annotation guide 9th grade

How to Annotate Texts

Use the links below to jump directly to any section of this guide:

Annotation Fundamentals

How to start annotating , how to annotate digital texts, how to annotate a textbook, how to annotate a scholarly article or book, how to annotate literature, how to annotate images, videos, and performances, additional resources for teachers.

Writing in your books can make you smarter. Or, at least (according to education experts), annotation–an umbrella term for underlining, highlighting, circling, and, most importantly, leaving comments in the margins–helps students to remember and comprehend what they read. Annotation is like a conversation between reader and text. Proper annotation allows students to record their own opinions and reactions, which can serve as the inspiration for research questions and theses. So, whether you're reading a novel, poem, news article, or science textbook, taking notes along the way can give you an advantage in preparing for tests or writing essays. This guide contains resources that explain the benefits of annotating texts, provide annotation tools, and suggest approaches for diverse kinds of texts; the last section includes lesson plans and exercises for teachers.

Why annotate? As the resources below explain, annotation allows students to emphasize connections to material covered elsewhere in the text (or in other texts), material covered previously in the course, or material covered in lectures and discussion. In other words, proper annotation is an organizing tool and a time saver. The links in this section will introduce you to the theory, practice, and purpose of annotation. 

How to Mark a Book, by Mortimer Adler

This famous, charming essay lays out the case for marking up books, and provides practical suggestions at the end including underlining, highlighting, circling key words, using vertical lines to mark shifts in tone/subject, numbering points in an argument, and keeping track of questions that occur to you as you read. 

How Annotation Reshapes Student Thinking (TeacherHUB)

In this article, a high school teacher discusses the importance of annotation and how annotation encourages more effective critical thinking.

The Future of Annotation (Journal of Business and Technical Communication)

This scholarly article summarizes research on the benefits of annotation in the classroom and in business. It also discusses how technology and digital texts might affect the future of annotation. 

Annotating to Deepen Understanding (Texas Education Agency)

This website provides another introduction to annotation (designed for 11th graders). It includes a helpful section that teaches students how to annotate reading comprehension passages on tests.

Once you understand what annotation is, you're ready to begin. But what tools do you need? How do you prepare? The resources linked in this section list strategies and techniques you can use to start annotating. 

What is Annotating? (Charleston County School District)

This resource gives an overview of annotation styles, including useful shorthands and symbols. This is a good place for a student who has never annotated before to begin.

How to Annotate Text While Reading (YouTube)

This video tutorial (appropriate for grades 6–10) explains the basic ins and outs of annotation and gives examples of the type of information students should be looking for.

Annotation Practices: Reading a Play-text vs. Watching Film (U Calgary)

This blog post, written by a student, talks about how the goals and approaches of annotation might change depending on the type of text or performance being observed. 

Annotating Texts with Sticky Notes (Lyndhurst Schools)

Sometimes students are asked to annotate books they don't own or can't write in for other reasons. This resource provides some strategies for using sticky notes instead.

Teaching Students to Close Read...When You Can't Mark the Text (Performing in Education)

Here, a sixth grade teacher demonstrates the strategies she uses for getting her students to annotate with sticky notes. This resource includes a link to the teacher's free Annotation Bookmark (via Teachers Pay Teachers).

Digital texts can present a special challenge when it comes to annotation; emerging research suggests that many students struggle to critically read and retain information from digital texts. However, proper annotation can solve the problem. This section contains links to the most highly-utilized platforms for electronic annotation.

Evernote is one of the two big players in the "digital annotation apps" game. In addition to allowing users to annotate digital documents, the service (for a fee) allows users to group multiple formats (PDF, webpages, scanned hand-written notes) into separate notebooks, create voice recordings, and sync across all sorts of devices. 

OneNote is Evernote's main competitor. Reviews suggest that OneNote allows for more freedom for digital note-taking than Evernote, but that it is slightly more awkward to import and annotate a PDF, especially on certain platforms. However, OneNote's free version is slightly more feature-filled, and OneNote allows you to link your notes to time stamps on an audio recording.

Diigo is a basic browser extension that allows a user to annotate webpages. Diigo also offers a Screenshot app that allows for direct saving to Google Drive.

While the creators of Hypothesis like to focus on their app's social dimension, students are more likely to be interested in the private highlighting and annotating functions of this program.

Foxit PDF Reader

Foxit is one of the leading PDF readers. Though the full suite must be purchased, Foxit offers a number of annotation and highlighting tools for free.

Nitro PDF Reader

This is another well-reviewed, free PDF reader that includes annotation and highlighting. Annotation, text editing, and other tools are included in the free version.

Goodreader is a very popular Mac-only app that includes annotation and editing tools for PDFs, Word documents, Powerpoint, and other formats.

Although textbooks have vocabulary lists, summaries, and other features to emphasize important material, annotation can allow students to process information and discover their own connections. This section links to guides and video tutorials that introduce you to textbook annotation. 

Annotating Textbooks (Niagara University)

This PDF provides a basic introduction as well as strategies including focusing on main ideas, working by section or chapter, annotating in your own words, and turning section headings into questions.

A Simple Guide to Text Annotation (Catawba College)

The simple, practical strategies laid out in this step-by-step guide will help students learn how to break down chapters in their textbooks using main ideas, definitions, lists, summaries, and potential test questions.

Annotating (Mercer Community College)

This packet, an excerpt from a literature textbook, provides a short exercise and some examples of how to do textbook annotation, including using shorthand and symbols.

Reading Your Healthcare Textbook: Annotation (Saddleback College)

This powerpoint contains a number of helpful suggestions, especially for students who are new to annotation. It emphasizes limited highlighting, lots of student writing, and using key words to find the most important information in a textbook. Despite the title, it is useful to a student in any discipline.

Annotating a Textbook (Excelsior College OWL)

This video (with included transcript) discusses how to use textbook features like boxes and sidebars to help guide annotation. It's an extremely helpful, detailed discussion of how textbooks are organized.

Because scholarly articles and books have complex arguments and often depend on technical vocabulary, they present particular challenges for an annotating student. The resources in this section help students get to the heart of scholarly texts in order to annotate and, by extension, understand the reading.

Annotating a Text (Hunter College)

This resource is designed for college students and shows how to annotate a scholarly article using highlighting, paraphrase, a descriptive outline, and a two-margin approach. It ends with a sample passage marked up using the strategies provided. 

Guide to Annotating the Scholarly Article (ReadWriteThink.org)

This is an effective introduction to annotating scholarly articles across all disciplines. This resource encourages students to break down how the article uses primary and secondary sources and to annotate the types of arguments and persuasive strategies (synthesis, analysis, compare/contrast).

How to Highlight and Annotate Your Research Articles (CHHS Media Center)

This video, developed by a high school media specialist, provides an effective beginner-level introduction to annotating research articles. 

How to Read a Scholarly Book (AndrewJacobs.org)

In this essay, a college professor lets readers in on the secrets of scholarly monographs. Though he does not discuss annotation, he explains how to find a scholarly book's thesis, methodology, and often even a brief literature review in the introduction. This is a key place for students to focus when creating annotations. 

A 5-step Approach to Reading Scholarly Literature and Taking Notes (Heather Young Leslie)

This resource, written by a professor of anthropology, is an even more comprehensive and detailed guide to reading scholarly literature. Combining the annotation techniques above with the reading strategy here allows students to process scholarly book efficiently. 

Annotation is also an important part of close reading works of literature. Annotating helps students recognize symbolism, double meanings, and other literary devices. These resources provide additional guidelines on annotating literature.

AP English Language Annotation Guide (YouTube)

In this ~10 minute video, an AP Language teacher provides tips and suggestions for using annotations to point out rhetorical strategies and other important information.

Annotating Text Lesson (YouTube)

In this video tutorial, an English teacher shows how she uses the white board to guide students through annotation and close reading. This resource uses an in-depth example to model annotation step-by-step.

Close Reading a Text and Avoiding Pitfalls (Purdue OWL)

This resources demonstrates how annotation is a central part of a solid close reading strategy; it also lists common mistakes to avoid in the annotation process.

AP Literature Assignment: Annotating Literature (Mount Notre Dame H.S.)

This brief assignment sheet contains suggestions for what to annotate in a novel, including building connections between parts of the book, among multiple books you are reading/have read, and between the book and your own experience. It also includes samples of quality annotations.

AP Handout: Annotation Guide (Covington Catholic H.S.)

This annotation guide shows how to keep track of symbolism, figurative language, and other devices in a novel using a highlighter, a pencil, and every part of a book (including the front and back covers).

In addition to written resources, it's possible to annotate visual "texts" like theatrical performances, movies, sculptures, and paintings. Taking notes on visual texts allows students to recall details after viewing a resource which, unlike a book, can't be re-read or re-visited ( for example, a play that has finished its run, or an art exhibition that is far away). These resources draw attention to the special questions and techniques that students should use when dealing with visual texts.

How to Take Notes on Videos (U of Southern California)

This resource is a good place to start for a student who has never had to take notes on film before. It briefly outlines three general approaches to note-taking on a film. 

How to Analyze a Movie, Step-by-Step (San Diego Film Festival)

This detailed guide provides lots of tips for film criticism and analysis. It contains a list of specific questions to ask with respect to plot, character development, direction, musical score, cinematography, special effects, and more. 

How to "Read" a Film (UPenn)

This resource provides an academic perspective on the art of annotating and analyzing a film. Like other resources, it provides students a checklist of things to watch out for as they watch the film.

Art Annotation Guide (Gosford Hill School)

This resource focuses on how to annotate a piece of art with respect to its formal elements like line, tone, mood, and composition. It contains a number of helpful questions and relevant examples. 

Photography Annotation (Arts at Trinity)

This resource is designed specifically for photography students. Like some of the other resources on this list, it primarily focuses on formal elements, but also shows students how to integrate the specific technical vocabulary of modern photography. This resource also contains a number of helpful sample annotations.

How to Review a Play (U of Wisconsin)

This resource from the University of Wisconsin Writing Center is designed to help students write a review of a play. It contains suggested questions for students to keep in mind as they watch a given production. This resource helps students think about staging, props, script alterations, and many other key elements of a performance.

This section contains links to lessons plans and exercises suitable for high school and college instructors.

Beyond the Yellow Highlighter: Teaching Annotation Skills to Improve Reading Comprehension (English Journal)

In this journal article, a high school teacher talks about her approach to teaching annotation. This article makes a clear distinction between annotation and mere highlighting.

Lesson Plan for Teaching Annotation, Grades 9–12 (readwritethink.org)

This lesson plan, published by the National Council of Teachers of English, contains four complete lessons that help introduce high school students to annotation.

Teaching Theme Using Close Reading (Performing in Education)

This lesson plan was developed by a middle school teacher, and is aligned to Common Core. The teacher presents her strategies and resources in comprehensive fashion.

Analyzing a Speech Using Annotation (UNC-TV/PBS Learning Media)

This complete lesson plan, which includes a guide for the teacher and relevant handouts for students, will prepare students to analyze both the written and presentation components of a speech. This lesson plan is best for students in 6th–10th grade.

Writing to Learn History: Annotation and Mini-Writes (teachinghistory.org)

This teaching guide, developed for high school History classes, provides handouts and suggested exercises that can help students become more comfortable with annotating historical sources.

Writing About Art (The College Board)

This Prezi presentation is useful to any teacher introducing students to the basics of annotating art. The presentation covers annotating for both formal elements and historical/cultural significance.

Film Study Worksheets (TeachWithMovies.org)

This resource contains links to a general film study worksheet, as well as specific worksheets for novel adaptations, historical films, documentaries, and more. These resources are appropriate for advanced middle school students and some high school students. 

Annotation Practice Worksheet (La Guardia Community College)

This worksheet has a sample text and instructions for students to annotate it. It is a useful resource for teachers who want to give their students a chance to practice, but don't have the time to select an appropriate piece of text. 

  • PDFs for all 136 Lit Terms we cover
  • Downloads of 1867 LitCharts Lit Guides
  • Teacher Editions for every Lit Guide
  • Explanations and citation info for 39,238 quotes across 1867 books
  • Downloadable (PDF) line-by-line translations of every Shakespeare play

Need something? Request a new guide .

How can we improve? Share feedback .

LitCharts is hiring!

The LitCharts.com logo.

Teaching Student Annotation: Constructing Meaning Through Connections

Teaching Student Annotation: Constructing Meaning Through Connections

  • Resources & Preparation
  • Instructional Plan
  • Related Resources

Students learn about the purposes and techniques of annotation by examining text closely and critically. They study sample annotations and identify the purposes annotation can serve. Students then practice annotation through a careful reading of a story excerpt, using specific guidelines and writing as many annotations as possible. Students then work in pairs to peer review their annotations, practice using footnotes and PowerPoint to present annotations, and reflect on how creating annotations can change a reader's perspective through personal connection with text.

Featured Resources

  • Making Annotations: A User's Guide : Use this resource guide to help students make connections with text through definition, analysis of author purpose, paraphrasing, personal identification, explaining historical context, and more.

From Theory to Practice

In his English Journal article " I'll Have Mine Annotated, Please: Helping Students Make Connections with Text" Matthew D. Brown expresses a basic truth in English Language Arts instruction: "Reading is one thing, but getting something of value from what we read is another" (73). Brown uses the avenue of personal connection to facilitate the valuable outcomes that can result from reading and interacting with text. He begins with student-centered questions such as, "What were they thinking about as they read? What connections were they making? What questions did they have, and could they find answers to those questions?" (73). Brown's questions lead to providing students with instruction and opportunities that align with the NCTE Principles of Adolescent Literacy Reform: A Policy Research Brief by "link[ing] their personal experiences and their texts, making connections between the students' existing literacy resources and the ones necessary for various disciplines" (5). Further Reading

Common Core Standards

This resource has been aligned to the Common Core State Standards for states in which they have been adopted. If a state does not appear in the drop-down, CCSS alignments are forthcoming.

State Standards

This lesson has been aligned to standards in the following states. If a state does not appear in the drop-down, standard alignments are not currently available for that state.

NCTE/IRA National Standards for the English Language Arts

  • 1. Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.
  • 2. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.
  • 3. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).
  • 4. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.
  • 5. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
  • 6. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.
  • 7. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.

Materials and Technology

  • Copies of "Eleven" by Sandra Cisceros or other text appropriate for the activities in this lesson
  • Colored Pencils
  • Sample Annotation PowerPoint on The Pearl
  • Making Annotations: A User's Guide or one students create after discussion
  • Annotation Sheet
  • Student Sample Annotations from "Eleven"
  • Annotation Peer Review Guide
  • Example Student Brainstorming for Annotation
  • Sample Revised and Published Annotations Using Footnotes

Preparation

  • Find sample annotated texts to share with your students. Shakespeare's plays work well since many of his texts are annotated.  Red Reader editions published by Discovery Teacher have great user-friendly annotations geared toward young adult readers.  Look for selections that are engaging—ones that offer more than vocabulary definitions and give a variety of annotations beyond explanation and analysis.
  • Alternatively, search Google Books for any text with annotations.  A search for Romeo and Juliet , for example, will bring up numerous versions that can be viewed directly online.
  • While much of the work will be done by students, it is useful to take some time to think about the role of annotations in a text.  You will have students identify the functions of annotations, but it is always helpful if you have your own list of uses of annotations so that you can help guide students in this area of instruction if necessary.
  • Make copies of all necessary handouts.
  • Arrange for students to have access to Internet-connected computers if they will be doing their annotations in an online interactive.
  • Test the Literary Graffiti and Webbing Tool interactives on your computers to familiarize yourself with the tools and ensure that you have the Flash plug-in installed. You can download the plug-in from the technical support page.

Student Objectives

Students will:

  • examine and analyze text closely, critically, and carefully.
  • make personal, meaningful connections with text.
  • clearly communicate their ideas about a piece of text through writing, revision, and publication.

Session One

  • Begin the session by asking students if they are familar with the word annotation . Point out the words note and notation as clues to the word's meaning. If students know the word, proceed with the next step. If students are unfamiliar, ask them to determine what the word means by seeing what the texts you pass out in the next step have in common.
  • Pass out a variety of sample texts that use annotations. If you are using Google Books , direct students to texts online to have them examine the annotations that are used.
  • Have the students skim the texts and carefully examine the annotations.  Encourage students to begin to see the variety of ways that an editor of a text uses annotations.
  • Working with a small group of their peers, students should create a list that shows what effective annotations might do.
  • give definitions to difficult and unfamiliar words.
  • give background information, especially explaining customs, traditions, and ways of living that may be unfamiliar to the reader.
  • help explain what is going on in the text.
  • make connections to other texts.
  • point out the use of literary techniques and how they add meaning to the text.
  • can use humor (or other styles that might be quite different from the main text).
  • reveal that the writer of these annotations knows his or her reader well.
  • The process of generating this list should move into a discussion about where these annotations came from—who wrote them and why.  Guide students to think about the person who wrote these ideas, who looked at the text and did more than just read it, and who made a connection with the text.  It is important here that students begin to realize that their understanding of what they have read comes from their interaction with what is on the page.  You may wish to jumpstart the conversation by telling students about connections you make with watching films, as students may be more aware of doing so themselves.
  • touch them emotionally, making them feel happiness as well as sadness.
  • remind them of childhood experiences.
  • teach them something new.
  • change their perspective on an issue.
  • help them see how they can better relate to others around them.
  • help them see the world through someone else's experiences.
  • Before beginning the next lesson, create your Annotation Guide reflecting the different functions of annotation the class discussed today (or use the Sample Annotation Guide ).

Session Two

  • Pass out "Eleven" by Sandra Cisneros or any other text appropriate for your students and this activity.
  • Read and discuss the story as needed, but resist spending too much time with the story since the goal of annotation is to get the students to connect with the text in their own ways.
  • Pass out the Sample Annotation Guide or the one the class created and review the various ideas that were generated during the previous session, helping students to begin to think of the various ways that they can begin to connect to the story "Eleven."
  • Pass out the Annotation Sheet and ask the students to choose a particularly memorable section of the story, a section large enough to fill up the lines given to them on the Annotation Sheet .  (NOTE: While you could have the students create annotations in the margins of the entire text, isolating a small portion of the text will make the students' first attempt at annotations less daunting and more manageable. You can also use ReadWriteThink interactives Literary Graffiti or Webbing Tool at this point in the instructional process, replacing or supplementing the Annotation Sheet handout.)
  • Share with students the Student Sample Annotations from "Eleven" and use the opportunity to review the various purposes of annotating and preview directions for the activity.
  • Pass out the colored pencils.  Make sure that students can each use a variety of colors in their annotating.  Sharing pencils among members of a small group works best.
  • Have the students find a word, phrase, or sentence on their Annotation Sheet that is meaningful or significant to them.  Have them lightly color over that word, phrase, or sentence with one of their colored pencils.
  • Students should then draw a line out toward the margin from what they just highlighted on their Annotation Sheet .
  • Now students annotate their selected text.  Using the Sample Annotation Guide , students should write an annotation for the highlighted text.  They can talk about how they feel or discuss what images come to mind or share experiences that they have had.  Any connection with that part of the text should be encouraged at this entry-level stage.
  • Repeat this process several times.  Encourage students to use a variety of annotations from the Sample Annotation Guide .  But, most importantly, encourage them to make as many annotations as possible.
  • What did they get out of writing annotations?
  • What did they learn about the text that they didn't see before?
  • How might this make them better readers?
  • Students should take the time to share these reflections with each other and with the whole class. Collect responses to evaluate levels of engagement and to find any questions or concerns you may need to address.

Session Three

  • Return annotations from the previous session and address any questions or concerns.
  • Explain that, working in pairs, the students will examine each other's annotations and look for ideas that have the potential for further development and revision. 
  • Distribute copies the Annotation Peer Review Guide and explain how it will help them work together to select the best ideas that they have presented in their annotations. Peer review partners should label each annotation, comment on it, and look for several annotations that would benefit from revision and continued thinking.
  • Have each pair narrow down their ideas to the four or five most significant annotations per student.
  • Once this is done, give the students time to start revising and developing their ideas.  Encourage them to elaborate on their ideas by explaining connections more fully, doing basic research to answer questions or find necessary information, or providing whatever other development would be appropriate.
  • Circulate the room to look at what the students have chosen so that you can guide them with their development and writing.  If you see the need to offer more guiding feedback, collecting the annotation revisions during this process may be helpful.

Session Four

  • Once students have revised and developed a few of their annotations on their own, students should begin work toward a final draft.
  • The students exchange their revised annotations.
  • What is one thing that I really liked in this set of annotations?
  • What is one thing that I found confusing, needed more explanation, etc.?
  • If this were my set of annotations, what is one thing that I would change?
  • Encourage students to rely heavily on the Sample Annotation Guide and the Annotation Peer Review Guide to make these comments during the peer review process. They should be looking to see that there are a variety of annotations and that the annotations dig deeper than just surface comments (e.g., definitions) and move toward meaningful personal connections and even literary analysis.
  • Take the original format of the annotation sheet and have the students type up their work using colored text.
  • Teach the students how to footnote, and then have them use this footnoting technique for the final draft of their annotations. See the Sample Student Brainstorming for Annotation and Sample Revised and Published Annotations Using Footnotes on The Great Gatsby . If using Microsoft Word, visit the resource Insert a Footnote or Endnote for information on how to use this feature in Word.
  • Create a PowerPoint in which the first slide is the original text. The phrases are then highlighted in different colors and hyperlinked to other slides in the presentation which contain the annotations. See the Sample Annotation PowerPoint on The Pearl, and visit PowerPoint in the Classroom for tutorials on how to make the best use of PowerPoint functions.
  • What did they learn by doing this activity?
  • How did these annotations change their perspective on the text?
  • In what ways did their thinking change as they worked through the drafting, rewriting, and revising of their annotations?
  • Make sure that students are given time to share these reflections with each other and with the whole class.
  • annotate a whole text, using the margins for annotating
  • use sticky notes in textbooks or novels as a way to annotate larger works
  • use annotations as part of a formal essay to provide personal comments to supplement the analysis they have written.
  • Assessing Cultural Relevance: Exploring Personal Connections to a Text
  • Graffiti Wall: Discussing and Responding to Literature Using Graphics
  • In Literature, Interpretation Is the Thing
  • Literary Scrapbooks Online: An Electronic Reader-Response Project
  • Reader Response in Hypertext: Making Personal Connections to Literature
  • Creative Outlining—From Freewriting to Formalizing

Student Assessment / Reflections

  • Review and comment on student reflections after each step of the annotation drafting and revision process.
  • If you use this lesson as an introduction to the idea of annotation, the focus of the assessment should be on the variety of annotations a student makes.  Even so, teachers should be able to observe if students were able to move beyond surface connections (defining words, summarizing the story, and so forth) to deeper connections with the text (personal feelings, relating evens to past experiences, and so forth).  Use an adaptation of the Annotation Peer Review Guide in this process.
  • For those who take this lesson to its completion by having students generate a final published draft, the focus should move from just looking for a variety of annotations to focusing on the quality of the annotations.  By working through the writing process with these annotations, students should have been able to comment meaningfully beyond what they began with in their “rough draft.”  This should be most evident in the reflections students write in response to the process of creating annotations. Again, a modified version of the Annotation Peer Review Guide would be suitable for this evaluative purpose.
  • Student Interactives
  • Strategy Guides
  • Professional Library
  • Calendar Activities

The Webbing Tool provides a free-form graphic organizer for activities that ask students to pursue hypertextual thinking and writing.

  • Print this resource

Explore Resources by Grade

  • Kindergarten K

You are using an outdated browser and it's not supported. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience.

  • LOGIN FOR PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS
  • PROGRAM SUPPORT

Text-Dependent Questioning and Focused Annotation

Description.

In Unit 9.2.1, students analyze the development and refinement of common central ideas in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Tell-Tale Heart” and Emily Dickinson’s poem “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain.” The narrator of “The Tell-Tale Heart,” disturbed by an old man’s eye, kills the man and hides the body. The speaker in “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain,” likens her descent into madness to the stages of a funeral ceremony. These texts offer rich evidence to support claims about point of view, central idea, and text structure, including how point of view and text structure contribute to the development of central ideas. Students will begin to produce evidence-based claims and multi-paragraph writing in unit 9.2.1.

There may be cases when our downloadable resources contain hyperlinks to other websites. These hyperlinks lead to websites published or operated by third parties. UnboundEd and EngageNY are not responsible for the content, availability, or privacy policies of these websites.

  • Grade 9 ELA Module 2, Unit 1 - Full Unit
  • Grade 9 ELA Module 2, Unit 1 Overview
  • The Tell-Tale Heart

Bilingual Language Progressions

These resources, developed by the New York State Education Department, provide standard-level scaffolding suggestions for English Language Learners (ELLs) to help them meet grade-level demands. Each resource contains scaffolds at multiple levels of language acquisition and describes the linguistic demands of the standards to help ELA teachers as well as ESL/bilingual teachers scaffold content for their English learning students.

  • CCSS Standard:
  • L.9.10.1A ,
  • L.9.10.5A ,
  • L.9.10.5B ,
  • RL.9.10.2 ,
  • RL.9.10.4 ,
  • RL.9.10.5 ,
  • SL.9.10.1A ,
  • W.9.10.2B ,
  • W.9.10.2D ,
  • Edgar Allan Poe ,
  • Emily Dickinson
  • I felt a Funeral, in my Brain ,

In This Unit

  • lesson 1: Poe's Narrator
  • lesson 2: Evidence-Based Discussion: Obsession and Madness
  • lesson 3: Poe Manipulates Time: Structural Choices
  • lesson 4: Stalling the Action and Planning the Next Move
  • lesson 5: Impact of Structural Choices on Central Ideas: Madness
  • lesson 6: Emergence of Guilt?
  • lesson 7: Making a Claim about Structural Choices
  • lesson 8: Mid-Unit Assessment
  • lesson 9: Feeling the Funeral
  • lesson 10: Extended Metaphor
  • lesson 11: Analysis of Structural Choices
  • lesson 12: Conversations Between Texts
  • lesson 13: Unit Assessment: Refining a Central Idea

Related Guides and Multimedia

Our professional learning resources include teaching guides, videos, and podcasts that build educators' knowledge of content related to the standards and their application in the classroom.

annotation guide 9th grade

Building Fluency: Unbound A Guide to 6-12 ELA/Literacy Practices

  • See All Guides

ELA Common Core Lesson Plans

annotation guide 9th grade

  • Create Characters Lesson Plan
  • Creative Writing Lesson Plan: Using Details
  • How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay
  • How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay Lesson Plan
  • How to Write a Persuasive Essay
  • How to Write a Reflective Essay
  • How to Write an Article Critique and Review
  • How to Write an Introduction to an Essay
  • How to Write a Problem Solution Essay
  • Lesson Plan: Effective Sentence Structure
  • Lesson Plan: Improve Writing Style with Improved Sentence Structure
  • Logical Fallacies Lesson Plan with Summary & Examples
  • Teaching Active and Passive Voice
  • Teaching How to Revise a Rough Draft
  • Teaching Instructional Articles: How to Write Instructions
  • Teaching Word Choice: Using Strong Verbs
  • Using Imagery Lesson Plan
  • Writing for Audience and Purpose
  • Writing Transitions Lesson
  • Analyzing Humor in Literature Lesson Plan
  • Analyzing Shakespeare Strategies
  • Fun Reading Lesson Plan
  • How to Write a Literary Analysis.
  • How to Annotate and Analyze a Poem

Lesson Plan for Teaching Annotation

  • Literary Terms Lesson Plan
  • Literature Exemplars – Grades-9-10
  • Teaching Short Story Elements
  • Using Short Stories to Teach Elements of Literature
  • Bill of Rights Lesson Plan
  • Fun Ideas for Teaching Language
  • Comma Rules: How to Use Commas
  • Difference between Denotation and Connotation
  • Effective Word Choice Lesson Plan
  • Fun Grammar Review Game or Vocabulary & Language Arts
  • Lesson Plans for Substitute Teachers and Busy English Teachers
  • Lesson Plan: Creating the Perfect Title
  • 4.08 – Lesson Plan: Using Semicolons Correctly
  • Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Lesson Plan
  • Sentence Combining Made Easy Lesson Plan
  • Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary
  • Using Tone Effectively Lesson Plan
  • 4.12 – Word Choice Lesson Plan: Eliminate and Replace “To Be” Verbs
  • Using Voice in Writing Effectively Lesson Plan
  • Speaking & Listening
  • Teacher Guide Central

Annotating Literature Lesson Plan

Teaching annotations improves the quality of reading in your classroom. Teaching kids how to annotate is easy.

A Grave Problem

I love Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . I was sure my students would do great on the test…until I graded them. Instead of reading the novel, they watched the movie. “How could I be so dumb?” I shouted. “Of course they watched the movie!” I punched the wall, broke my wrist, and passed out due to the pain.

I awoke and spotted a giant creature made of dead body parts standing near my desk. He snarled, “Teach students how to write annotations with teaching annotation lesson plans. Teaching annotations will force them to read because they’ll have to take notes inside the book. If only Dr. Frankenstein knew how to write an annotation, I could murder him, steal his notes, and make me a mate.”

The creature left some great teaching annotation lesson plans on my desk. I share the best one with you.

ELA Common Core Standards Covered

It’s easy to focus on pretty much all the ELA common core standards for reading and writing when teaching annotations.

  • RL.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RL.9-10.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RL.9-10.3 Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
  • RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
  • RL.9-10.5 Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.
  • RL.9-10.6 Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.
  • W.9-10.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Annotating Supplies

Annotating requires students to think critically about a text. Teaching how to write an annotation is different than teaching how to take notes. Annotation involves writing in the book, engaging the author in conversation, questioning, and clarifying main points. The following supplies make the exercise run much more smoothly:

  • Post-it Notes: If the book belongs to a school, library, or someone else, use Post-it notes.
  • Highlighter: Yellow works best. Underlining, circling, and stars become laborious and sloppy. Yellow highlighters emphasize without distracting.
  • Pencil: Write notes in the margins. Pencil is easy to erase. If you write something really stupid in pen, it will be there for years, reminding you just how stupid you used to be.
  • A Book: This is obvious, but a teacher in Michigan wrote me a nasty letter because I didn’t include book in my original lesson plan. I think she was bitter because Ohio State drubs Michigan every year in football (O-H).

Strategies and Procedures for Teaching Annotating

Teach students to annotate any text from which they may need to produce evidence for an essay , debate, or examination. The following instructions will help students annotate:

  • As you read highlight key information.
  • As you read take marginal notes. These notes can include stars, check marks, phrases, questions, question marks, words, etc.
  • Keep a list of key information with page numbers on the front cover of the book (Students will need guidance on what constitutes key information, which depends on genre, purpose, and reading level.).
  • Write a brief summary at the end of each chapter or section.
  • Write an alternative title for each chapter or section.
  • List vocabulary words on the back cover.

Assessing annotations , if done improperly, bogs down even the most efficient teacher. I recommend spot checking certain pages and assessing just those pages. The grade could be based on quantity and quality of information, chapter summaries, or listing of key information.  The ultimate assessment tool is assigning a literary analysis or poetry analysis .

Lessons on Paragraph Writing

Here are some more lesson plans and lesson ideas for writing paragraphs.

  • Writing Topic Sentences
  • Teaching Paragraph Structure
  • Using Transitions Effectively
  • Paragraph Challenge
  • The Methods of Paragraph Development
  • Paragraph Writing
  • Using Supporting Details Effectively
  • How to Revise and Grade an Essay

Last Updated on March 7, 2014 by ELAAdmin

Get 5 Short Story Lesson Plans Now!

We specialize in teacher-ready lesson plans.

I will never give away, trade or sell your email address. You can unsubscribe at any time.

Facebook

Return to top of page

Copyright © 2024 | By: WebsiteRedesign.nz

7 Strategies for Teaching Students How to Annotate

  • November 7, 2018

For many educators, annotation goes hand in hand with developing close reading skills. Annotation more fully engages students and increases reading comprehension strategies, helping students develop a deeper understanding and appreciation for literature.

However, it’s also one of the more difficult skills to teach. In order to think critically about a text, students need to learn how to actively engage with the text they’re reading. Annotation provides that immersive experience, and new digital reading technologies not only make annotation easier than ever, but also make it possible for any book, article, or text to be annotated.

Below are seven strategies to help your students master the basics of annotation and become more engaged, closer readers.

1. Teach the Basics of Good Annotation

Help your students understand that annotation is simply the process of thoughtful reading and making notes as they study a text. Start with some basic forms of annotation:

  • highlighting a phrase or sentence and including a comment
  • circling a word that needs defining
  • posing a question when something isn’t fully understood
  • writing a short summary of a key section

Assure them that good annotating will help them concentrate and better understand what they read and better remember their thoughts and ideas when they revisit the text.

2. Model Effective Annotation

One of the most effective ways to teach annotation is to show students your own thought process when annotating a text. Display a sample text and think out loud as you make notes. Show students how you might underline key words or sentences and write comments or questions, and explain what you’re thinking as you go through the reading and annotation process.

Annotation Activity: Project a short, simple text and let students come up and write their own comments and discuss what they’ve written and why. This type of modeling and interaction helps students understand the thought process that critical reading requires.

3. Give Your Students a Reading Checklist

When first teaching students about annotation, you can help shape their critical analysis and active reading strategies by giving them specific things to look for while reading, like a checklist or annotation worksheet for a text. You might have them explain how headings and subheads connect with the text, or have them identify facts that add to their understanding.

4. Provide an Annotation Rubric

When you know what your annotation goals are for your students, it can be useful to develop a simple rubric that defines what high-quality and thoughtful annotation looks like. This provides guidance for your students and makes grading easier for you. You can modify your rubric as goals and students’ needs change over time.

5. Keep It Simple

Especially for younger or struggling readers, help your students develop self-confidence by keeping things simple. Ask them to circle a word they don’t know, look up that word in the dictionary, and write the definition in a comment. They can also write an opinion on a particular section, so there’s no right or wrong answer.

6. Teach Your Students How to Annotate a PDF

Or other digital texts. Most digital reading platforms include a number of tools that make annotation easy. These include highlighters, text comments, sticky notes, mark up tools for underlining, circling, or drawing boxes, and many more. If you don’t have a digital reading platform, you can also teach how to annotate a basic PDF text using simple annotation tools like highlights or comments.

7. Make It Fun!

The more creative you get with annotation, the more engaged your students will be. So have some fun with it!

  • Make a scavenger hunt by listing specific components to identify
  • Color code concepts and have students use multicolored highlighters
  • Use stickers to represent and distinguish the five story elements: character, setting, plot, conflict, and theme
  • Choose simple symbols to represent concepts, and let students draw those as illustrated annotations: a magnifying glass could represent clues in the text, a key an important idea, and a heart could indicate a favorite part

Annotation Activity: Create a dice game where students have to find concepts and annotate them based on the number they roll. For example, 1 = Circle and define a word you don’t know, 2 = Underline a main character, 3 = Highlight the setting, etc.

Teaching students how to annotate gives them an invaluable tool for actively engaging with a text. It helps them think more critically, it increases retention, and it instills confidence in their ability to analyze more complex texts.

More Resources articles

annotation guide 9th grade

15 of the Best Math Picture Books for Kids

Math is around us everywhere, from the addition used when counting toys to the geometry of spotting shapes in the clouds. When you’re making a

annotation guide 9th grade

Family Guide: Early Learning & Development Standards by Grade

Back-to-school season is such an exciting time for young learners. It’s the beginning of a year full of new milestones to come, including learning skills,

annotation guide 9th grade

20 Early Math Activities for PreK and Kindergarten Families

Teaching early math skills like counting, recognizing shapes, and using measurements such as time or length are perfect for building a strong learning foundation. Math

annotation guide 9th grade

End Bullying: October is National Bullying Prevention Month

annotation guide 9th grade

Six Picture Books & Chapter Book Guides to Celebrate Black History Month with Young Students

annotation guide 9th grade

MacKenzie Scott’s Yield Giving Awards Waterford.org a $10 Million Grant

  • Skip to main content
  • Skip to primary sidebar
  • Freebie Library
  • Search this website

Teaching with Jennifer Findley

Upper Elementary Teaching Blog

June 12, 2019 | 1 Comment | Filed Under: Close Reading , Reading

Annotating Tips for Close Reading

Have you seen that popular meme where the student highlights two entire pages of a text? It cracks me up every time I see it. One reason that meme resonates with teachers is because it is a very real struggle. Each year, it seems I have some students who annotate like crazy. Or the opposite and the students don’t pick up a pencil or annotating tool the entire time they are reading. Thankfully, just as our students grow and learn in other areas, they can learn to be effective at annotating texts. This post will share specific annotating tips to use during close reading. Using these annotating tips will help your students make sense of a text, analyze a text, and reflect on the text (verbally and in writing).

Note: The hand2mind close reading small group kit links are affiliate links (which means that if you or your school makes a purchase through the links, I earn a small commission at no extra cost to you).

Annotating texts is a powerful strategy for readers, especially during close reading. Get practical tips and strategies to help your students annotate effectively and use their annotations in their discussion and responses on this post, including free printables.

General Annotating Vs. Specific Annotating

Before diving into the tips, let’s back up a little and discuss the two main types of annotating that my students do as they are reading.

General Annotating – This is the most common type of annotating that you see shared on blogs, articles, and Pinterest. This type of annotating is when the student reads the text with the purpose of simply understanding the gist of the topic or story. The students use general annotating symbols and directions that work with any text (making predictions, making connections, interesting facts, etc). This type of annotating works really well when the students are reading a text one time for a single purpose or during the initial read of a text.

Specific Annotating –When students complete this type of annotating, they have a specific purpose in mind and are looking for textual details, facts, and evidence that align with that purpose. As you can probably already tell, this type of annotating lends itself to close reading because each read of the text has a new purpose. It makes no sense to have the students use the same general annotation symbols and directions each time they read. Specific annotating also works well for literature circle discussions and literary analysis.

Some of the annotating tips I share will work well with both types of annotating and some work better for supporting students during specific annotating.

Teach Students the Purpose of Annotating

Anchor chart for teaching students to annotate texts during close reading.

Before I even begin modeling and having my students practice annotating texts, we spend time discussing the purpose and benefits (or power) of annotating. We discuss what annotating is, how it looks, the tools that can be used, and how it helps the reader.

We discuss how annotating helps readers:

  • focus on what they are reading
  • understand details of a text, including complex or difficult to understand details
  • keep track of their thoughts and feelings about a texts and its details
  • keep track of important details
  • prepare for discussion
  • prepare to write about a text

Click here or on the image below to grab a free printable that I use when introducing annotating.

Free printable to use when teaching your students to annotate texts.

Annotate Each Close Read with a Specific Purpose

Remember how we talked about the difference between general and specific annotating above? One of my best tips for annotating with close reading is to have the students annotate each read with a specific focus in mind. While they are reading, they should annotate specifically for details and textual evidence that will support their discussion or response to the focus prompt for that read.

For example, if the students are reading a text to zone in on how the author uses the character to develop the theme, the students should be annotating character details such as dialogue, action, and internal monologue that support the theme. Then, they will be able to use those annotations to respond to and discuss the focus.

Color Code Each Annotation

Anchor chart idea to use when teaching your students how to annotate and color code their annotations during close reading.

Have the students use a different color for each read. This will help them organize their annotations and help with accountability. Students will be able to refer back to specific annotations to discuss and reflect on a text.

Click here to grab the printable that I use to introduce the benefits and purposes of color coding to my students (on page 3).

Free printable to use when teaching your students how to annotate and color code their annotations.

Model the Annotation Process

The first few times you do close reading strategies with your students, make sure you model how to appropriately annotate a text. To do this, I recommend using a common text either projected on a whiteboard, blown up in a poster size, or use a text specifically created for modeling.

Here are the steps I follow when preparing to model how to annotate:

  • Prepare my materials – The materials I use are an engaging text broken up into paragraphs (two copies-one to use prior to the lesson one to use during the lesson), a focus prompt or question, and an annotating tool (this can be as simple as a pencil)
  • Preread the text – Read the text prior to instruction and annotate it with the focus prompt in mind. Doing this beforehand will allow you to ensure the focus prompt/question is a good fit for the text and that you have a variety of details to annotate.

And here is what I do to actually model the annotation process with my students:

  • Introduce the text and focus prompt/question to the students. I explain that I will be reading this text with a specific focus in mind. While I am reading the text, I will annotate details that will show my understanding of the text and the focus prompt/question. I also explain that the annotations I choose will help me discuss the prompt/question.
  • Stop and Annotate – When I get to an obvious detail, I will pause my reading and explain to the students that I am annotating this detail and why.
  • Stop, Reflect, and Then Annotate – I also model how to stop, reflect, and annotate after reading a section of text. To do this, I read a paragraph and then stop and think aloud about what details I can annotate that match my focus question. I invite the students to help me find details as well.
  • When I am done reading and annotating the text, I will show the students how to use the annotations to discuss the focus prompt or questions. I do this simply by referring to the annotations (by pointing and using the same words) as I discuss the text.

Model How to Use Annotations

In addition to modeling how to annotate a text with specific purposes, make sure you explicitly model how to use the annotations to support written and verbal discussion of the text. This will help your students see the purpose behind annotating and help them find greater success with this important strategy.

After modeling how to annotate a text (using the steps outlined in the above section), I follow up with a lesson on how to use those annotations to discuss and write about the text. I model how to discuss the text using the annotations the same day that I model how to annotate. Then, we come back together the next day and I explicitly model how to use those annotations in writing.

I know this may sound challenging but it is super easy. All you do is review your annotations, restate the focus prompt, answer the prompt, and then provide details from the text (your annotations) to support your answer. As I do this, I actually point to the details that I annotated to show the students the connection between what I annotated and my response to the text.

Annotating can be a very powerful tool for readers for many reasons. I hope these tips help you and your students. Do you have any annotating tips that work well for your readers? Let us know in the comments!

Need Close Reading Resources?

Shop This Post

annotation guide 9th grade

3rd Grade Close Reading

annotation guide 9th grade

4th Grade Close Reading

annotation guide 9th grade

5th Grade Close Reading

Share the knowledge.

annotation guide 9th grade

Want reading vocabulary posters for grades 4-5 for FREE?

Free reading vocabulary posters for grades 4-5! Enter your information to get these free posters sent straight to your email.

By entering your information, you agree to receive email communication from me. Per my privacy policy , you can unsubscribe at any time.

You May Also Like These Posts

Close reading tips and strategies for success and engagement! Close reading is a great way to help students dig in and analyze a text. This post shares 15 practical close reading tips and strategies to help you implement this reading strategy.

Reader Interactions

' src=

September 1, 2023 at 11:28 am

Im trying to buy this. I don’t see anything where I can buy this.

Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

Notify me of new posts by email.

annotation guide 9th grade

Welcome friends! I’m Jennifer Findley: a teacher, mother, and avid reader. I believe that with the right resources, mindset, and strategies, all students can achieve at high levels and learn to love learning. My goal is to provide resources and strategies to inspire you and help make this belief a reality for your students. Learn more about me.

Learning Center

Annotating Texts

What is annotation.

Annotation can be:

  • A systematic summary of the text that you create within the document
  • A key tool for close reading that helps you uncover patterns, notice important words, and identify main points
  • An active learning strategy that improves comprehension and retention of information

Why annotate?

  • Isolate and organize important material
  • Identify key concepts
  • Monitor your learning as you read
  • Make exam prep effective and streamlined
  • Can be more efficient than creating a separate set of reading notes

How do you annotate?

Summarize key points in your own words .

  • Use headers and words in bold to guide you
  • Look for main ideas, arguments, and points of evidence
  • Notice how the text organizes itself. Chronological order? Idea trees? Etc.

Circle key concepts and phrases

  • What words would it be helpful to look-up at the end?
  • What terms show up in lecture? When are different words used for similar concepts? Why?

Write brief comments and questions in the margins

  • Be as specific or broad as you would like—use these questions to activate your thinking about the content
  • See our handout on reading comprehension tips for some examples

Use abbreviations and symbols

  • Try ? when you have a question or something you need to explore further
  • Try ! When something is interesting, a connection, or otherwise worthy of note
  • Try * For anything that you might use as an example or evidence when you use this information.
  • Ask yourself what other system of symbols would make sense to you.

Highlight/underline

  • Highlight or underline, but mindfully. Check out our resource on strategic highlighting for tips on when and how to highlight.

Use comment and highlight features built into pdfs, online/digital textbooks, or other apps and browser add-ons

  • Are you using a pdf? Explore its highlight, edit, and comment functions to support your annotations
  • Some browsers have add-ons or extensions that allow you to annotate web pages or web-based documents
  • Does your digital or online textbook come with an annotation feature?
  • Can your digital text be imported into a note-taking tool like OneNote, EverNote, or Google Keep? If so, you might be able to annotate texts in those apps

What are the most important takeaways?

  • Annotation is about increasing your engagement with a text
  • Increased engagement, where you think about and process the material then expand on your learning, is how you achieve mastery in a subject
  • As you annotate a text, ask yourself: how would I explain this to a friend?
  • Put things in your own words and draw connections to what you know and wonder

The table below demonstrates this process using a geography textbook excerpt (Press 2004):

A chart featuring a passage from a text in the left column and then columns that illustrate annotations that include too much writing, not enough writing, and a good balance of writing.

A common concern about annotating texts: It takes time!

Yes, it can, but that time isn’t lost—it’s invested.

Spending the time to annotate on the front end does two important things:

  • It saves you time later when you’re studying. Your annotated notes will help speed up exam prep, because you can review critical concepts quickly and efficiently.
  • It increases the likelihood that you will retain the information after the course is completed. This is especially important when you are supplying the building blocks of your mind and future career.

One last tip: Try separating the reading and annotating processes! Quickly read through a section of the text first, then go back and annotate.

Works consulted:

Nist, S., & Holschuh, J. (2000). Active learning: strategies for college success. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 202-218.

Simpson, M., & Nist, S. (1990). Textbook annotation: An effective and efficient study strategy for college students. Journal of Reading, 34: 122-129.

Press, F. (2004). Understanding earth (4th ed). New York: W.H. Freeman. 208-210.

Creative Commons License

Make a Gift

Banner

Global History - 9th Grade: Annotated Bibliography

Annotated bibliography.

  • Presentation

annotation guide 9th grade

Annotated Bibliography Tips

  • Excelsior OWL

Writing an annotated bibliography can seem tedious, but it can also help you to better analyze your sources and organize your thoughts as you work on your project!

For this assignment, you'll be using Chicago style citations (see the citations tab for more information on that). After the bibliographic citation of your source, write an annotation. This will include a brief summary of the source, your assessment of the source (quality, accuracy, bias, etc...), and how it is relevant to your particular project.

Make sure you're doing this as you do your research. Don't save it all for the end!

Annotated Bibliography Samples

annotation guide 9th grade

  • << Previous: Citations
  • Next: Presentation >>
  • Last Updated: Jan 12, 2024 2:01 PM
  • URL: https://trinityschoolnyc.libguides.com/history9

Banner

MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): Annotated Bibliography

  • Advertisements
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Books and eBooks
  • Book Reviews
  • Class Notes and Presentations
  • Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
  • Government Documents
  • Images, Artwork, Charts, Graphs and Tables
  • Journal Articles
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Personal Communication (Interviews, Emails)
  • Primary Sources
  • Religious Texts
  • Social Media
  • Videos and DVDs
  • When Creating Digital Assignments
  • When Information Is Missing
  • Works Quoted in Another Source
  • Paraphrasing
  • Works Cited List & Sample Paper
  • Annotated Bibliography

On This Page

Annotations.

  • Video: What is an Annotated Bibliography?

Writing an Evaluative Annotation

Basic tips on writing and formatting, sample evaluative annotation, useful links for annotated bibliographies.

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.

Types of Annotations

 A summary annotation describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description. 

 An evaluative annotation includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

  • Cite the source using MLA style.
  • Describe the main ideas, arguments, themes, theses, or methodology, and identify the intended audience.
  • Explain the author’s expertise, point of view, and any bias he/she may have.
  • Compare to other sources on the same topic that you have also cited to show similarities and differences.
  • Explain why each source is useful for your research topic and how it relates to your topic.
  • Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
  • Identify the observations or conclusions of the author. 
  • Each annotation should be one paragraph, between three to six sentences long (about 150- 200 words).
  • Start with the same format as a regular Works Cited list.
  • All lines should be double-spaced. Do not add an extra line between the citations.
  • If your list of citations is especially long, you can organize it by topic.
  • Try to be objective, and give explanations if you state any opinions.
  • Use the third person (e.g., he, she, the author) instead of the first person (e.g., I, my, me)

London, Herbert. “Five Myths of the Television Age.” Television Quarterly , vol. 10, no. 1, Mar. 1982, pp. 81-69. Herbert London, the Dean of Journalism at New York University and author of several books and articles, explains how television contradicts five commonly believed ideas. He uses specific examples of events seen on television, such as the assassination of John Kennedy, to illustrate his points. His examples have been selected to contradict such truisms as: “seeing is believing”; “a picture is worth a thousand words”; and “satisfaction is its own reward.” London uses logical arguments to support his ideas which are his personal opinion. He does not refer to any previous works on the topic. London’s style and vocabulary would make the article of interest to any reader. The article clearly illustrates London’s points, but does not explore their implications leaving the reader with many unanswered questions.

Adapted from:

"How to Write Annotated Bibliographies."  Memorial University Libraries , www.library.mun.ca/researchtools/guides/writing/annotated_bibl/. Accessed 29 June 2016.

  • Annotated Bibliographies Overview of purpose and form of annotated bibliographies from the Purdue OWL.
  • Annotated Bibliography Sample Includes a sample annotation from an MLA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.
  • Annotated Bibliography Breakdown An example of an MLA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.

MLA Handbook

Cover Art

  • << Previous: Works Cited List & Sample Paper
  • Next: More Help? >>
  • Last Updated: Jul 4, 2023 12:01 PM
  • URL: https://lcc-ca.libguides.com/mla-citation-guide-9th-ed

Using the Library

  • Library Catalogue

Subject Guides

Project guides, digital resources, reading lists, quick access.

  • Junior School Catalog
  • Senior School Catalog
  • Sora Tutorials
  • Sora Web Application
  • Citation Guides

Lower Canada College Libraries

514-482-9916 ext. 473

Follow us on Pinterest

LCC is an English coeducational K-11 school leading to the MEES Secondary Leaving Diploma / LCC est une école anglophone mixte de la maternelle à la 5e secondaire menant au DES du MEES.

logo

Have an account?

Quiz image

Argumentative Writing

The writing process, facts, opinions, and opinion writing, 3rd -  5th  , 11th -  12th  .

pencil-icon

Annotation 9th Grade

User image

8 questions

Player avatar

  • 1. Multiple Choice 20 seconds 1 pt What is annotation? It is answering questions from a story. It is summarizing an entire article. It is answering questions from an informational text.   It is in-text note-taking which allows interaction with text
  • 2. Multiple Choice 30 seconds 1 pt How does annotating a text help you learn? Check the incorrect answer. Helps you synthesize what you're reading better. Improves comprehension and understanding.  Allows you not to have to read the entire text.   The annotated text provides a head start on future writing.
  • 3. Multiple Choice 30 seconds 1 pt How can I annotate a text? Check the answer that is NOT how to annotate a text? Use the margins for notes. Highlight all the sentences in the paragraphs. Number paragraphs to make citing easier. Highlight key words and phrases.
  • 4. Multiple Choice 20 seconds 1 pt What is not an annotation technique? Drawing pictures and taking notes in the margin.   Asking questions in the margin. Using color coding and symbols.   Researching the author.
  • 5. Multiple Choice 30 seconds 1 pt What comes first when annotating a text? Survey the text  Highlight the text Number the paragraphs Read the text
  • 6. Multiple Choice 30 seconds 1 pt Which of these is something we would NOT highlight as we annotate? Main ideas Evidence to support your claim Unknown vocabulary words An author's claims
  • 7. Multiple Choice 30 seconds 1 pt Which of these symbol meanings is INCORRECT? !  Interesting! Shocking! Wow! ?? I'm super confused; not getting it * Main idea/relates to theme or main idea *   What does this word mean?
  • 8. Multiple Choice 20 seconds 1 pt When describing what the author is doing, what types of words ARE good to use? Nouns Verbs Adjectives Gerunds

Google Logo

Protecting Student Privacy

U.S. Department of Education

A Service of the Student Privacy Policy Office's Privacy Technical Assistance Center

Mobile complaint link

  • File a Complaint

What records are exempted from FERPA?

Records which are kept in the sole possession of the maker of the records, are used only as a personal memory aid, and are not accessible or revealed to any other person except a temporary substitute for the maker of the records.

Records of the law enforcement unit of an educational agency or institution. Law enforcement unit records are records that are: (1) created by a law enforcement unit; (2) created for a law enforcement purpose; and (3) maintained by the law enforcement unit.

Records relating to an individual who is employed by an educational agency or institution that are made and maintained in the normal course of business, relate exclusively to the individual in that individual’s capacity as an employee and are not available for use for any other purpose. However, records relating to an individual in attendance at the agency or institution who is employed because of his or her status as a student are education records.

Records on a student who is 18 years of age or older, or attending a postsecondary institution, that are: (1) made or maintained by a physician or other recognized professional acting in that capacity; (2) made, maintained, or used only in connection with treatment of the student; and (3) disclosed only to individuals providing the treatment.

Records that are created or received by an educational agency or institution after an individual is no longer a student in attendance and that are not directly related to the individual’s attendance as a student.

Records that are grades on peer-graded papers, before they are collected and recorded by a teacher.

Privacy Policy

IMAGES

  1. Annotation Marks Anchor Chart

    annotation guide 9th grade

  2. Annotating the "Perfect Paragraph" by Madeline Alyce

    annotation guide 9th grade

  3. Annotation 9th Grade

    annotation guide 9th grade

  4. Annotating Text Worksheet

    annotation guide 9th grade

  5. Annotating Text Worksheet

    annotation guide 9th grade

  6. Annotation Guide by Amanda Weyhing

    annotation guide 9th grade

VIDEO

  1. Unit 2 (Writing)

  2. Guide to learning and writing grade 5 part 10

  3. Discover

  4. Guide to use Annotation tools

  5. Grade 10

  6. GRADE 11 READING AND WRITING SKILLS Q3

COMMENTS

  1. PDF Deerfield-Windsor School 9th Grade Annotation Guide

    Deerfield-Windsor School 9th Grade Annotation Guide Required Summer Reading AC English I (Mrs. Allen) You are required to read and annotate BOTH novels. Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson ISBN: 978-0312674397 Night by Elie Wiesel ISBN: 978-0374500016 Required Summer Reading CP English I (Mrs. Allen)

  2. How to Annotate Texts

    This guide contains resources that explain the benefits of annotating texts, provide annotation tools, and suggest approaches for diverse kinds of texts; the last section includes lesson plans and exercises for teachers. Use the links below to jump directly to any section of this guide: Annotation Fundamentals How to Start Annotating

  3. Teaching Student Annotation: Constructing Meaning Through Connections

    Overview. Students learn about the purposes and techniques of annotation by examining text closely and critically. They study sample annotations and identify the purposes annotation can serve. Students then practice annotation through a careful reading of a story excerpt, using specific guidelines and writing as many annotations as possible.

  4. PDF 9th grade college prep annotation guide

    Step 1: Read and enjoy the novel! Step 2: Annotate the Text (this will take time, do not start the night before all is due) How will I be graded on this assignment? -Your novel will be checked for annotation, the other assessment will be your contributions to discussion and a summative test.

  5. PDF Required Summer Reading AC English I and CP English I

    9th Grade Annotation Guide Required Summer Reading AC English I and CP English I Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe ISBN: 9 7 8 0 3 8 5 4 7 4 5 4 2 T h e p u r p o s e o f s u mme r r e a d i n g i s t o d e v e l o p y o u r c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g s k i l l s . ... annotations that you think are especially important. The quiz will be ...

  6. PDF Annotating the Text

    Annotations are written notes that show you are thinking about and engaging with the text. Insightful Annotations Summarize a section or paragraph and highlight supporting details. Make an inference and highlight the supporting details. Explain how the title connects to the text. Make text to self-text-world connections.

  7. PDF Grade 9 Writing Exemplars with Annotations

    As a basis for developing a common understanding of the scoring criteria, an annotation follows each response to explain the prominent characteristics of the response described in the rubric. Examples of student responses represent some of the various combinations of the score points across the scoring domains.

  8. ELA G9: Close Reading, Annotation, and Evidence-Based Writing

    Description In this unit, students will continue to practice and refine routines such as close reading, annotation, identification of evidence, and participation in collaborative discussions. Students will study the authors' use of language to create meaning and build characters.

  9. ELA G9: Text-Dependent Questioning and Focused Annotation

    Description. In Unit 9.2.1, students analyze the development and refinement of common central ideas in Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Tell-Tale Heart" and Emily Dickinson's poem "I felt a Funeral, in my Brain.". The narrator of "The Tell-Tale Heart," disturbed by an old man's eye, kills the man and hides the body.

  10. Lesson Plan for Teaching Annotation

    It's easy to focus on pretty much all the ELA common core standards for reading and writing when teaching annotations. RL.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. RL.9-10.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail ...

  11. 7 Strategies for Teaching Students How to Annotate

    1. Teach the Basics of Good Annotation Help your students understand that annotation is simply the process of thoughtful reading and making notes as they study a text. Start with some basic forms of annotation: highlighting a phrase or sentence and including a comment circling a word that needs defining

  12. Annotating a Text

    Model an annotation strategy on a document camera, walking students through the thought process out loud as the text is marked. Extend ... (Grade 9) 9.2.R.1: Summarize the main ideas and paraphrase significant parts of increasingly complex texts. 9.3.R.4: Evaluate how literary devices impact theme, mood, and/or tone, using textual evidence:

  13. PDF Name: AP Language

    Annotate any text that you must know well, in detail, and from which you might need to produce evidence that supports your knowledge or reading, such as a book on which you will be tested. Don't assume that you must annotate when you read for pleasure; if you're relaxing with a book, well, relax.

  14. PDF 9th grade Honors annotation guide

    Step 1: Read and enjoy the novel! Step 2: Annotate the Text (this will take time, do not start the night before all is due) How will I be graded on this assignment? -Your novel will be checked for annotation, the other assessment will be your contributions to discussion and a summative test.

  15. Close Reading, Annotating, Text Evidence

    Step 1: Have students read a text or passage quietly and then write a response about it or answer some questions over it. Step 2: Give students a very similar passage and have them read it quietly while annotating it. Then let them share their notes with each other and talk in partners or small groups about what they read and marked.

  16. Annotating Tips for Close Reading

    Specific Annotating -When students complete this type of annotating, they have a specific purpose in mind and are looking for textual details, facts, and evidence that align with that purpose. As you can probably already tell, this type of annotating lends itself to close reading because each read of the text has a new purpose.

  17. Annotating Texts

    What is annotation? Annotation can be: A systematic summary of the text that you create within the document. A key tool for close reading that helps you uncover patterns, notice important words, and identify main points. An active learning strategy that improves comprehension and retention of information.

  18. LibGuides: Global History

    Annotated Bibliography. Writing an annotated bibliography can seem tedious, but it can also help you to better analyze your sources and organize your thoughts as you work on your project! For this assignment, you'll be using Chicago style citations (see the citations tab for more information on that). After the bibliographic citation of your ...

  19. MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): Annotated Bibliography

    MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): Annotated Bibliography Annotations An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited.

  20. The Necklace (Short Story): Reading Guide

    Exploring curriculum for SY24-25? Roll out CommonLit 360 with personalized support, training, and assessments for just $6,500 / year! Get a quote for your school . The Necklace is a short story by Guy de Maupassant. View guided reading mode, assessment questions, and discussion activities for this 9th-grade level text.

  21. Annotations Lesson Grade 9

    Annotations Lesson Grade 9 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online.

  22. PDF 9 %grade%Literature%Honors%

    What%makes%a%moment%significant?% That's%up%to%you%as%a%reader/interpreter/thinker.%If%you%are%stuck,%consider%moments%that:% Jreveal%a%truth%about%a%character,%the ...

  23. Annotation 9th Grade

    1. Multiple Choice 20 seconds 1 pt What is annotation? It is answering questions from a story. It is summarizing an entire article. It is answering questions from an informational text. It is in-text note-taking which allows interaction with text 2. Multiple Choice 30 seconds 1 pt How does annotating a text help you learn?

  24. What records are exempted from FERPA?

    When a student reaches 18 years of age or attends an institution of postsecondary education at any age, the student becomes an "eligible student," and all rights under FERPA transfer from the parent to the student. This guide provides general information on an eligible student's rights under FERPA.