to analyze or address a particular data point , not to simply repeat what is clearly shown. Furthermore, always refer to the table or figure exactly as it is listed and not by its position in the text. Not only do manuscript layouts change, but it’s always clearer to highlight evidence by name .

When do you use APA tables vs. figures?

A table or figure should be used when it presents information in a clearer way than describing it. This goes for presenting large sets of data or identifying evidence in a photograph .

Do I need to create a list of APA tables and figures in my contents section?

While it isn’t a requiremen t under APA guidelines, lists are recommended to help guide your readers.

I have seen figures referred to as “Fig”, can I do the same?

No. APA guidelines stress that the full expression , “Figure”, is the convention and should be used.

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Tables & Figures in APA Style (6th Edition) | Format & Examples

Published on November 3, 2020 by Jack Caulfield .

APA Style has specific guidelines for formatting tables and figures and referring to them in the text.

A table concisely presents information (usually numbers) in rows and columns. A figure is any other image or illustration you include in your text – anything from a bar chart to a photograph.

You can create tables and figures yourself or adapt them from other sources. In both cases the format is the same, but if they come from another source you must acknowledge this and include the source in your reference list .

Table of contents

Tables in apa style, figures in apa style, where to place tables and figures, referring to tables and figures in the text.

To correctly format an APA table, follow these rules:

  • Table number (in plain text) above the table.
  • Brief title (in italics and title case) below the table number.
  • Use no vertical lines and as few horizontal lines as possible.
  • Notes below the table when necessary.

A table formatted according to APA style.

Table number and title

Tables are numbered in the order they are referred to in your text. The title should clearly and straightforwardly describe the table’s content. Omit articles to keep it concise.

The table number appears on its own line, in plain text, followed by the table title on the following line, in italics and title case. For example:

Tables will vary in size and structure depending on the data you’re presenting, but APA gives some general guidelines for their design.

Do not use vertical lines, and use only as many horizontal lines as are necessary for clarity. The example in the image above uses only four lines: Those at the top and bottom, and those separating the main data from the column heads and the totals.

Create your tables using the tools built into your word processor. In Word, you can use the “ Insert table ” tool.

For column and row headings, use concise and clear labels. Be consistent in the way you present numbers – for example, display the same number of decimal places for each item.

Table notes

Below your table, if necessary, include notes to explain the table. These are not your analysis of the data presented; save that for the main text.

Notes come in three varieties: general, specific, and probability notes.

General notes come first. They are preceded by the word ‘ Note ’ in italics, followed by a period. They include any explanations that apply to the table as a whole and acknowledgements if the table was adapted from another source, and they end with definitions of any abbreviations used:

Note that where tables are adapted from other sources, these sources should also appear on the reference page .

Specific notes are those that refer to specific points in the table. Superscript letters (a, b, c …) appear at the relevant points in the table and at the start of each note to indicate what they refer to. They are used when it’s necessary to comment on a specific data point or term in the table:

Probability notes give p values for the data in the table. They correspond to asterisks (and/or other symbols) in the table:

Each type of note appears in a new paragraph, but multiple notes of the same kind all appear in one paragraph.

Only include the notes that are needed to understand your data. It may be that your table is clear in itself, and has no notes, or only probability notes; be as concise as possible.

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apa notes under table

Any images used within your text are called figures. Figures include data visualization graphics – graphs, diagrams, flow-charts, etc. – as well as things like photographs and artworks.

To correctly format an APA figure, follow these rules:

  • Labels and legends within the image in the same font and size as the main text.
  • Figure number below the image, in italics and followed by a period.
  • Figure caption on the same line, in plain text and followed by a period.

A figure formatted according to APA style

Figure and legend

The figure itself appears first. If it’s an infographic, it will usually include labels for the different elements of the graphic, and may also include a legend explaining the meaning of any symbols, colors and shading that cannot be directly labelled. For example, the “Boys” and “Girls” text in the above example is a legend. All of this should be integrated into the image itself.

Keep the design of figures as simple as possible. Use colors only where necessary, not just to make the image look more appealing. For labels and legends, use the same font and font size as in your main text.

For other figures, such as photographs, you won’t need a legend; the figure consists simply of the image itself, reproduced at an appropriate size and resolution.

Figure number and caption

Below the figure, place the figure number and caption:

Figures are numbered in the order they are referred to in the text. The figure number appears in italics.

The caption appears immediately after the number (no line break), and is written in plain text, with sentence case capitalization. The caption should give the title of the image or, if there is no title, a short description.

The caption also provides any additional notes, such as legend information that could not be included in the figure itself, and acknowledgements if the figure was adapted from another source.

You have two options for the placement of tables and figures in APA Style:

  • Option 1 : Place tables and figures throughout your text, close to the parts of the text that refer to them.
  • Option 2 : Place them all together at the end of your text (after the reference list) to avoid breaking up the text.

If you place them throughout the text, note that each table or figure should only appear once. If you refer to the same table or figure more than once, don’t reproduce it each time – just place it after the paragraph in which it’s first discussed.

Leave a line break after the table or figure to clearly distinguish the main text from the caption or notes, and place the table or figure on a new page if necessary to avoid splitting it across multiple pages.

If you place all your tables and figures at the end, you should have one table or figure on each page. Begin with all your tables, then place all your figures afterwards.

Avoid making redundant statements about your tables and figures in your text. When you write about data from tables and figures, it should be to highlight or analyze a particular data point or trend, not simply to restate what is already clearly shown in the table or figure:

  • As Table 1 shows, there are 115 boys in Grade 4, 130 in Grade 5, and 117 in Grade 6 …
  • Table 1 indicates a notable preponderance of boys in Grade 5. It is important to take this into account because …

Additionally, even if you have embedded your tables and figures in your text, refer to them by their numbers, not by their position relative to the text or by description:

  • The table below shows…
  • Table 1 shows…
  • As can be seen in the image on page 4…
  • As can be seen in Figure 3…
  • The photograph of a bald eagle is an example of…
  • Figure 1 is an example of…

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Caulfield, J. (2020, November 03). Tables & Figures in APA Style (6th Edition) | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 26, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/6th-edition/archived-tables-and-figures/

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apa notes under table

IMAGES

  1. APA Table Guidelines Made Simple

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  2. APA Table Guidelines Made Simple

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  3. APA Format for Tables and Figures

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  4. APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines

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  5. APA Format: Everything You Need to Know Here

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  6. How to Present Tables and Figures in APA 7th Edition

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COMMENTS

  1. APA Tables and Figures

    The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers' understanding of the information in the document; usually, large amounts of information can be communicated more efficiently in tables or figures.

  2. Table setup

    APA Style tables have the following basic components: number: The table number (e.g., Table 1) appears above the table title and body in bold font. Number tables in the order in which they are mentioned in your paper. title: The table title appears one double-spaced line below the table number.

  3. APA Format for Tables and Figures

    To correctly format an APA table, follow these rules: Table number in bold above the table. Brief title, in italics and title case, below the table number. No vertical lines. Horizontal lines only where necessary for clarity. Clear, concise labels for column and row headings.

  4. APA (7th ed.) Citation Style Guide: Tables and Figures

    If you use a table or figure from another source, then you must acknowledge this original source in a note placed underneath the table or figure within the text of your paper. Include the word Note. before your citation. The format for citations placed underneath tables and figures is different to those used for the reference list. Note.

  5. Citing Tables and Figures in APA Style

    Citing Tables and Figures in APA Style | Format & Examples Published on November 6, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 27, 2023. When you reprint or adapt a table or figure from another source, the source should be acknowledged in an in-text citation and in your reference list.

  6. Subject Guides: APA Style Guide: 7th Edition: Table Notes

    Table notes are placed at the bottom of a table and include information that will add clarity for the reader; for example, citation information and explanations of abbreviations/symbols will be found in a table note.

  7. APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): Figures and Tables

    The first option is to place all figures/tables on separate pages after the reference list. The second option is to embed each figure/table within the text. In the text, refer to (call out) every figure and table by its number. For example: As shown in Figure 1 .... ... the results of the experiment (see Table 1).

  8. Tables

    APA 7 Sample Tables Illustrations of a variety of different tables from the American Psychological Association. Parts of a Table, Illustrated Reproduced from American Psychological Association publication manual (7th ed.). Table Components Number: The table number (e.g., Table 1) appears above the table title and body in bold font.

  9. Sample tables

    These sample tables illustrate how to set up tables in APA Style. When possible, use a canonical, or standard, format for a table rather than inventing your own format. The use of standard formats helps readers know where to look for information.

  10. Tables

    The body may be single-spaced, one-and-a-half-spaced, or double-spaced. Notes: Three types of notes (general, specific, and probability) appear below the table as needed to describe contents of the table that cannot be understood from the table title or body alone. Not all tables include table notes.

  11. Library Guides: APA 7th referencing style: Tables

    A table note (caption) should be included the bottom of the table to acknowledge that the table has been reproduced from another source. If a table is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder. This permission must also be included in the table note (caption).

  12. Tables, figures & images

    General Guidelines Book Article Library Databases Website Multiple sources Tables usually show numerical value or textual information and are almost always characterized by a row-column structure. Any type of illustration other than a table is referred to as a figure. Number

  13. Citing tables, figures & images: APA (7th ed.) citation guide

    Introduction. Tables and figures (includes images) follow similar set up and formatting. The guidelines below focus on common examples used by students for academic papers.For details on creating tables or figures for submission to journals or graduate theses, see APA's Tables and figures or consult the guide directly (Section 7, pp. 195-250). ...

  14. Library Guides: APA 7th Referencing Style Guide: Tables

    General rules: In the text, refer to every table by its number. For example, "As shown in Table 1, ..." (no italics, capital "T" for "Table") There are two options for the placement of tables in a paper. The first option is to place all tables on separate pages after the reference list. The second option is to embed each table within the text

  15. Tables and figures

    A table usually shows numerical values (e.g., means and standard deviations) and/or textual information (e.g., lists of stimulus words, responses from participants) arranged in columns and rows. A figure may be a chart, graph, photograph, drawing, plot, infographic, or any other illustration that is not a table.

  16. Referencing style

    If your table or figure has been copied directly from another source or has been adapted from other data sources then you will need to include a copyright attribution in the Notes field and a full end-text reference. Last Updated: Jan 16, 2024 9:08 AM URL: https://guides.library.uwa.edu.au/apa

  17. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: Tables and figures

    You may have noticed a few differences between the citations in Tables 1 and 2. One is that the Table 2 notes—unlike the rows in Table 1—are not alphabetized. Specific notes are organized according to where the superscripts appear in the table, following the left-to-right and top-to-bottom order described on page 138 in the Publication Manual.

  18. APA Tables and Figures ~ Format, Rules & Examples

    Here are the key points to making an APA-approved table: Include a table numbe r above the table in bold. Include a short title in italics below the table. Notes are provided beneath the table. Do not use vertical lines. Horizontal lines should be used for clarity. Ensure that column and row headings are clearly labelled.

  19. APA Tables and Figures 1

    APA Tables and Figures 1 APA Tables and Figures 1 Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here. The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers' understanding of the information in the document.

  20. Figure setup

    Placement of figures in a paper. There are two options for the placement of figures (and tables) in a paper. The first is to embed figures in the text after each is first mentioned (or "called out"); the second is to place each figure on a separate page after the reference list. An embedded figure may take up an entire page; if the figure ...

  21. Maintaining APA Format for Tables

    Notes should be placed immediately below the table, with general notes beginning with Note. (in italics) and specific notes marked with superscript lowercase letters (e.g., a, b, c ). If there are uncommon abbreviations in your table, they should be defined in a note. See Table 1 for a basic example of table formatting.

  22. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats. Basic Rules Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the ...

  23. Tables & Figures in APA Style (6th Edition)

    To correctly format an APA table, follow these rules: Table number (in plain text) above the table. Brief title (in italics and title case) below the table number. Use no vertical lines and as few horizontal lines as possible. Notes below the table when necessary. APA table example Table number and title